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    Russian Air-independent propulsion (AIP) submarine technology

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    Russian Air-independent propulsion (AIP) submarine technology Empty Russia Completes Testbed Trials of New Submarine Engine

    Post  GarryB on Fri Dec 09, 2011 11:41 am

    Russia Completes Testbed Trials of New Submarine Engine

    Russia Completes Testbed Trials of New Submarine Engine 02.12.2011
    Text: RIA Novosti
    Photo: rigapodplav.narod.ru
    Russia completes testbed trials of the crucially new engine for non-nuclear submarines – air-independent propulsion plant - and prepares to construct an experimental prototype, reports RIA Novosti referring to Director General of Sevmash shipyard and Rubin Design Bureau Andrei Diachkov.

    Earlier on, a high-ranking representative of Russian Navy Main HQ told to RIA Novosti that Russia was about to build submarines powered by radically new propulsion plant. At present, all Russian non-nuclear subs use diesel engines. "Rubin design bureau actively works on an air-independent propulsion plant with electrochemical generator. We've almost completed testbed trials and plan to show the project to Indian delegation this December", Diachkov said.

    As for him, experts of Rubin bureau have proved that obtainment of hydrogen on board a sub was technically possible. "This would make possible to produce hydrogen on board a sub instead of storing it like Germans do", said the Rubin's director general.

    Besides, he added that the prospective Russian air-independent propulsion plant would use standard diesel fuel and have no need of complicated servicing at base. "By the way, it has no motion parts, so acoustically is very advantageous", emphasized Diachkov.

    As for him, to implement such large-scale project as development of air-independent propulsion plant, a federal target program should be founded. "Soon Rubin would construct an experimental prototype, and that is very cost-consuming. Another solution is to work in cooperation with other companies", noted Diachkov.

    Source: http://rusnavy.com/news/navy/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=13779

    Very good news for the Russian sub industry... a modern and safe AIP makes conventional much more capable... and more like a nuke sub, though without the high underwater speed capability of course.
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    Post  Austin on Tue Feb 14, 2012 6:58 am

    Russian non-nuclear submarine could win a tender in India - source

    The submarine "Amur-1650" with air-independent propulsion system (VNEU), along with submarines, "Scorpio" (France), Type-214 (Germany), S-80 (Spain) involved the Indian tender for the purchase of six submarines for the Navy national general worth 11.8 billion dollars. The contest was announced in September 2011.

    "Russian submarine of Project 677E" Amur-1650 "has a good chance to win the tender because of their unique characteristics, including the time spent under water by promising AIP - more than 25 days, as well as long-range detection of underwater targets "- the spokesman said.

    In this regard, he recalled that the time spent underwater submarines of the Russian foreign counterparts is 15-20 days.

    "Our submarine will also be able to compete with foreign counterparts on cost parameters," - said the source, noting, for example, that the price of "Scorpio" is approximately $ 500 million. At the same time, he did not name the exact price of the Russian submarine.

    Earlier, Chief Naval Fleet, Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky, told RIA Novosti that the first Russian non-nuclear submarine with AIP can be created in 2014 by Project 677. Now at the "Admiralty Shipyards" laid two submarines of this project, which will be installed AIP. . The development goes faster pace VNEU specialists of the central design bureau (CDB), "Rubin."
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    Post  Austin on Tue Feb 14, 2012 7:08 am

    The new AIP under development using diesel to get Hydrogen is quite promising , considering you dont have to carry hydrogen on board plus you dont need specialised shore based infra for it.

    The submerged endurance of ~ 25 days with new AIP is also quite good , considering the Kilos without AIP cannot do a submerged endurance of more than 8 days , so the AIP increases under water endurance by atleast 3 times.

    I do not know if the 15-20 days submerged endurance of foreign AIP is true or is a marketing talk by Rubin will find out more, but from what i had read in Naval Forces for German Fuel Cell AIP using Hydrogen as fuel it needs to be maintained at a purity rate of atleast 99 % and the shore infra to maintain such a purity level is not only expensive but also difficult to maintain hence limited at few places.
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    Post  GarryB on Tue Feb 14, 2012 7:36 am

    Wasn't there an article posted that listed the AIP underwater time for the German sub as being 14-15 days running at 3KNTs?

    The design was supposed to do 4 Knts but everyone seems to be having problems reaching the estimated goals for the new propulsion systems.

    In that same article it mentioned the improved Kilo could match that 14-15 days at 4knts with a change of batteries to Li Ion types.

    The Lada was designed from the start to be a short range SSN hunter and has an exceptional Sonar set fitted.

    They have finished testing it in the shallow waters of the Baltic and are moving it to the Northern Fleet to test it in deep water. Unfortunately some sources seem to interpret such very normal things as being evidence of problems with the sonar... Rolling Eyes

    The fact is that it is a brand new submarine design and the only way to test everything was to built a full scale version and test it. That is what they have been doing and with the information they have collected from the testing they will apply solutions and changes to get the required performance from the next vessels in the series that they are calling Project 677M Lada-M.

    Claims they are starting from scratch are just that... claims.
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    Post  Austin on Tue Feb 14, 2012 10:18 am

    I read Rubin Designer Interview who was responsible for Lada design , he said the noise level achieved was 1/10 of Kilo Shocked
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    Post  Austin on Tue Feb 14, 2012 10:19 am

    Air Independent Propulsion Systems for Submarines
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    Post  Russian Patriot on Tue Mar 27, 2012 6:23 pm




    Moscow May Help India Build Closed-Cycle Submarines
    Topic: Russia-India partnership








    Russia has offered help India build air-independent (closed cycle) propulsion systems for installation in Amur 1650 class submarines and also to equip future possible joint Indian-Russian built vessels, Viktor Komardin, the deputy head of Rosoboronexport's delegation said at the Defexpo Indian defense show on Tuesday.

    The Amur 1650 is one of several contenders, including the Scorpene (France), Type 214 (Germany) and S-80 (Spain) in a tender for the Indian Navy for six subamrines with a total value of $11.8 billion.

    "Russia is currently completing tests of a new air-indepedent propulsion system, which could be installed not only on the Amur 1650 but on jointly developed boats," Komardin said. "This is a critical factor for the Indians. So our chances here are good," he added.

    Rosoboronexport, Russia's defense sales holding, has already offered India its Amur 1650 boat, which started trials with the Russian navy in 2010. The Amur has an armament of multirole torpedos and Klub anti-ship missiles, and can also strike land-targets with advanced cruise missiles, which may include the India-Russian Brahmos. "These missiles which the Indians want can only be supplied by Russia," Komardin said.

    The Amur 1650 has a good chance of winning the tender, Komardin claimed, thanks to its ability to remain submerged for over 25 days using its air-independent propulsion, and also its long-range weaponry. Similar foreign boats can only stay submerged for 15-20 days.

    Russia is currently evaluating the Lada class air-independent submarine, a derivative of the Amur 1650. In 2010 the Lada class submarine St Petersburg entered service with the Russian Fleet.

    The Russian Fleet Commander Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky told RIA Novosti previously that the first Russian air-independent boat, based on a similar design, the Projet 677 class, could enter service in 2014. Two such hulls are currently under construction at the Admiralteiskie Verfi shipyard in St Petersburg, which could be fitted with a closed-cycle propulsion system.

    An air-independent propulsion system is currently being rapidly developed by specialists from the Rubin submarine design bureau.

    Air-independent submarines, usually using hydrogen-orygen fuel cells, are quieter than conventional diesel-electric boats, and do not have to surface or use snorkel tubes to breathe air, which makes them vulnerable to detection by radar and other sensors.

    http://www.en.ria.ru/mlitary_news/20120327/172413803.html
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    Post  GarryB on Wed Mar 28, 2012 12:57 am

    Well this of course begs the question... how many non Russian subs do the Indian Navy currently operate, and do they want to cooperate with Russia and risk a Russian monopoly with their naval acquisition?

    If the Indians agree the concept of using diesel fuel with a fuel cell will have many applications... think of all the places you can buy diesel now... the infrastructure is already in place, so a fuel cell car or truck or bus that uses this sort of technology can use the existing infrastructure.

    Airships that use efficient diesel engines and readily create hydrogen when more lift is needed... or water ballast can be created along with electricity...

    Mixed power vehicles are one option too where a UAV can run an efficient diesel engine to drive a propeller to a target area where it can switch to fuel cell technology on an electric motor for stealth mode operations at low levels with almost no noise at night or in bad weather...

    You could have a small diesel generator together with the fuel cell and batteries and a large fuel tank filled with Diesel in a truck or bus. On a cold day you might want to generate some heat by running the diesel engine for a few minutes, or use both for extra power to get up hills.

    Batteries are heavy so a small diesel engine could save a lot of weight by reducing the number of batteries you carry.
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    Russian Air-independent propulsion (AIP) submarine technology Empty New AIP design by Rubin bureau

    Post  Cyberspec on Sat Oct 27, 2012 12:56 am

    Something interesting mentioned at "Ëuronavale 2012". Below is a translated fragment with info on a new AIP design for conventional class subs...

    Meanwhile, the idea air-independent is very attractive. It involves the use of non-rechargeable batteries and some technologies to produce electricity without the use of the diesel engines. For example, currently work is under in ways to generate power through the synthesis of hydrogen and oxygen in special reactors. This is a complex process, for which we must still carry significant reserves of hydrogen and pure oxygen.

    "Rubin" has chosen a different path .

    It developed a completely unique technology for producing hydrogen directly from diesel via the so-called *reformer / reforming device*(?). This method does not require special hydrogen storage compartment but uses existing infrastructure and fuel reserves. The process of developing the current is completely silent, which increases the subs stealth characteristics. Also increased is the length of stay in the water.

    Generating capacity of our plant - 400 kW. Best foreign analogues produce up to 180 kW. The viability of the new power plant with air-independent layout was confirmed in tests.

    Source: http://www.rg.ru/2012/10/25/salon-site.html
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    Post  GarryB on Sun Oct 28, 2012 10:34 am

    This design... if it works as advertised is a stroke of genius.

    AIPs are ideal because they produce no noise, but the requirement for hydrogen and also pure oxygen to ensure proper functioning means lots of expense of infrastructure at ports. Handling hydrogen is difficult as it can seep through many materials and is of course flammable so needs protection from heat and sparks.

    Having an AIP that works silently and can draw everything it needs to work from standard diesel is ideal because every port is equipped to handle diesel.

    Equally if the figures are right about the power it generates then that is even better!
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    Post  Cyberspec on Tue Oct 30, 2012 12:40 am

    I found out a bit more about this AIP system on the Russian net. It's aimed for installation on the 3rd Lada class sub called "Sevastopol". Rubin is financing the project by themselves and are currently haggling with the MOD for the price. They are pushing for the Sevastopol to be included in the 2013 budget after which they promise a delivery date in 2015.

    The second Lada sub "Kronshtadt" will receive lithium batteries in place of the standard ones. Rubin considers this a 'small' modernization while the new AIP the 'big' modernisation. So it's up to the MOD to decide if they want it.
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    Post  Austin on Thu Dec 11, 2014 10:54 am

    CDB "Ruby": submarine with VNEU in Russia will be built in 2016


    Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering (CDB ME) "Ruby" is the chief architect of the construction of submarines in Russia. According to the drawings, "Rubin" is now under construction and the latest nuclear missile type "Northwind", and diesel-electric "Lada" and "Varshavyanka", and others. Until the end of the year "Admiralty Shipyards" give another submarine of the Russian Navy, "Rostov-on-Don."

    On what are the plans of "Ruby" in 2015 and what tasks submarine designers decide today told the heads of the relevant wording RIA Novosti Sergei Safronov, Deputy Director General for Foreign Economic Affairs and Military-Technical Cooperation CDB ME "Rubin" Andrey Baranov.


    - Andrew I., tell us about the development of the project "Harmony". Do resumed their construction?

    - As for the "Lada" answer is obvious - their construction resumed. "Kronstadt" is based on "Sevastopol" must be signed state contract for construction. About the sins of which we are accused Vladimir Vysotsky (former Commander of the Navy criticized the project for the 677 most noise - Ed.), Then we get rid of them during execution of the tasks on the head boat "Saint Petersburg".

    Now for the sins we are not numbers, so these boats are built as a serial.

    - Will the "Kronstadt" and "Sevastopol" feature anaerobic (airindependent) power plants?

    - Anaerobic installation developing a parallel course. It is a prototype. Completed research and development, so now the next stage of work - creation of a prototype. Prototype, in fact, this is the compartment of the submarine.

    - When can I see it in the metal?


    - Our plans have not changed yet, 2016 - year of prototyping.

    - They can be set to "Kronstadt" and "Sebastopol"?

    - No, but these boats are built to improve the draft, they VNEU not installed. This decision was taken by the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation for the purpose of construction of these two ships as soon as possible to the boat became part of the Russian Navy in the early part of the program update non-nuclear fleet. VNEU can be installed from the fourth body, that we must now confirm the tests to be performed with the prototype.

    - Technologically, they also can be embedded in the body, for example, "Kronstadt"?


    - This is hardly anyone will do, but conditional yes. You can embed always something, but are engaged only in extreme cases. We are talking about the development of this series, so much more logical to build a fourth, fifth, sixth, and so on housing. It will be technically justified, and the money is much more effective. The more that the freshly boat again to put the plant and cut in half ... So why we built it? Not for experiments, they need the fleet - every bayonet counts.

    - What are the prospects of the project 636 boats? A series of these boats for the Black Sea Fleet will be the last?


    - Over the past 15 years, tirelessly, we sell for export boats of this project in different countries. All of them are armed with highly effective missile complex "Club", which works both on shore and on ships. Boats of this project is fully updated electronics, mechanical equipment, hydrodynamics. This boat is almost perfect. Another thing is that it is larger than the "Lada". And it can be regarded as a definite minus. After all, "Lada" has the same features. On the other hand, it is a ship flue which "Admiralty shipyard" built every year practically continuously. The second decade they are doing, so here is fully debugged cooperation, serial clearly allows the algorithm to predict construction. Do not want to jinx "Shipyards", but they are not in breach of any term obligations to supply boats or 636 for foreign customers or to our fleet. It's worth it.

    If you look at what is happening in the world, you will see a failure occurred on the Spanish S-80, the supply of which they delayed for a few years. And what were the difficulties in the same boat at the time of the Germans to the Greeks. Therefore, I believe that the Navy has taken quite the right decision to close the current gap for non-nuclear submarines, decided to build a boat of 636 project for the Black Sea Fleet.

    Of course, they have the resources to upgrade, but for the Russian Navy, perhaps this is the last order for non-nuclear submarines of this project. Then of course pass on boat building the next generation - Project 677 "Lada".

    - That is, the project will be eliminated?

    - There can not talk about the elimination, in this project, firstly, there is a large export potential. Secondly, this project has a very good possibility of modernization. If the boat this year entered the Black Sea Fleet, then it specified lifetime of 25 years, plus the possibility of extending more than ten years. Here and add. Will not find it. These boats will be active participants in the military-industrial activity in the next 30 years, or even 40, given that this series has not yet mastered all. Plus that is based on the export ... So this is a very serious issue, a serious business in all respects. Many countries are in need of maintenance, spare parts to it.

    - Rocket complex "Club" also will be improved?

    - Missiles as a complex "Club" is the export performance of the domestic complex "Caliber" (which, in particular, armed with the latest Russian submarine type "Severdvinsk" (Project 885) "Ash" - Ed.). It has great potential, including for export. At the "CLUB" is limited to a distance of 300 kilometers, and "Caliber" - a thousand.

    - In October in Paris hosted the exhibition "Euronaval 2014". What are the prospects of military-technical cooperation, "Rubin" with other countries?

    - There are prerequisites to expand our traditional geography, for which we are actively fighting. The most promising region - is South-East Asia. In Latin America, the political situation easier, and in Southeast Asia are all friendly and and sharpen knives. There's degree of tension is growing very rapidly. Significantly, as promptly Vietnam decided to strengthen its submarine fleet. This is not something to record, but it is one of the most quickly prepared, designed and carried out contracts. He's already at the final stage - a contract to build six submarines of project 636 (upgraded Project 877 "Varshavyanka" was signed in 2009).

    - When it is completed?

    - I think that in 2015, because it has already dealt the final boat ... This is a very long product - submarine. He suggests a long ointment parties acquaintance, usually it is very important what basis exists in the relations of countries. And with Vietnam the situation is resolved in a fantastic pace. In 2008 he was the first trip to the technical presentations, and now, six years have passed, we have, in fact, complete the contract. Now this year laid the last boat of the contract, two in the fleet are already active, the two will be directed, that is, the process of developing with tremendous speed.

    - And the creation of infrastructure for the deployment of boats in Cam Ranh is also spelled out in the contract?


    - Be sure, but there are different performers head. For the construction of boats - it works "Admiralty Shipyards" for infrastructure - Technology Center and shipbuilding, which specializes in these matters, and, again, "Admiralty Shipyards", which carry the warranty. Year warranty from the moment the last boat will be commissioned, plus one year. This period dense presence "Admiralty Shipyards" in Vietnam as part of a group guarantee to solve all the problems that may arise.

    Infrastructure for the home being built now active, but we must distinguish between the infrastructure for the deployment and repair.

    For the home is in a high-availability, and to repair because the repair is still somewhere ahead, will be completed later. I have no doubt that all this will be done on time, with quality, because we have a very good partnership with the country.

    - Which countries are still negotiating the possible purchase of boats?


    - There were negotiations with Indonesia, which, unfortunately, give up our Project 877 boats from the presence of the fleet. Was this story this year. Two boats from the Russian Navy and offer to repair them pass.

    Nevertheless, interest in our boats in Indonesia is preserved. This country for a long time, we are looking with great interest, with a great desire to work with them.

    As for the other countries in the region, there is already a clear separation of suppliers. As you know, Malaysia and Singapore - relatively pro-European, Thailand was not identified, but he, like all the countries of the region, quite a tight budget. They must first find out who would give money to debt. Then, of course, who gave, he also sold. Nevertheless, we are also trying to Thailand in the format of exhibitions in the region to maintain cordial relations. There are quite fallen Philippines, they are pro-American, but at the same time now there is a trend that the Americans are treated with some suspicion as to the suppliers. Either they have to completely surrender and follow in line with their policy, and then everything will be fine. But if you want to have anything to do an opinion, you have to be quite careful. It is very important the country's reputation as a reliable supplier. In the naval sphere we still keep the brand, try to observe all obligations.

    For example, the French now for us is very dangerous competitor, one of the most powerful players, and the situation with the "Mistral" is important from the point of view of a reliable supplier. If the contract is for Russia to "Mistral" will fail, it will strain once a number of countries that might be in the same situation as Russia.

    It must be borne in mind that the involvement of at least one country in the orbit of our cooperation boat - it's almost a watershed event.

    - What is the state contract with Italy on the development of small diesel-electric submarine S-1000 thousand tons of displacement?


    - The project is now frozen for political reasons. But privately with Fincantieri we continue to contact, clerical process goes forward to normalize the situation.

    - Before freezing the contract that the parties have time to do?


    - Conceptual design has been developed, a business plan, that is, in fact, prepared an offer to a potential customer. We have been jointly developing the marketing program to promote this boat in the regions. In the past year, we have already begun to implement this program. The Italians offered to this project in South Africa. This boat is offered to countries that are potentially interested in buying an inexpensive, compact, simple enough to operate the submarine. But this year, the process has stalled.

    - Where it is supposed to build S-1000?


    - The question of where it will build this boat until open. We will rely on the capabilities of the Russian factories and the ability of Fincantieri. The issue price and the issue of customer preference. In general, everything is developing normally. Submarines - not fast theme, but in fact the year, unfortunately, we have already lost. We had planned a working group in March, but, unfortunately, it is now postponed indefinitely. Now the plan was to take place the Russian-Italian commission on military cooperation, but so far there is no evidence, and the plans for its implementation.

    - The project is now frozen, it can not be eliminated at all?

    - The project is not going anywhere, ready to hand at the political decision to resume the dialogue. And I think this applies to a wide range of cooperation between Russia and European countries.
    Sergey Safronov
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    Post  GarryB on Fri Dec 12, 2014 10:35 pm

    Interesting post, so the second and third Lada vessels will only have Lithium Ion batteries to boost performance, while the fourth Lada vessel will have AIP and LiIon batteries.
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    Post  mutantsushi on Mon Dec 15, 2014 1:01 am

    Yeah, with Nuclear boats already in fleet, ultra long range/endurance isn't necessarily the #1 priority,
    the advances in stealth, capabilities, are what is wanted out of these boats, so losing some endurance isn't worst thing.

    Interestingly, I've read that Japan now plans to upgrade future Soryu with solely Li-ion batteries without any AIP...
    Australia is also supposedly sole sourcing from Japan (+stretch?) rather than competing vs. Navantia et al.
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    Post  GarryB on Mon Dec 15, 2014 9:29 am

    The key thing there is that the Russian AIP is brand new technology, while the Japanese/Aussie tech is hydrogen membrane fuel cell.

    The Russian technology has the enormous advantage that the raw resource is diesel, from which electricity is produced at a dramatically faster rate than a hydrogen fuel cell.

    This means that the Aussie/Jap AIP needs hydrogen handling equipment at every port the sub will operate from... hydrogen handling equipment is expensive because hydrogen slowly seeps through all sorts of materials and is a huge fire risk.

    Every port on the planet has infrastructure already in place to deliver diesel fuel to ships and subs.... even tiny ports because that is the standard fuel of most ocean going vessels (civilian anyway).

    I rather suspect the second and third Lada will be fitted for, but not with AIP just because of the time scales.

    Experience in retrofitting AIP to the Ladas would be instrumental in deciding whether to retro fit AIP to the Kilos.
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    Post  mutantsushi on Tue Dec 16, 2014 11:45 pm

    ???
    Japan (and now likely AU) is planning on dumping AIP completely and going 100% Li-ion batteries.
    Japan previously used a licenced Kockums Stirling system,
    what you describe with hydrogen fuel cells sounds like AIP used in HDW 212...
    The new Russian AIP system in fact sounds broadly similar to what DCNS is planning for their next gen AIP,
    I'd be curious what any major differences are, but they both suppose to use diesel and not store Hydrogen AFAIK.
    The thing with both is by the time their development is done, battery tech will also have advanced as well.
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    Post  Stealthflanker on Tue Dec 16, 2014 11:51 pm

    mutantsushi wrote:???
    Japan (and now likely AU) is planning on dumping AIP completely and going 100% Li-ion batteries.
    Japan previously used a licenced Kockums Stirling system,
    what you describe with hydrogen fuel cells sounds like AIP used in HDW 212...
    The new Russian AIP system in fact sounds broadly similar to what DCNS is planning for their next gen AIP,
    I'd be curious what any major differences are, but they both suppose to use diesel and not store Hydrogen AFAIK.
    The thing with both is by the time their development is done, battery tech will also have advanced as well.

    Yes.. Nonetheless AIP submarine with Li-Ion battery will have longer endurance than one rely on the Li-Ion battery alone.

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    Post  George1 on Fri Dec 26, 2014 2:36 pm

    Air Ιndependent running prototype power plant for non-nuclear submarines will be installed in Lada submarines in 2015
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    Post  Stealthflanker on Fri Dec 26, 2014 10:44 pm

    George1 wrote:Air Ιndependent running prototype power plant for non-nuclear submarines will be installed in Lada submarines in 2015

    Good.. This is the news i've been waiting for. Now let's see what kind of AIP they're installed.
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    Post  GarryB on Sat Dec 27, 2014 9:52 am

    The thing with both is by the time their development is done, battery tech will also have advanced as well.

    Don't think of it as AIP vs Batteries.

    AIP allows a sub to generate electricity without operating near the surface with a snorkel running a diesel engine to produce the electricity.

    It means the SSK can go to any depth it likes and not need to surface to recharge the batteries... it can recharge its batteries while underwater performing normal duties.

    Very simply it makes it more like a nuke sub, independent of the surface. More importantly it means it is even more quiet than a nuke which has a cooling system and a gas turbine with super heated steam operating all the time to generate power.

    If battery technology suddenly takes a giant leap forward that is OK because you still need to charge those batteries in the first place and you need an AIP or an air dependent propulsion (ADP) to recharge those batteries. For most subs the ADP is a diesel engine that is either run when the sub is on the surface or snorkelling, for future Russian subs it will have the option of remaining submerged and relatively safe and using AIP to recharge the batteries.
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    Post  Austin on Sun Jun 26, 2016 7:13 pm

    http://aviationweek.com/awin/new-submarines-use-advanced-technology-improve-performance

    Russia's Project 636 SSK, called Kilo in the West, set standards in the Cold War, but its designer—St. Petersburg-based CDB Rubin—is now playing catch-up after years of underinvestment. Rubin's general director, Andrey Dyachkov, tells DTI that the company is completing bench-testing of a prototype AIP system.

    The system is a hydrogen fuel cell, as used by TKMS-HDW, but instead of operating on stored hydrogen, it relies on chemical re- formation of the sub's diesel fuel, which eliminates special on-board tankage and hydrogen infrastructure on shore. According to Dyachkov, this technology has already been validated during AIP bench tests. “This allows us to use the standard diesel fuel and doesn't require complex ground support” compared to the German variant, he explained.

    Rubin plans to install AIP in the Amur 1650, offered for the Indian navy's tender for six conventional submarines. An export version of Russia's Project 677 Lada class, Amur has a surface displacement of 1,765 metric tons, submerged speed of 19 kt. and a crew of 35. It is designed to strike both sea-based and fixed land-based targets. The 66-meter (217-ft.) boat carries six torpedo tubes and Klub-S (SS-N-27) missiles in 10 vertical launchers that can be fired in salvos. For the Indian tender it also will be equipped with Russo-Indian PJ-10 BrahMos supersonic missiles fired from the same launchers.

    The AIP can be installed in the Amur 1650 in a separate module along with the conventional diesel-electric propulsion system. Using the AIP, the sub's endurance can increase by two or three more weeks from 45 days currently, based on a customer's request. Continuous submerged time increases from the current nine days to 14-20 days.

    The first Project 677 boat, the St. Petersburg, is undergoing reliability testing with the Russian navy in the Baltic Sea. In 2012, it is expected to complete the testing of its sonar system, says Dyachkov. The Admiralty Shipyards in St. Petersburg are constructing two more, the Kronstadt and Sevastopol, but so far there are no funds for completing these with AIP.

    Rubin plans to further increase Amur 1650 endurance by replacing lead-acid batteries with lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries. The designers do not report about their progress in this field, but say that lithium-ion batteries will be able to increase the sub's submerged endurance and distance by 50% at low noise patrol speed and threefold at full speed. Unlike the AIP, which is only compatible with the Amur, the new batteries can also be offered for Rubin's Project 636 Kilo boats.
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    Post  Rmf on Tue Jul 05, 2016 5:47 pm

    very interesting video , 3 options for increase in underwater range. LI -batteries that store more energy , reformer that extracts hydrogen from diesel so no hydrogen storage needed for Fuel cell and more oxygen can be stored, and steam engine using fuel+ stored oxygen,  and ocean for cooling.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RqSMs9xTNyQ

    i guess pumpjet is not used in conventional subs because they already move at lower tactical speeds where there is no danger of cavitation compared to nuclear, and because pumpjet is draggy.
    china lareayd has type 032 largest conventional submarine which is over 6.000t submerged.
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    Post  Big_Gazza on Wed Jul 06, 2016 12:45 am

    Rmf wrote:very interesting video , 3 options for increase in underwater range. LI -batteries that store more energy , reformer that extracts hydrogen from diesel so no hydrogen storage needed for Fuel cell and more oxygen can be stored, and steam engine using fuel+ stored oxygen,  and ocean for cooling.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RqSMs9xTNyQ

    i guess pumpjet is not used in conventional subs because they already move at lower tactical speeds where there is no danger of cavitation compared to nuclear, and because pumpjet is draggy.
    china lareayd has type 032 largest conventional submarine which is over 6.000t submerged.

    Its generally believed that Russian AIP efforts are going towards using a diesel-fed reformator feeding a fuel cell, which accounts for the fairly protracted development. Its a good technology, and well worth the wait.

    Agreed re the use of pump-jets on SSKs. It's not worth it, as the trials on Alrosa have shown.
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    Post  Rmf on Thu Jul 07, 2016 7:43 pm

    `well hydrogen is to be avoided as stored - risky ,hard to contain , boils off, large volume ,and mass of tanks.
    oxygen benefits from high density , easier storage temperatures , low boil off technologies (developed for space) less then 1% per month , you can use deep cooled slush form to buy some time ,etc...

    so they used small steam turbine or sterling engine to burn diesel fuel and oxygen in todays AIP.

    not bad , using ocean water 4C degrees for cooling part means its ok. but your efficiency is below 40%.

    with this new fuel cell that extracts hydrogen from diesel, you get to over 70% and -no noise ,vibrations ,moving parts, complexity etc....

    fuel cell use chemical - electrical cycle so its inherently better ,then chemical-heat-mechanical-electric , steam turbines.
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    Post  Big_Gazza on Fri Jul 08, 2016 3:02 am

    Rmf wrote:`well hydrogen is to be avoided as stored - risky ,hard to contain , boils off,  large volume ,and mass of tanks.
    oxygen benefits from high density , easier storage temperatures , low boil off technologies (developed for space)  less then 1% per month , you can use deep cooled slush form to buy some time ,etc...

    so they used small steam turbine or sterling engine to burn diesel fuel and oxygen in todays AIP.

    not bad , using ocean water 4C degrees for cooling part means its ok. but your efficiency is below 40%.

    with this new fuel cell that extracts hydrogen from diesel, you get to over 70% and -no noise ,vibrations ,moving parts, complexity etc....

    fuel cell use chemical - electrical cycle so its inherently better ,then chemical-heat-mechanical-electric , steam turbines.

    Agree 100%, and fuel cells are the penultimate power generation technology for SSKs.  Any form of combustion engine/turbine technology is the wrong end of the stick as they are inherent noise generators (though acoustic dampening tech has come a LONG way, especially the field of noise suppression by active wave superposition).  The difficulty is being able to build them compact so that a useful energy output can be achieved within the limited confines of a manned submersible, and to make them reliable.

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