The revival of the machine tool industryThe new infrastructure will not depend on foreign suppliesMachine tool industry today is highly dependent on foreign supplies, clustering is designed to solve this problem.
Over the next three years, the Russian industry must master the production of complex components that were previously imported from abroad. This was stated by Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin on the forum " TVM 2014 " . Active import substitution should occur in the machine tool industry as one of the most dependent on foreign supplies of domestic industries. Help solve this important problem can including the Development Fund for Industry, a decree on the creation of which Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev signed on September 2.
During Soviet times, with tank-building was an independent and highly developed industry. According to the Industry and Trade Ministry of Russia, the share of imports in the machine tool industry now exceeds 90%. For comparison: in heavy engineering - 60 - 80%, light industry - 70 - 90%, in the electronic industry - 80 - 90%, in the pharmaceutical and medical industry - 70 - 80%. " Indicator of 50-60% can be achieved In the case of a deliberate policy of import substitution. In some sectors will be able to get out even better performance " , - said Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation Sergey Tsyb.
Over the past 20 years, the domestic market has undergone Engineering Technology quantitative and qualitative changes, the volume of equipment decreased compared with 1991, more than 25 times.
In the USSR, machine tools, as the basis for technological independence and technological industrial base DIC received privileged resources: the necessary equipment, materials and supplies. Research institutes sector were equal to the Research Institute of the defense industry under compensation of scientists and engineers, to ensure that R & D funding, etc.
Today our country has practically ceased production of the main components for the production of machine tools and forging equipment (PAC). Machine tools with numerical control almost completed imported from Germany and Japan, CNC systems, sensors, measuring systems, robots, electrical and electronic products, hydraulic systems, etc. The main suppliers of components are
According to the CEO of the company " Stankoprom " Sergei Makarov, one of the key problems in the industry is the backwardness of its own production base. Including lost the confidence of the Russian consumers to domestically produced equipment. Lost production culture and prestige of the machine-tool trades, and as a result, we have a shortage of qualified workers.
" Age of equipment in all industries has considerable wear. Today, 75 - 80% of the park metalworking equipment used for more than 20 years. Since 1991, virtually no change of equipment was conducted or conducted by a factor of updates, no more than 1% per year. In the structure of machinery, presses and only 4.5% in operation less than five years - said Giorgi Samodurov, president of the Russian Association " Stankoinstrument " . - Machine Tool Degradation occurs primarily because of the lack of investment for a long time " . According to the expert, low attractiveness of the industry for domestic investors due to the very low level of profitability (2 - 5%), which is typical for high-tech industries. Foreign investors are not willing to invest in the development of domestic technologies that directly compete with their manufacturers. The only investor in the machine-tool industry, as well as for the defense industry, can only serve the state.
The tax burden on manufacturers in many countries is much lower than in Russia. " Recently, our contacts with major construction companies operating in Russia inviting them to create a joint venture abut in this problem. They'd better find in our country intermediary to create with them supposedly a joint venture (usually on paper), to find a warehouse here and deliver equipment, finished products, call it made in Russia and ensure yourself a good financial condition. All this is due to the imperfection of our defense mechanisms " , - says Samodurov.
Clustering in the machine tool industry is still in its initial stage. Perhaps the first powerful cluster in the machine tool industry will be a group of " Stan " , which includes STANKOZAVOD Sterlitamaka, Ryazan, Ivanovo, Kolomna and, presumably, Saratov. Feature of this group is the presence of an integrator in the form of the banking system with the ability to attract resources for technical re-equipment, develop new products, to attract qualified professionals, etc.
Subject to obtaining bank resources " shoot " can cluster in St. Petersburg. To do this, there are all the prerequisites: the presence of machine-tool industries, companies producing components, highly qualified staff, a significant number of defense enterprises.
According to Sergei Makarov, " Stankoprom " is considering the establishment of joint enterprises of machine tool, in particular, clusters of machine tool and tool production facilities in several areas of CFD. In late August, " Stankoprom " signed a cooperation agreement with the administration of the Lipetsk region.
Some support machine tool provided subroutine " The development of domestic machine tool and tool industry for the period 2011 - 2 016 years, " the federal program " National Technological Base " . Program will not only survive the machine tool enterprises, able to develop and manufacture prototypes of about 40 types of equipment.
The second phase of the program - from 2014 and 2016 - provides for the development of R & D as well as a number of investment projects designed to re-equipment of individual enterprises. " In our opinion, it is necessary to significantly increase financial support for the machine tool and to provide him with benefits in various areas (subsidies payment of interest on loans, reducing or zeroing certain taxes, etc.). Significant support to the industry can have a government resolution of 24 December 2013 № 1224 on restrictions on the admission of foreign goods to the procurement for the needs of national defense and national security. It is only necessary to adjust the control over its execution, as a discipline of its implementation defense companies is very low " , - concludes George Samodurov.