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    Russian Military Satellites: News & Development

    kvs
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    Post  kvs on Sun Jun 25, 2017 3:28 pm

    GarryB wrote:Or it could be forward deployed Russian Hackers ready to be dropped at a moments notice to influence elections held anywhere in the west...

    But as in the USA these hackers will only penetrate voting computer systems without changing any ballot results.
    George1
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    Post  George1 on Tue Jun 27, 2017 2:37 pm

    St. Petersburg design bureau to assemble reconnaissance satellite

    MOSCOW, June 26. /TASS/. The St. Petersburg-based design bureau Arsenal will assemble a modernized reconnaissance imagery satellite for Russia’s Defense Ministry this year, the design bureau said in its annual report on Monday.

    "In 2015-2016, the production volume declined as the output of item 11F695 [Kobalt] was terminated but in 2017 a new product will be delivered," the report says.

    According to the data posted on the Arsenal design bureau’s website, the company is currently assembling two types of satellites: the Lotos-S and the Pion-NKS. The first type of the satellites is designed to determine the coordinates of radio-technical means of ground-based facilities and exercise control in various radiofrequency bands of the ionosphere and in the near-Earth space. The second type is designed for radar and radio-technical surveillance of ground objectives and control in various radiofrequency bands in the ionosphere and in the near-Earth space.

    The last Kobalt-M film-return reconnaissance satellite came back to the Earth in 2015.

    The Kobalt-M is a series of specialized reconnaissance imagery satellites developed by the Samara-based Progress Rocket and Space Center and produced by the Arsenal enterprise. The first modernized satellite was launched in the fall of 2004. The last Kobalt-M satellite became the tenth representative of this series.


    More:
    http://tass.com/defense/953395
    George1
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    Post  George1 on Sat Aug 19, 2017 3:00 pm

    More on the communications satellite system "Blagovest"

    As our blog reported earlier, on August 17, 2017, the Proton-M booster rocket with the Breeze-M upper stage successfully launched into orbit the first "heavy" military communications satellite 14F149 for the Blagovest (Blagovest) No. 11L, the open designation "Kosmos-2520"). In the interests of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation.

    The newspaper "Kommersant" in the material of Alexandra Djordjevic and Ivan Safronov "The grouping of communications has received good news.The new telecommunication satellite of the Ministry of Defense has been launched," publishes some details about the Blagovest program.

    Russian Military Satellites: News & Development - Page 6 4561901_original

    Yesterday, the Ministry of Defense launched the telecommunication apparatus of the Blagovest project into orbit. Satellites of this type, ordered even under former defense minister Anatoly Serdyukov, were not only to increase the throughput of military communications channels, but also to provide commercial communications services. With Sergey Shoigu, the last idea was abandoned. Despite the successfully launched Blagovest, the system can not fully function until it is difficult to develop its ground segment.

    A satellite of military purpose was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome with the aid of the Proton-M launch vehicle, the Russian Defense Ministry reported. Without naming a specific type of apparatus, the department specified that the withdrawal of the payload was in normal mode. "A stable telemetry connection is established and maintained with the space vehicle, the onboard systems of the spacecraft function normally." After taking over, the satellite was assigned the serial number "Kosmos-2520".

    According to independent experts, yesterday the military put the first of the four telecommunication satellites Blagovest (product 14F149) into orbit. They are developed by order of the military in the JSC "Information Satellite Systems named after Reshetnev" (ISS). The satellite is designed for high-speed data transmission, TV and radio programs, providing telephone and video conferencing, access to the global computer network. The device is built on the platform "Express-2000", its work in orbit should be at least 15 years. Initially it was planned to launch Blagovest at the beginning of summer, but then due to the recall of more than 70 engines of the second and third stages of the "Proton" to the Voronezh Mechanical Plant, the terms shifted to August.

    The history of this project began with the former defense minister Anatoly Serdyukov. According to the idea of ​​the management of the department, the four Blagovest vehicles were to become the basis for a multifunctional telecommunications system. Some of its resources were supposed to be used for solving purely defense tasks (closed satellite communication, etc.), and part for commercial use. According to Kommersant's information, it was planned to create a company subordinate to the Ministry of Defense for this purpose, whose main goal would be to extract profit by selling the free resources of the satellite group. In November 2012, Mr. Serdyukov was dismissed, and Sergei Shoigu, who succeeded him in commercializing resources, reacted coolly, recalls the military source of Kommersant. Taking into account the underloading of the capacities of the already functioning apparatus, the project "Blagovest" could be closed, but in the end it remained with the reservation that all the capabilities of these satellites would be directed to in-house use.

    The military maintains that the apparatus taken for control functions properly. This is also confirmed by a source in the space industry, specifying that in the near future the satellite will have to undergo a cycle of flight design tests.

    At the same time, according to Kommersant's information, the system lacks ground-based equipment for full-scale operation, which is being developed by the Moscow Radio Engineering Research Institute. According to the Kommersant source in the space industry, this work is "being done with great difficulty" and there is no understanding yet when the tangible result will appear. Earlier TASS reported that the "Blagovest" system should be deployed before the end of 2020, which "will increase the capacity of the communication channels of the Ministry of Defense." However, without a land segment, this task will not be achieved.

    http://bmpd.livejournal.com/2793947.html
    George1
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    Post  George1 on Thu Aug 24, 2017 2:57 am

    Russian Defense Ministry orbits satellite for inspecting military space apparatus

    The ministry described the apparatus as a space platform capable of carrying different payloads

    MOSCOW, August 23. /TASS/. A smaller space apparatus has separated from the military satellite launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome on June 23, the Defense Ministry’s press-service has said.

    "A smaller space apparatus separated from that platform today for examining the condition of a Russian satellite. In the long term, a research experiment will be carried out to use the space apparatus for examining the outward appearance of that satellite," the statement reads.

    A space apparatus developed for the Russian Defense Ministry was put in space from the Plesetsk space site on June 23, 2017.

    The ministry described the apparatus as a space platform capable of carrying different payloads.


    More:
    http://tass.com/defense/961614
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    Post  George1 on Fri Nov 03, 2017 2:26 pm

    MOSCOW, November 2. /TASS/. Russia’s Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems Company has received an order for the production of four Meridian-M military satellites as an upgraded version of Meridian spacecraft series, Company CEO Nikolai Testoyedov told TASS .

    More:
    http://tass.com/science/973830
    George1
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    Post  George1 on Wed Dec 06, 2017 12:14 am

    Cosmos-2524 - an electronic reconnaissance satellite - is in orbit

    On December 2, 2017 at 13:43 MSK (10:43 UTC) the Air and Space Forces conducted a successful launch of a Soyuz-2.1b launcher from the Plesetsk test site. The satellite delivered into orbit received official designation Cosmos-2524.

    The satellite received international designation 2017-076A and was registered as object 43032 by NORAD. It is reported to be a Lotos-S1 electronic reconnaissance satellite, which became part of the Liana system. Two previous satellites, Cosmos-2455 (Lotos-S) and Cosmos-2502 (Lotos-S1), were launched in November 2009 and in December 2014 respectively.

    It should be noted that the most recent military satellite, launched in September 2017, was designated Cosmos-2522. Cosmos-2523 is probably a small satellite associated with the Cosmos-2519 mission. In August 2017, the ministry of defense announced that Cosmos-2519 released a satellite-inspector.
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    Post  George1 on Thu Mar 29, 2018 11:44 pm

    MOSCOW, March 29. /TASS/. Russia's Aerospace Force has successfully launched the Soyuz-2.1V rocket from the Plesetsk space center in the northern Arkhangelsk region, the Defense Ministry said.

    "A crew of the Space Troops of the Aerospace Force of the Russian Federation successfully launched the Soyuz-2.1V light launch vehicle at 20:38 Moscow Standard Time [17:38 UTC] that is carrying into space a satellite, which will serve the interests of the Defense Ministry," the report said.

    More:
    http://tass.com/science/996819


    The russian EMKA satellite is satellite of unknown purpose launched on the Soyuz-2-1v Volga launch vehicle.

    http://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/emka.htm


    So military satellite of unknown purpose was launched
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    Post  lycantrop on Fri Mar 30, 2018 3:48 am

    George1 wrote:
    MOSCOW, March 29. /TASS/. Russia's Aerospace Force has successfully launched the Soyuz-2.1V rocket from the Plesetsk space center in the northern Arkhangelsk region, the Defense Ministry said.

    "A crew of the Space Troops of the Aerospace Force of the Russian Federation successfully launched the Soyuz-2.1V light launch vehicle at 20:38 Moscow Standard Time [17:38 UTC] that is carrying into space a satellite, which will serve the interests of the Defense Ministry," the report said.

    More:
    http://tass.com/science/996819


    The russian EMKA satellite is satellite of unknown purpose launched on the Soyuz-2-1v Volga launch vehicle.

    http://space.skyrocket.de/doc_sdat/emka.htm


    So military satellite of unknown purpose was launched


    Allegedly submarine "spotter"

    In 2015, due allegedly "inside job", submarine "spotter" fell back to earth..Putin ordered next one and now its finally in orbit.

    http://www.russianspaceweb.com/emka.html
    http://www.russianspaceweb.com/kanopus-st.html





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    Post  PapaDragon on Fri Mar 30, 2018 11:01 pm


    Boys at Plasetsk don't seem to have any problems with busted valves or faulty upper stage presets:

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    Post  Big_Gazza on Thu Apr 19, 2018 1:13 pm

    Proton-M successfully launches Blagovest 12L military commsat

    Russia’s Proton-M rocket made its first flight in six months Thursday, successfully deploying a Blagovest military communications satellite. Launch occurred from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan at 04:12 local time (22:12 UTC on Wednesday), ahead of over nine hours of flight to deployment of its passenger.

    Thursday’s launch carried the Blagovest No.12L satellite, the second spacecraft in a new series of communications satellites for Russia’s Ministry of Defence. After launch the satellite is likely to be renamed Kosmos 2526 under the designation scheme that Russia uses for its military spacecraft. Few details about the spacecraft have been made public.


    https://www.nasaspaceflight.com/2018/04/proton-m-return-russian-military-launch/

    Photo of Blagovest

    Russian Military Satellites: News & Development - Page 6 Blagovest_1

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    Post  Austin on Fri Apr 20, 2018 7:42 am

    Russia recognized the inability to create satellites on its own

    https://lenta.ru/news/2018/04/20/satellite/

    "Now, unfortunately, the situation is that, as a rule, Russian companies that produce satellites are 70% dependent on the electronic component base of foreign production. This process is complex and long in time, but every year up to 10 percent we produce import substitution for components of Russian production. But all the same, high dependence develops in certain difficulties ", - said the deputy head of Rossvyaz Igor Chursin at the conference Satellite Russia.

    The official noted that "Information Satellite Systems" created "Express-80" and "Express-103" satellites by order of "Space Communication". "Here, in this complex cooperation, where there are contractors of the second and third level, and there is too much dependence on foreign electronic components. There are quite a lot of problems here, "Chursin said.
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    Post  Big_Gazza on Fri Apr 20, 2018 2:59 pm

    Austin wrote:Russia recognized the inability to create satellites on its own

    Strange, but that's not what the article says....  It simply talks about the need for import substitution.  There are actually very few nations that can claim 100% indigenous content for satellites built to international performance standards, probably just the US I suspect. Certainly not India BTW....

    Typical of the "chicken little" sky-is-falling BS that is repeated so endlessly...
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    Post  Hole on Fri Apr 20, 2018 4:56 pm

    Most electronics on board of Ami-satellites are made in Japan, Taiwan, even China.
    The rocket engines are mostly made in Russia.
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    Post  Tingsay on Wed Sep 19, 2018 4:13 pm

    Wow didnt even notice this till now. Very funny! Laughing Laughing Laughing

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    Post  Hole on Wed Sep 19, 2018 4:34 pm

    "Experts" Laughing lol1
    George1
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    Post  George1 on Thu Sep 20, 2018 1:01 am

    Launched in June?? do we know what type is?
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    Post  BlackArrow on Sat Sep 22, 2018 12:34 pm

    Hole wrote:Most electronics on board of Ami-satellites are made in Japan, Taiwan, even China.
    The rocket engines are mostly made in Russia.

    I suspect all of that is wrong.

    Which electronics - which satellites?

    Most US rockets most certainly are not powered by Russian made rockets - I count maybe 2 or rockets, and not all of the stages either.
    George1
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    Post  George1 on Fri Nov 30, 2018 2:01 pm

    3 military communications satellites launched for Defence Ministry  (‘Kosmos-2530,’ ‘Kosmos-2531’ and Kosmos-2532,")

    More:
    http://tass.com/defense/1033550


    Three Rodnik communication satellites plus a small satellite are in orbit

    On November 30, 2018 at 05:27 MSK (02:27 UTC) the Air and Space Forces conducted a successful launch of a Rockot space launcher with Briz-KM booster stage from the launch pad No. 3 of the launch complex No. 133 of the Plesetsk test site. The three spacecraft delivered into orbit are military communication satellites of the Strela-3M/Rodnik type. In addition to the three satellites, the launcher appears to have placed an additional object to the orbit.

    The Rodnik satellites received designations Cosmos-2530, Cosmos-2531, and Cosmos-2532 and international designations 2018-097A, 2018-097B, and 2018-097C. They are registered by NORAD as 43751, 43751, and 43752.

    Previous launch of Rodnik-type satellites took place in September 2015. It also used the Rockot launcher, which is a converted UR-100NUTTH ICBM.

    In the past, launches of the Rodnik-type satellites also delivered into orbit a small payload, unannounced at the time of the launch. This is what apparently happened this time as well - NORAD registered an additional object, 2018-097D/43754 (2018-097E is the booster).



    http://russianforces.org/blog/2018/11/three_rodnik_communication_sat.shtml
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    Post  GarryB on Sun Dec 02, 2018 10:35 am

    A US report on the US MIC had this to say about C4I products used by the US Military:

    A diverse set of vendors are qualified to design and build defense products within
    the C4 industrial sector. A robust global commercial electronics industrial base
    supports these vendors. Second-tier suppliers of assembled components tend to
    serve both commercial and defense customers. Third-tier suppliers of individual
    components, such as integrated circuits, frequently supply identical products for
    both commercial and defense use. At the fourth tier, such as design tools and
    reused intellectual property, there is frequently minimal awareness of the final
    end use in defense products. The C4 industrial base is largely global below the
    prime contractor tier. Table 5 identifies the prime contractors for each major C4
    program in FY 2017.

    The C4... Computers, Control systems, Communications, Command systems... critical infrastructure is LARGELY GLOBAL below the prime contractor tier... in other words the companies that get the contracts are US companies but the components and parts they use come from foreign subcontractors... many of which are actually CHINESE...

    In fact in that same report:

    8.5.1 Risk Assessment
    While U.S. national defense demands for materials are seldom unmet, there exist
    risks to their supply now and risks are anticipated in the foreseeable future. Two
    broader trends impacting the supply risk include the growing use of different
    types of materials for new technologies and their scarcity, and growing U.S.
    reliance on foreign sources of supply coupled with increasing global resource
    competition. Examples include the increased use of key materials needed to
    produce microelectronics (from 12 minerals or their elemental components in
    the 1980s to more than 60 by 2000) and U.S. import reliance of critical minerals.
    (The United States was more than 50% import dependent for more than 20
    nonfuel minerals in 1980, and that number doubled by 2014.).

    The document I am quoting from is the: Fiscal Year 2017 Annual Industrial Capabilities Report to Congress.
    George1
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    Post  George1 on Tue Feb 05, 2019 2:09 pm

    Syria experience prompts need for military satellite grouping, says Russian defense chief


    This is why the Defense Ministry is actively engaged in technically re-equipping the orbital grouping of military satellites,


    MOSCOW, February 5. /TASS/. The Syrian combat experience of using precision weapons prompts the need to re-equip the orbital grouping of military satellites, Russian Defense Minister Army General Sergey Shoigu said at the ministry’s conference call on Tuesday.

    "The Syrian experience shows that detailed reconnaissance and cartographic information is needed for the effective use of precision weapons. This data can be obtained only with the help of modern satellites capable of making high-resolution images of the Earth’s surface," the defense minister stressed.

    "This is why the Defense Ministry is actively engaged in technically re-equipping the orbital grouping of military satellites," Shoigu said.


    More:
    http://tass.com/world/1043293
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    Post  George1 on Thu May 09, 2019 11:36 pm

    Space anti-satellite programs TSNIIHM


    American web resource "The Space Review" published interesting material by prominent analyst in the field of Soviet and Russian space programs Bart Hendrix (Bart Hendrickx) "Russia's secret satellite builder" about practically unknown to the public modern programs in the field of creating space anti-satellite systems implemented with the head role Moscow Federal State Unitary Enterprise "Central Research Institute of Chemistry and Mechanics named after DI Mendeleev" (TsNIICHM).

    Ten kilometers south of Red Square in the Nagatino-Sadovnichesky district of Moscow is an inexpressive ten-story building that is unlikely to attract the attention of passers-by. Anyone who wants to find out what is inside learns a little more from the name written on a gilded tablet hanging at the entrance: Federal State Unitary Enterprise "The Central Research Institute of Chemistry and Mechanics named after DI Mendeleev" (TsNIIHM). At first glance, there is no reason to assume that this has anything to do with the Russian space program. Nevertheless, it became known from open sources that TsNIIHM became one of the most important creators of artificial satellites outside the Roscosmos structure, specializing in the development of small satellites for military purposes.

    Story


    The history of TsNIIHM dates back to 1894, when a chemical laboratory was established in St. Petersburg to study the possible applications of smokeless powder of a new type, invented by Dmitry Mendeleev, a Russian chemist, best known for creating the periodic table of elements. In 1931, the laboratory moved to Moscow and acquired the status of a research institute, which in 1937 was named NII-6. Among the products of the institute was a type of solid fuel based on nitrocellulose, which triggered the infamous Katyusha missiles mounted on trucks used by the Soviet army during World War II. Since the launchers looked like a pipe organ, and the rockets made a howl when they were launched, the Germans called them the “Stalin’s organ”.

    For decades after the war, NII-6 continued to produce various types of explosives, as well as solid fuels and warheads for various missiles, including a ground-to-air missile that shot down a reconnaissance U-2 aircraft piloted by Gary Powers in May 1960. Renamed TsNIIHM in 1969, the institute also joined the Soviet military space program, producing explosive charges for an orbital anti-satellite system known as the IS (“Satellite Fighter”). Directional explosive charges were mounted on short supports exposed at the interceptor satellite. In the period from 1968 to 1982, the Soviet Union launched about 20 interceptors under the IP program, some of which successfully destroyed specially launched target satellites.

    Like many other Russian companies, TsNIIHM experienced difficult times in the years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, switching mainly to civilian production. A new chapter in the history of the institute began in 2005, when TsNIIHM began to submit to the Federal Service for Technical and Export Control (FSTEC) of the Ministry of Defense, which is charged with “protecting state secrets and resisting cyber espionage”. This allowed TsNIIHM to expand its activities to new areas not directly related to chemistry. Little is known about them, but they may include participation in the Russian cyberwar program. In October 2018, the cybersecurity company, FireEye, stated that it had discovered evidence linking TsNIIHM with the development of malicious software, known as TRITON, for disrupting the operation of industrial control systems software, which makes it possible to stop industrial enterprises. This program led to a sudden stop of a petrochemical plant in Saudi Arabia in August 2017.

    The institute’s responsibilities expanded further in 2009, when, according to its website, it became the “leading institution of the Ministry of Defense for the development of modern weapons, including new types of ammunition, rocket fuels and explosive devices”, and began to conduct “research in key areas” "Weapons modernization". Obviously, the expansion of activities also included a key role in top-secret military space projects in orbital inspection, satellite intelligence, and possibly other areas. On August 23, 2010, TsNIIKhM received a license (No. 1337K) from the Russian Federal Space Agency for the production of space technologies.

    Composition

    A visit to the current website of the TsNIIHM website will not give any clues about its role in the Russian space program. The site was significantly reduced last year and is now less informative than before. However, in the previous version of the site, still available via the Internet Wayback Machine, space tasks for two of the company's six divisions were mentioned.

    Most of the institute’s space work seems to be happening in a subdivision that bears the confusing name Applied Mechanics Design Bureau (CPMM). It is headed by Vladimir Verkhoturov, who previously held senior positions at RSC Energia and OJSC Gazkom (now Gazprom Space Systems), where he led the development of Yamal communications satellites. KPBM is engaged in what is literally described on the site as:
    development and production of space technology and space materials;

    development and construction of ground infrastructure for receiving, processing and storing information received from satellites; and

    participation in ground tests, preparation for launch, flight control and the use of satellites.

    Another division of the Central Research Institute of Chemical Technology is the Nanotechnology Research Center (Nanotechnology Research Center), headed by Vladimir Turkov. The Center was founded in 2008 as part of the federal program “Infrastructure Development of the Nanoindustry of the Russian Federation in 2008–2011”. One of the areas of her research is considered "advanced rocket and space technology." but there were no details on the site.

    Additional information about the participation of TsNIIHM in the space program appears from vacancies that the institute has published on the Internet. They include job offers for engineers, which are required by the so-called “satellite design department” and “satellite testing department”, and also show that the institute has technical means, such as vacuum chambers, for testing satellite components in space space.
    It is known that the Central Research Institute of Chemical Technology has close ties with the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), commonly known as Fiztekh. In 2005, the MIPT created the “Automated Biotechnical Systems” division, which in 2016 was renamed to “Advanced Technologies for Security Systems”. It is headed by Sergey Grigorov, who was the director of FSTEC from 2004 to 2011. Although this name does not suggest any connection with the space program, the department is actually part of the Faculty of Aerophysics and Space Research (FAKI) MIPT and offers several courses related to space. The department participates, among other things, in the research of “advanced rocket and space technologies”, as well as nanotechnologies, supporting the activities of the Center for Nanotechnologies at TsNIIHM. Many students of the department undergo practical training at the Central Research Institute of Chemical Industry and continue to work at the institute or other organizations of FSTEC. Another part of FAKI is the Department of Applied Mechanics, in which there is a laboratory for applied nanotechnology (under the direction of Mikhail Ryazhakov), which was established simultaneously with the Center for Nanotechnologies of the Central Research Institute of Chemical Technology and works closely with it.

    One can learn more about specific space projects that TsNIIHM is working on only through a thorough analysis of publicly available documents on the government procurement website of Russia zakupki.gov.ru, as well as several technical articles and patents published on the Internet. They show that the institute is working on several types of microsatellites and nanosatellites for military purposes. While CRI is likely to produce at least some satellite components on its own, it mainly acts as a system integrator, assembling components supplied by various subcontractors.


    "Nivelir"

    One space project, in which TsNIIHM is represented as the main contractor, is called “Nivelir”, also known by the military index 14K167. The project officially began on September 30, 2011, when TsNIIHM was contracted to "Nivelir" with a mysterious organization called the Garant State Scientific-Technical Center (SSTC "Garant"). Internet sources say almost nothing about this organization, except for the fact that it was created in 1995 and belongs to the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia. This shows that Nivelir has a completely different organizational basis than most traditional Russian military space projects, which begin with the fact that the Ministry of Defense signs a contract with a company operating under the wing of Roskosmos.

    Nivelir is most likely a project to create small satellite inspectors designed to check other satellites in space. So far, Russia has launched four such satellites. The first three (declared as "Cosmos-2491, -2499 and -2504") were launched along with three communication satellites by Rokot launch vehicles on December 25, 2013; May 23, 2014 and March 31, 2015. The last two of these launches used the Briz-KM upper stage for launching into orbit. The fourth satellite was launched together with the satellite "Kosmos-2519" by the carrier rocket "Soyuz-2-1V" on June 23, 2017. "Cosmos-2519", which has a military index of 14F150, is a product of the design office NPO "Lavochkin", best known as a manufacturer of scientific satellites and deep space probes. It can be used for remote sensing of the Earth and / or observation from large distances of other objects in orbit. The satellite-inspector was released from the satellite carrier on August 23, 2017 and received the name "Cosmos-2521". Subsequently, he performed repeated operations of meeting and drawing closer to Cosmos-2519 until April 2018.

    The Cosmos-2521 itself, on October 30, 2017, released another sub-satellite (Cosmos-2523), which, according to the Ministry of Defense of Russia, “diagnoses the technical condition of the Russian satellite” and “determines whether it can be returned to a working state”. However, shortly after the separation from Cosmos-2521, he reduced his perigee by about 100 kilometers and has not approached other satellites since, which suggests that he may not have been used for his officially declared purpose. In August 2018, US Assistant Secretary of State for Arms Control, Yilim Poblete, described his behavior as “incompatible with anything that had previously been observed using orbital inspection or space situational awareness”, and hinted at the possibility that he might be linked to the development program of space weapons. It is not clear whether this satellite was also built by CRI.

    As can be made from several publicly available procurement documents, as well as from several patents filed with TsNIICHM, the company probably created all four satellites inspector, and they are either identical or at least very similar. All of them, apparently, are equipped with disposable hydrazine accelerator engines K50.10.6 developed by the Fakel Design Bureau and use an eight-liter hydrazine tank (MBCC84) manufactured by NIIMash in Nizhnyaya Salda.

    Some patents and technical articles available on the Internet appear to describe the economical way of maneuvering these satellites in space by running small intermittent flashes, which the authors call "pseudo-impulses." At least, some theoretical foundations for this maneuvering technique (applicable to various space projects) laid down in studies conducted in the past decade by Yuri Ulybyshev, an expert in ballistics at RSC Energia. One of the authors of the aforementioned works and patents, Sergei Ulybyshev from TsNIIHM, most likely is his son. None of the publications specifically refers to the Nivelir project, but two other authors, Taras Gavrilenko (who worked on small satellites in the Polet software in Omsk, before going to TsNIIHM) and Alexander Glushkov, published work on the orbital inspection in 2011 and 2012, indicating that they were involved in the project from the very beginning. MIPT apparently worked at the same time on the software for this project on a topic called “Nivelir-software”.

    On November 2, 2016, Central Research Institute of Chemical Industry signed a contract within the framework of the Nivelir project with a company located in St. Petersburg called Ferrite-Domain Research Institute JSC. In the documentation relating to this contract, only “protective coating” tests are mentioned, without specifying what purposes it will be used in. However, it is known that the Ferrite-Domain Scientific Research Institute produces radio-absorbing materials using thin films of hydrogenated carbon with ferromagnetic nanoparticles. The company's website states that the material is intended to “reduce Radiocontinosity of ground, sea, air and space technology ", as well as its ability to absorb radiation in the optical and infrared spectral regions. The work performed by Ferrite-Domain for TsNIIHM is called Nivelir-RP, where RP is almost certainly means “radio-absorbing coating.” Additional evidence that the work is related to material to reduce visibility can be obtained from the annual reports of the Research Institute Ferrite-Domain for 2012 and 2013, which mention joint work on radio-absorbing materials lamy with TsNIIHM in a research project called "Nota-D". The Nanotechnology Research Center at TsNIIHM also conducted research on radio-absorbing materials, as can be seen from the patent published in 2014.

    The conclusion is that future satellites launched under the Nivelir project are likely to be covered with material to reduce visibility, which will potentially enable them to sneak up on other satellites that are not detectable.

    The next flight of the project "Nivelir" may be similar to the mission "Cosmos-2519/2521/2523". There is procurement documentation for the subsystems of the second satellite 14F150 NPO "Lavochkina" and at least one more inspection satellite. Most likely, these two satellites will be launched together, possibly in the next launch of the Soyuz-2-1V rocket, scheduled for the end of this year.


    "Burevestnik"

    Procurement documentation also revealed the involvement of TsNIIHM in another top-secret space project known as Burevestnik, which has a military index of 14K168. Apparently, this project began on September 1, 2011 with the signing of a contract between the mysterious organization GRRC "Garant" and JSC "Scientific and Production Corporation" Engineering Design Bureau "(NFC KBM), located in Kolomna, south of Moscow. NPK KBM is a weapon manufacturer that, among other things, manufactures tactical ballistic missiles, anti-tank missiles and man-portable air defense systems. It is not known that in the past he worked on space projects, which makes his leading role in this project somewhat mysterious [in fact, in the 1980s, KBM was responsible for the creation of 14F10 / 14F11 interceptor satellites for the anti-satellite complex "Nadyad-V" created with the leading role of the NGO Salut. - bmpd]. TsNIIHM was involved in the project with the conclusion of a contract with KPM CPD on September 30, 2011, exactly on the same day that the contract for Nivelir was signed.

    Another project participant is the Design Bureau for Precision Engineering named after A.E. Nudelman "(KB Tochmash). The main activities of this company are ground-to-air tactical missiles, anti-tank weapons and various other types of weapons. Until now, its main role in the space program has been to develop anti-satellite weapons, in particular a rapid-fire weapon, at least for one of the Salyut military space stations launched in the early 1970s and space-to-space rockets for various anti-satellite programs over which the Soviet Union worked in the 1980s, but never implemented. Tochmash Design Bureau also develops a homing head for a ground-based anti-satellite system, known as Nudol, which is believed to have already made several test launches (without targeting satellites).

    From the available documentation on the role of the Tochmash design bureau in the Petrel project, it can be concluded that the design bureau built a simulator consisting of a vacuum chamber and an optical table to recreate the background, on which infrared, optical and ultraviolet sensors should track fast-moving objects in space. The company also collaborated with JSC Television Research Institute (NIIT) in St. Petersburg to create an astro tracker for the project. It contains several foreign-made components, including the Pentax C2514M lens.

    There is evidence that the Petrel uses the same monofuel thrust system as the Nivelire, which increases the likelihood that both programs use a common satellite platform. Another indication of the close connection between Nivelir and Burevestnik is the construction of a seemingly joint ground control center (designated “1009/5”) for these two projects in Noginsk-9 (also known as Dubrovo) 60 kilometers to the east from Moscow. In Noginsk-9, there is the 821st main space intelligence center (GC RKO), the headquarters of the Russian space surveillance network, where all information from optical and radar satellite surveillance systems of the country is collected and processed. In Soviet times, Noginsk-9 was also the location of the ground control center for the anti-satellite orbital IP system, which received information about its goals from the main center of intelligence of the space situation. Another ground infrastructure for the Burevestnik (with the designations 7511/3 and 7511/4) is being built at the site for the storage of rockets and satellites near Tambov and at the military cosmodrome in Plesetsk.

    All this, along with the fact that the “Burevestnik” is mentioned in some official documents as the “space security complex”, convincingly testifies to the fact that this is a new orbital anti-satellite system. Since it is believed that Russia is developing many anti-satellite ground and airborne systems to disable satellites in low near-earth orbits, as discussed in the recent report of the Secure World Foundation, the main objectives of Burevestnik can be satellites for much more high orbits, such as the geostationary belt. Taking into account their small size, one or several Petrel satellites can secretly move into a geostationary orbit, along with a larger payload with the Angara-5 launch vehicle launched from Plesetsk. When flying at an altitude of 36,000 kilometers and possibly using the same coverage to reduce visibility as the Nivelir satellites, these satellites can be very difficult to detect from the ground. Nothing can be said with certainty about how exactly the Petrel will hit other satellites, but the experience of companies such as TsNIIHM and KB Tochmash indicates the intended use of an explosive charge or kinetic weapon, despite the fact


    "Numizmat"

    Another project in which CRI is a key player is called Numizmat. It was officially launched with the signing of a state contract on July 1, 2014 between the Central Research Institute of Chemical Industry and the Ministry of Defense.

    One of the subcontractors of the Central Research Institute of Chemical Industry for Numizmat is the Research and Development Institute of Television (NIIT) in St. Petersburg, which was awarded a project contract on September 1, 2014. All that can be inferred from the available documentation is that NIIT will provide some type of television camera, which, like the NIIT astro tracker for Burevestnik, will use foreign components, in particular, the megapixel lens of the Japanese company Kowa Optical Products and CMOS sensor image of the American company ON Semiconductor.

    Another subcontractor is the Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Scientific Research Institute of Measuring Systems named after Yu.E. Sedakova "(NIIIS) in Nizhny Novgorod, which was appointed to the project on January 10, 2015. This company is owned by the State Atomic Energy Corporation (Rosatom). None of the documents discloses the exact role of NIIIS in the project, but it is known that the company has worked on space ultra-wideband radar (UWB) for several years, and there is good reason to believe that this is the payload that it will provide for Numismat. Some of the experts who signed the Numizmat contracts are co-authors of technical documents related to such radars, and some of the subsystems mentioned in the contracts are probably part of the so-called spectrum analyzer necessary for processing the reflected signals of this radar.

    The UWB radar being developed for the Numizmat is probably the so-called noise radar. The main advantage of such radars compared to conventional radars is their inherent resistance to radio suppression, detection and external interference, as well as their ability to perform unambiguous range measurements. In one of the works, the propagation of UWB radar signals through the ionosphere is analyzed during range measurements at distances from 600 to 6000 meters. All this suggests that Numizmat will carry a system for emitting difficult-to-find UWB signals in order to measure the distance to relatively close objects in space.

    Judging by the available articles, the NIIIS research on space-based UWB radar was conducted in 2012, long before the start of the Numizmat project. One of the articles published in 2014 mentions experimental UWB radar, which is necessary to study the possible distortion of UWB radar signals by the atmosphere and the ionosphere. It has a drawing of a spectrum analyzer attached to the bottom of the satellite. However, since the article was published several months before NIIIS received a contract for Numizmat in early 2015, the satellite shown in the drawing may be purely conceptual.

    There is some evidence that, in addition to the camera and UWB radar, the Numismat satellites will carry an infrared camera developed by the State Institute of Applied Optics (GIPO) JSC in Kazan, which also, as you know, got at least one contract for "Burevestnik".

    The types of payloads that are being developed for the project leave no doubt that the Numizmat satellites will perform intercept and rendezvous operations in orbit, but it is still difficult to decide whether they are intended for satellite inspections, satellite destruction or for other purposes.

    Nanosatellites


    The Nivelir, the Burevestnik and the Numizmat are likely to be satellites in the mass range from 50 to 100 kg, commonly referred to as microsatellites. In addition, TsNIIHM, apparently, is also working on nanosatellites weighing approximately from 1 to 10 kg. Details on them are very approximate. It is likely that some of these works were carried out as part of a research project called “Naveska”, consisting of at least three areas:

    Naveska-N is a project launched on December 30, 2016 in accordance with a contract signed between TsNIIHM and MIPT, according to which MIPT orders components for satellites in CubeSat format from Russian company Sputnix, which is a manufacturer of nanosatellites.

    Naveska-X is a project in collaboration with the D.I. Russian Chemical Technology University. Mendeleev (2016–2017), aimed at developing miniature solid fuel propulsion systems for CubeSat satellites. The predecessor of this was a research project called “Note-X”, executed in 2012–2015. In 2015, some researchers who worked on this project received a patent for such solid-fuel micromotors. One of the patent holders is Vladimir Turkov, head of the Nanotechnology Research Center at TsNIIHM.

    Naveska-I is a joint program with the M.V. Scientific Research Institute of Nuclear Physics. Skobeltsyna MSU (2017), described only as “intended to study the interaction of radiation with matter”. Skobeltsyna Institute specializes in studying the influence of the space environment on satellite materials.

    It is not known what are the links between these individual research efforts and whether they will lead to the production of real satellites. At the same time, it seems that in May 2017, in the project separate from the “Naveska”, TSNIIHM also announced a tender for the supply of the subsystem for determining and controlling the orientation required for the three-axis stabilization of CubeSat satellites. Only in April 2018, the contract was concluded with the South African company CubeSpace, which appears to be operating through a Russian intermediary called LLC Legrand. A month earlier, CRIHM also placed a tender request for a nanosatellite astro tracker, but no bids were received.

    The objective of these nanosatellite projects cannot be defined at the moment, but the hidden nature of the development indicates military objectives. Nanosatellites can be used for a wide variety of military applications, including interception and rendezvous operations.

    Ground stations

    As mentioned on the former website of TsNIIHM, the Design Bureau of Applied Mechanics of the Institute also operates satellite ground stations. An analysis of procurement documentation does show that CNIHM ordered components in 2011–2012 for the so-called “terminal ground stations” (OZS). As explained in the 2013 article by two specialists of the Mozhaisky Military Space Academy, these are ground stations, which are used both to send commands to satellites and to receive data from satellites for subsequent transmission to customers, two functions that are traditionally distributed between individual ground-based stations in the network of Russian satellite ground stations. Considering that many Russian ground stations support a wide range of satellites used for unrelated tasks, HSS stations are designed to serve satellites that perform the same function, which makes it easier to prevent what the authors of the article call "unauthorized access to information."

    One of the contracts signed by the Central Research Institute of Chemical Technology was related to an OZS station designed to work with civilian Earth remote sensing satellites, in particular, Resource-P satellites built by Progress Rocket and Space Center in Samara "Lavochkin-Carat". The location of this object (if it was actually built) is unknown. TsNIICHM can also develop its own constellation of Earth remote sensing satellites. Several articles written by Yuri Ulybyshev from the institute describe possible orbital configurations for the groupings of such satellites that would allow for global coverage with a minimum number of satellites. However, at the moment it is unclear whether these studies are purely theoretical or not.

    The only OZS station, which, as it is known, is currently operating, was built to support the “Nivelir” project in the satellite control complex near Yeniseisk in Siberia. There are hints that other stations also exist or are under construction. Apparently, TSNIIHM commissioned at least part of the work at these stations of the gas stations of the company JSC NPO PM-Development, a subsidiary of JSC Information Satellite Systems named after Academician M.F. Reshetnev ”, a leading Russian developer of communication and navigation satellites.

    Conclusion


    Available evidence suggests that CRI was appointed to play a key role in anti-satellite and orbital inspection projects at the beginning of this decade. Since 2013, four low-orbit satellite-inspectors have already been launched, and at least one more is preparing for launch. Despite some alarming reports in the West about the purpose of these satellites, they, in fact, showed nothing but a demonstration of exactly the same capabilities that were demonstrated by a much larger number of American and Chinese inspection satellites since the mid-2000s.

    Of great concern is the obvious development of a new orbital anti-satellite system that would restore the capabilities in outer space that Russia had in Soviet times, and which no other space power has ever had or does not seem to be developing at the present time. This, along with the likely development of many Russian ground-based anti-satellite systems, is a clear sign that Russia is aggressively preparing for a new arms race in space.

    From the side of bmpd, we point out that after the appearance of this material on the resource "The Space Review", the TsNIICHM website was closed for "maintenance".

    https://bmpd.livejournal.com/3636133.html
    GarryB
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    Post  GarryB on Fri May 10, 2019 6:10 am

    those one to ten kg nano satellites are interesting... that rocket the variant of the MiG-31 carries for space launch that can launch 160kg payloads into low earth orbits of 300-600km altitude could be loaded up with quite a few nano satellites and probably get them to higher orbits... on very short notice and with very little warning.
    George1
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    Post  George1 on Tue May 14, 2019 4:41 pm

    Launch of fourth Blagovest satellite planned for July 16 — source


    The satellite will be launched from the Baikonur spaceport with the Proton-M carrier rocket

    MOSCOW, May 14. /TASS/. The space system of military communications Blagovest will be completed in mid-July when the fourth satellite is launched, a source in the space rocket industry told TASS on Tuesday.

    "The Blagovest satellite will be launched on July 16 even though the launch was initially planned for the end of May. After the satellite is delivered to the orbit, the orbital group of military communications satellites Blagovest will be completed," the source said.

    The satellite will be launched from the Baikonur spaceport with the Proton-M carrier rocket.

    Earlier reports said that the launch of the fourth Blagovest satellite was planned for the first quarter of 2019 but was later postponed to the first week of April.

    The previous three Blagovest satellites were launched from the Baikonur spaceport in August 2017, April 2018 and December 2018 respectively.


    More:
    http://tass.com/science/1058050

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