For the most part planetary orbits have been stable a long time.
No, you can't say that... for all we know 10,000 years ago the planets might have had a different order... in the scheme of things we have only seen our solar system and documented it for a tiny fraction of its existence... our ability to predict the future of our solar system is as poor as our actual knowledge of the past.
We really have no idea... despite super computers that can model the impact of two planet sized objects and track all the little pieces and fragments to determine if they will create a moon type feature or just shatter each other... we still can't create a 100% accurate model of our solar system and just press reverse to see what sort of dust cloud it formed from...
Rings probably resulted from collisions of some of the many moons known to orbit jovians.
There are plenty of theories and lots of speculation... but how could it create such an evenly shaped ring around the entire planet... the gaps can be explained by the gravity effects of other moons and bodies around Saturn, but if it exploded the majority of fragments would be clumped together and not be distributed evenly around the planet in the nice even rings of mostly ice... perhaps it was a comet that directly impacted an ice moon... the heavy rocky bits thrown out of orbit and the enormous amount of ice and dust captured by Saturns orbit.
At different heights the material would move at different speeds so the material closer to the surface would be moving faster than the stuff further out...
Any celestial body was bound to be pounded heavily during accretion. But since the end of heavy bombardment I wouldn't say the solar system was chaotic.
We seem to be hit with a rather large rock from space every few million years... I would have to rate that chaotic, and we really don't know if the order of the planets will remain the same...
Degree of stability was always good enough.
The moon stabilises our poles and creates tides which in turn create tidal pools where lots of early life developed...
Yeah but to my knowledge only the K-Pg was due to a cosmic factor. The end Permian appears due to volcanism, and an earlier event cold (?). Btw even mass extinctions may have actually aided the development of life. One thing I've always found interesting is that more sophisticated --as opposed to just new or different--life gradually arose over time. Not even mass extinctions "turned the clock back" they may even have pushed it forward.
Extinctions seem to be as normal as life... without mass extinctions we wouldn't be here. There is an Australian tree that they were keen to protect and help save, and they carefully looked after it but they couldn't get it to grow or expand... then they realised that they had managed the land where these trees were growing... they were killing the trees they wanted to save... the seed of these trees were super hard... the only way this tree could release its seed to grow new trees was in a very hot bush fire... their management prevented the bushfires the tree needed to grow more trees...
If we can think of even one ordered system arising out of a random sequence, then we can no longer describe that system as random. Also we have a mind that perceives this random effect. But if our mind is random, and it has to be in a random system. Then no such perception or mind can exist.
Well the best example of this is those people saying they see the face of Jesus in the flames of a burning building, or they see a face in a photo of the surface of Mars... the Human Brain seeks order... it seeks answers and structure... get a rubber band and two screws... put the screws side by side and the rubber band below it in a way that the screws look like eyes and the rubber band looks like a mouth and show it to someone and they will say they see a face. No face in nature looks like a rubber band and two screws, but they will identify it as a face anyway... a child will tell you it is a face... even though it clearly is not... those screws cannot see and the rubber band cannot speak or eat or sneeze.
Random systems can appear to have order or structure, but normally it is the human mind trying to apply order and structure to try to make sense of what is chaotic... humans don't like chaotic.
There is a pathology in science to apply tools not designed for analysis of physical processes to them anyway since they are "similar".
I was talking to a social sciences student about the statistics of populations and he showed me a formula which included Pi. I asked why Pi was there and he basically said it makes the calculations more accurate. In science they often add arbitrary numbers or constants to correct formulas that are otherwise slightly wrong. It is a bit like dark matter and dark energy... the numbers don't add up so you work out the difference and add that to the formula to make it accurate.
It sounds like cheating, but if it works on every example that you can test it becomes a tool for examples where you don't know and can't test.