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    VVS Russian Air Force: News #2

    GarryB
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    Post  GarryB on Wed May 08, 2019 10:42 am

    More importantly if the electric motors can be made relatively small then you could have coaxial main rotors without the need for an enormous and heavy and complex gearbox... in fact the future could offer compact nuclear batteries to power such an aircraft... a 1MW nuclear battery could power systems and two powerful electric motors to allow the aircraft to fly for decades... the electric motors and no gear box would reduce the weight of a Havoc or Hokum attack helicopter by an enormous amount... perhaps 3-4 tons at least...
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    Post  dino00 on Wed May 08, 2019 11:01 am

    Compact nuclear batteries and compact nuclear reactors will give the Russian armed forces and hedge against the Americans for good years.
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    Post  George1 on Tue May 14, 2019 4:28 pm

    AKHTUBINSK (Astrakhan Region), May 14. /TASS/. Russian President Vladimir Putin on Tuesday visited the Chkalov Flight Test Center to inspect modern air technologies and armaments, including a MiG-31 fighter jet armed with the hypersonic missile Kinzhal (Dagger).

    Putin walked about an exposition of the latest models of aircraft on the ground. One of the planes on display was a fifth generation jet Sukhoi-57. A group of six such planes had escorted the presidential liner when it was approaching Akhtubinsk. Also, Putin was shown the newest fighter jet MiG-35 and samples of future unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

    The president also examined serial air technologies being provided for the Defense Ministry - Sukhoi-35 and Sukhoi-30SM fighters, upgraded interceptor MiG-31BM and deck fighter jet MiG-29K currently in service in the Russian Navy.

    More:
    http://tass.com/defense/1058171
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    Post  archangelski on Sun Jun 02, 2019 11:11 am

    Ka-92 mock-up in the background ? VVS Russian Air Force: News #2 - Page 19 BpZ9FsJ
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    Post  Rodion_Romanovic on Tue Jul 23, 2019 10:59 am

    https://www.rt.com/news/464817-south-korea-russia-bombers/

    S. Korean pilots ‘acted unprofessionally’, Russian bombers did not violate Seoul’s airspace – Moscow

    Published time: 23 Jul, 2019 07:10

    The Russian Defense Ministry accused South Korean pilots of acting “unprofessionally” while dangerously crossing the path of Russian bombers, which were on a routine mission over “international waters.”
    Two Russian Air Force Tu-95MS bombers were flying over the Sea of Japan when they encountered a pair of South Korean F-16 fighter jets.The F-16s “performed unprofessional maneuvers while crossing the course of the bombers, thus putting their safety at risk,” the Russian MoD said in a statement. The fighters also did not attempt to communicate with the Russian crews.

    Earlier in the day, Seoul’s Joint Chiefs of Staff committee claimed their jets were scrambled to intercept the intruding Russian aircraft which violated South Korean airspace twice. Moscow insists the encounter took place over 25km from the isles of Dokdo (known as Takeshima in Japan), and that they recorded no violation of aerial borders by Russian planes.

    Rejecting the JCS accusations that the Tu-95s breached South Korea’s air defense identification zone (KADIZ), Russia said there are no international regulations that stipulate the existence of these areas.

    Moscow does not recognize them either, “which was repeatedly communicated to the South Korean side through various channels.” At the end of the mid-air encounter, the South Korean jets fired flares and went away, the ministry stated.

    Moscow also denied reports that “warning shots” were fired at the Tu-95s. If that was the case and the Russian pilots considered themselves in danger, there would have been “an answer” to that.
    George1
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    Post  George1 on Wed Jul 24, 2019 1:37 am



    photos and flight-routes also here

    https://bmpd.livejournal.com/3714885.html

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    Post  Cyberspec on Wed Jul 24, 2019 5:02 am

    Pretty big news....first Russian-Chinese joint patrol. This is when the recent incident with S. Korean fighters occurred
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    Post  Cyberspec on Wed Jul 24, 2019 9:53 am

    Related to the above news...

    Warning Shots Fired At Russian A-50 AEW Aircraft That Allegedly Violated South Korea’s Airspace
    https://theaviationist.com/2019/07/23/warning-shots-fired-at-russian-a-50-aew-aircraft-that-allegedly-violated-south-koreas-airspace/
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    Post  GarryB on Thu Jul 25, 2019 12:10 am

    Yeah, South Korea claiming ownership of islands no one else recognises as theirs means they think their airspace extends much further out than anyone else agrees with... leading to this sort of thing...
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    Post  George1 on Wed Aug 07, 2019 2:12 pm

    Russia’s top brass sets up heliport in Gulf of Finland

    The heliport will be able to receive all types of transport and combat helicopters operational in Russia’s Western Military District

    ST. PETERSBURG, August 7. /TASS/. Army engineers have built a new military heliport on the Gogland Island in the Gulf of Finland, the press office of Russia’s Western Military District reported on Wednesday.

    "During special tactical drills, the servicemen of the engineering and aerodrome service of the Leningrad Air Force and Air Defense Army constructed a heliport on the Gogland Island in the Gulf of Finland," the press office said.

    A Mi-26 helicopter delivered a set of metallic aerodrome plates, and also the required special equipment to the Island. The constructed heliport includes five helipads and the necessary infrastructure: a command and control post, a weather station, a fueling center, a maintenance post and special lighting.

    The new heliport will be able to receive all types of transport and combat helicopters operational in Russia’s Western Military District. The crews of army aviation of the Leningrad Air Force and Air Defense Army performed training landings and take-offs from the new heliport, the District’s press office said.

    As the press office of the Western Military District told TASS, the military intends to use the heliport on a permanent basis.

    https://tass.com/defense/1072318
    Isos
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    Post  Isos on Thu Aug 08, 2019 2:22 am

    Aurora Intel
    @AuroraIntel
    ·
    4h
    Thread: #Russia are now pushing into the Gulf of #Finland, positioning itself on the island of #Gogland, a new Forward Operating Base (FOB), approx 40km from #Mussalo Harbour. Mussalo processes nearly all of Finland's export and transits containers



    Only 40km from Finland's bigest harbour. Not surprising, russians said there will be miliatry answers to Finland's wishes to bring more nato at russian's borders. They lived peacefully since 1945 near soviet union but now that Clinton and Obama told them so, they get bad relation with Russia and support nato (neonazis) around russia.

    And guess what, they will have to pay 20 billion $ or more for a couple of f-35 they will never be allowed to fly near russiaso that US sends some old f-16 to patrol around that russian heliport increasing even more the tension until there is a strike from russia on Finland and US do nothing.
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    Post  Isos on Fri Aug 09, 2019 1:22 pm


    Dmitry Stefanovich
    @KomissarWhipla
    Interesting stuff on AviaDarts contest within #armygames2019:

    1) MiG-31K with Kinzhal hypersonic missile (as well as MiG-31BM interceptors) will support attack aircraft tasked with destroying air defense batteries. Nuclear if Kinzhal itself will be launched, likely no



    Dmitry Stefanovich
    @KomissarWhipla
    ·
    2h
    En réponse à
    @KomissarWhipla
    2) Su-57 5th gen fighter will support Tu-22M3 and Su-34 bomber runs.
    Again, actual fires unlikely.

    I hope there will be some nice footage though.



    Source: https://tass.ru/armiya-i-opk/6748248/amp?__twitter_impression=true
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    Post  Austin on Mon Aug 19, 2019 1:53 pm

    Russia’s Aircraft Industry In Crisis

    https://aviationweek.com/defense/russia-s-aircraft-industry-crisis

    The Russian aircraft industry is struggling. After peaking early in this decade, oil-price reductions and sanctions imposed by Western countries have caused both civil and military aircraft production to dwindle.

    At the same time, development of the military’s next-generation programs has slowed. And even as those programs draw closer to maturity, industry officials wonder whether the nation is losing essential next-generation design expertise.

    Fixed-wing aircraft production in modern Russia reached its zenith in 2014, when the United Aircraft Corp. (UAC) produced 158 airplanes. Helicopter production hit a high mark in 2012, when 290 were built. By 2018, the numbers had dwindled to 121 fixed-wing aircraft and 169 helicopters, according to indirect sources, a number in line with much of the last quarter-century. In the past two years UAC has united most fixed-wing aircraft manufacturers in Russia, while Russian Helicopters has consolidated rotorcraft manufacturers, restricting access to production figures.


    The collapse in helicopter production was particularly severe, with the greatest difficulties affecting the Russian rotorcraft industry’s premier product, the Mi-8 transport helicopter, produced in Kazan and Ulan-Ude. Previous large orders placed by the Russian defense ministry, China, India and the U.S. for the Afghan National Army Air Corps have already been fulfilled, and new contracts are much smaller. Russia’s government stepped in to help, launching a state air medical transport program, something only spoken about for years. Sixty helicopters were delivered to medical emergency service in 2017-18, and 150 more have been ordered.

    VVS Russian Air Force: News #2 - Page 19 DF-MAKS-chart_

    The 15-seat Kamov Ka-62 is to be “conditionally debuting” at the International Aviation and Space Salon MAKS 2019 in Zhukovsky, Russia, with both static and flight displays debuting for the first time in the European part of Russia and for the general public. The entirely renewed Ka-62 (a continuation of the Ka-60 design) is powered by French Turbomeca Ardiden 3G turboshafts and Austrian Zoerkler Gears gearboxes and transmission. It started flight tests in April 2016 in Arsenyev in Russia’s Far East.

    Two helicopters, the Mil Mi-38 and Kazan Ansat, will debut in their VIP versions. The well-known Kamov Ka-226 will be presented for the first time in a border-patrol version adapted for ship-based operations, with folding rotor blades.

    It may be difficult for government spending to reverse this downturn. Russia’s 10-year State Armament Program provides 19 trillion rubles ($292 billion) from 2018-27, a quarter of which funds the aerospace forces— the same as the amount allotted in the previous decade. But during that period, the Russian ruble lost half of its value against the U.S. dollar.

    Facing an unavoidable reduction of orders from Russia’s military, the aircraft industry is looking abroad. Rosoboronexport arms trade company’s CEO Alexander Mikheyev says military aviation exports amounted to $6 billion in 2018—about 23% of the Russian aviation industry’s production output. Russians claim that new export customers are asking for combat aircraft that were used in the Syrian campaign. For example, negotiations of the first export contract for Su-34 fighter-bombers are in an advanced stage; the customer is not disclosed. However, arms exports are being throttled by the U.S.’s Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (Caatsa) of August 2017, which discourages other nations from buying Russian hardware.

    Increasing civil aircraft production might be another solution. In January 2018, Russian President Vladimir Putin assigned the task of increasing the proportion of civil production to 30% by 2025 and 50% by 2030.

    At a meeting with President Putin in July, Rostec Corp. CEO Sergei Chemezov requested an additional 300 billion rubles ($4.7 billion) from the government. Rostec controls UAC, Russian Helicopters, United Engine Corp. and many other defense industry enterprises. “We will need a capitalization increase to complete the financial restructuring of all of the corporation’s enterprises,” Chemezov said, citing the civilian MC-21 airliner and other projects. “We are counting on your support here,” he said to Putin.

    Despite the financial difficulties, Russia has been re-equipping its fighter fleet in the last 10 years. Legacy MiG-29 and Su-27 aircraft are being replaced with Su-30SM and Su-35S fighters, respectively; the navy is receiving Su-30SM multirole fighters as a replacement for Su-24M tactical bombers. In the Russian Aerospace Forces, Su-24Ms are being replaced with Su-34s. Under large contracts signed before 2014, 20 Su-35S and 10 Su-34 aircraft are to be produced in 2019-20.

    Assuming the renewal of the fleet in 1:1 proportion, the demand for fighter aircraft under the current 10-year budget plan includes 60-70 Su-30SMD (this is an upgraded Su-30SM with the Su-35S’s engines), 100 Su-34M and about 80 Su-57 tactical combat aircraft. Orders exceeding these numbers are also possible, if needed to form new operational units.

    The Russian aircraft industry’s next-generation Su-57 fighter is in line to become a primary product for decades to come. The Su-57 is designed to meet requirements for supersonic cruise and maneuverability, reduced visibility, as well as sensor fusion and integration into defense networks. New sensors, including the N036 AESA radar and new internal-carriage weaponry are being developed, especially for the Su-57; the new engine is undergoing testing. The heavy combat unmanned vehicle S-70 Okhotnik, meaning hunter, being developed as a wingman for the Su-57, made its first flight Aug. 3 at the Akhtubinsk test-flight center.

    The Su-57 program received a huge boost on June 27 when Russia’s Defense Ministry placed an order with Sukhoi for 76 fighters to be delivered by the end of 2027. Previously, Deputy Prime Minister Yuri Borisov had sought the purchase of just 16 aircraft by 2027. The expanded order will certainly help to perfect this new platform, as improvements cannot be made with prototypes only. The first of two aircraft of the pre-production batch will fly near the end of this year, 10 years after the first T-50 prototype.

    The problem is that the Su-57 is still in an intermediate configuration and will require a lot of work and funding to become mature. Alexey Krivoruchko, the deputy defense minister for procurement, said last year that from 2023 on the Su-57s would be delivered in a second-stage configuration, with new engines and probably upgraded equipment. Aside from some assertions from the company that “everything is going as planned,” there is no information about the real status of work on the Su-57’s systems and weapons.

    Though the defense budget did not provide for the large order of Su-57s, Putin said that after negotiations the company reduced prices by almost 20%. That price reduction may have allowed the increased order of Su-57s as well as Su-35S fighters. Both types are manufactured at the same production facility in Komsomolsk-on-Amur. The Russian newspaper Kommersant quoted an industry official attributing the price reduction to the “modification of the internal layout of the Su-57 and unification of the technical solutions,” among other things. In this case “unification” may mean a downgrade with the use of some systems from the Su-35S. Kommersant reported the price as “160-170 billion rubles” for 76 Su-57s, ($35 million per aircraft), which seems to be a significant value for the price.

    At MAKS, the Su-35 nonflying T-50-KNS full-scale mockup intended for ground-based synchronization of all components, will be one of the key aircraft on static display.

    UAC will be promoting the Mikoyan MiG-35, which needs export clients. The Russian Air Force prefers Sukhoi fighters and orders only a minimum quantity of MiGs. In August 2018 Russia’s military ordered six MiG-35s, to be delivered by 2023. At MAKS 2019, three MiG-35s, including a novelty—the first series-production airplane flown earlier this year—will be exhibited at MAKS 2019.

    Looking ahead, Russia is still developing a stealthy subsonic strategic bomber under the PAK DA (or Future Air Complex of Long-Range Aviation) program. The Tupolev PAK DA bomber has enough financial support for the test examples to be built during the budget cycle ending in 2027.

    Research and development work is at the stage of developing individual components. That includes Izdeliye FR engines at the Kuznetsov company in Samara, a radar at NIIP in Zhukovsky, a navigation system at the Moscow Institute of Electromechanics and Automatics in Moscow, a flight-control system at MNPK Avionica in Moscow, crew life-support system at NPP Zvezda in Tomilino, an auxiliary power unit at OMKB Engine Design Bureau in Omsk, and weapons at Raduga in Dubna. The PAK DA is claimed to be a subsonic flying-wing aircraft with a range of 15,000 km (9,321 mi.) without refueling.

    The PAK DP (or Future Air Complex of Long-range Interception) is intended to replace the MiG-31 after 2030.

    The LMFS or Lightweight Multifunction Tactical Aircraft, is to be a successor to the MiG-29. The SVTS, or Medium Military Transport Aircraft, is to be a new 20-ton payload military transport aircraft, followed by the 80-plus-ton-payload PAK VTA, or Future Air Complex of Military Transport Aviation. A new aircraft carrier and dedicated carrier-based fighter have been announced as well as a next-generation combat helicopter.

    Meanwhile, the Russians have also extended production of older aircraft. In 2015, the PAK DA strategic bomber program was “a bit postponed,” as the then- deputy defense minister Yuri Borisov said, by the new idea of resuming the Tu-160 Blackjack bomber production. On Jan. 25, 2018, the defense ministry placed an order for 10 new-production Tu-160M2 bombers; the first aircraft is due to fly in 2021.

    In 2006, the Aviastar-SP factory in Ulyanovsk was tasked with launching production of Il-76MD-90A transport aircraft. In Soviet times, the Il-76s were made at the Tashkent plant in Uzbekistan. The Ilyushin Design Bureau was granted more than 6 billion rubles ($200 million) to update the aircraft design, and the Aviastar-SP plant received 8.5 billion rubles for renewal of the production tooling.

    However, even this seemingly simple task is facing serious difficulties. The Russian-made prototype flew as recently as 2012. Thirty-nine airlifters contracted by the defense ministry in 2012 were to be delivered by 2018, but the military has received only four aircraft and just three more are promised by the end of 2019. The Aviastar-SP management complained in 2017 about a significant increase of production costs and prices at subcontractors, which made production unprofitable; the original contract was for 3.57 billion rubles ($110 million at the 2012 exchange rate) per aircraft.

    The new-production Il-76MD-90A serves as platform for the new Il-78M-90A tanker and the A-100 Early Warning Aircraft. The first tanker flew on Jan. 19, 2018; its public debut is planned for the upcoming MAKS show.

    The Lukhovitsy production facility, belonging to RSK MiG, is launching production of the 64-seat Il-114-300 turboprop; the first Il-114 version made its first flight in 1990. This is not a commercial program. The program’s stated objectives are “to provide utilization of capacity of the aircraft industry enterprises,” and “to reduce dependence of the Russian air transport on purchases of foreign aircraft.” The first Il-114-300 version based on an example produced at Tashkent in 1994 is expected to fly this year; the first fully new aircraft is to fly in 2021.

    Meanwhile, the VASO production facility in Voronezh is preparing production of the Il-96-400M widebody aircraft. The Il-96-300 prototype first flew in 1988; the new Il-96-400M is to be ready by 2021.

    The declared common goal for these efforts to resume Soviet-era aircraft programs is to restore design-team competencies and production facilities to develop and build new-generation aircraft of each of these types in the future. The Russians refreshed the design and documentation of the Il-76 to restore an engineering and production cadre that will be able to undertake new challenges, including development of entirely new medium SVTS and heavy PAK VTA transport aircraft. Similarly, resumption of Tu-160 bomber production is intended to to lead in to development of the PAK DA next-generation strategic bomber.

    However, the Russian aerospace industry may end up resuming legacy aircraft production without a next generation to follow. It is hard to gain competence to develop 21st-century aircraft by repeating designs that are decades old, even if they are upgraded. It may turn out that some design teams, such as Tupolev and Ilyushin, which have not developed a new program in 30 years, are no longer able to implement a breakthrough project. Despite numerous attempts, the essential mid-level scientific and engineering cadre has not been restored after the previous collapse during 1990-2000. Most Russian aerospace companies (with a few exceptions, Sukhoi and Yakovlev/Irkut) are staffed with a group of experienced employees of retirement age and inexperienced younger employees (who will probably not remain there long if there is not enough money or interesting work).

    The Il-112V light transport aircraft project exposed many of these problems. The program, originally launched in 1994, was subsequently revived and modified on several occasions. In 2014 the project resumed with new, reduced requirements. However, the Il-112V prototype that flew in Voronezh on March 30 does not meet even these scaled-back requirements. Ilyushin’s chief designer Nikolay Talikov admits that the aircraft is overweight due to poor design work. The company plans to reduce the first prototype aircraft’s weight by up to a ton and the second prototype aircraft by up to 2.5 tons. It was supposed to debut in Zhukovksky this summer. Officially it will not leave Voronezh because the airfield there is closed for runway repair.

    “A generational change of designers took place in the aircraft industry. The new staff was weak; technical colleges lost their popularity,” Talikov says. “In 2010, when the work on Il-112 stopped, five departments left our company and passed to Irkut, where wages were almost three times higher.”


    miketheterrible
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    Post  miketheterrible on Mon Aug 19, 2019 2:00 pm

    One can disregard an article when it mentions non existent financial difficulties.

    I wonder what exactly constitutes a financial issue if:
    - your budget is in the positives
    - debt is reduced
    - reserves are up and growing
    - spending is stable

    It's rather sad. And Russia's large order in 2016 was what constitutes growth in the aerospace industry....

    There is of course some truth. Mainly it's transport plane category is rather slow at pumping out due to various different issues but my understanding is they fixed majority of that. That alone would constitute a drop in orders cause of course they have to wait till the production is ready.

    Helicopter sales are always up and down. Russia has still rather strong overall sale of copters but of course not nearly as high as before.

    We will see what happens at Maks 2019 and then next year when new contracts are to be signed for new jets for RuAF. Since many are coming to the end of the agreed contract and they hinted at more orders.
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    Post  Rodion_Romanovic on Mon Aug 19, 2019 5:55 pm

    miketheterrible wrote:One can disregard an article when it mentions non existent financial difficulties.

    I wonder what exactly constitutes a financial issue if:
    - your budget is in the positives
    - debt is reduced
    - reserves are up and growing
    - spending is stable

    It's rather sad. And Russia's large order in 2016 was what constitutes growth in the aerospace industry....

    There is of course some truth. Mainly it's transport plane category is rather slow at pumping out due to various different issues but my understanding is they fixed majority of that. That alone would constitute a drop in orders cause of course they have to wait till the production is ready.

    Helicopter sales are always up and down. Russia has still rather strong overall sale of copters but of course not nearly as high as before.

    We will see what happens at Maks 2019 and then next year when new contracts are to be signed for new jets for RuAF. Since many are coming to the end of the agreed contract and they hinted at more orders.


    some of the things mentioned there are correct, other are bs..as.an example, what if the ruble / dollar is now the half as in 2013...all of this are Russian projects, and almost everything in the new projects is designed and manufactured in Russia, so the exchange rate does not count.

    The unification of components between su-57 and su-35 will.mean that su 35 will have some of the su-57components, not vice versa.


    The updated "soviet" projects are actually newer than a330, and of course boeing 737, so if airbus and boeing can sell.upgraded aircrafts, why can't Russia do the same?

    Furthermore next generation of planes is.already in development: MC-21 and CR929.

    There are of course issues, and the lack of orders in the last 30 years, added to the preference to help the antonov products caused problems to the aeronautical.industry.

    Concerning ilyushin, it was normal that without jobs and with low pay the people would work elsewhere. It was good that yakovlev/irkut had a challenging and interesting new project.

    To maintain people and.skill you.need.to have interesting projects and pay them. Now they need to uniform the pay among the various branch of UAC and,

    if needed, take russian engineers and designers from boeing and airbus bureau working in Russia (about 450 ppl directly employed by them in Moscow plus another 1000 contractors)
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    Post  GarryB on Tue Aug 20, 2019 4:33 am

    I would say that the production chart shows the difficulty in transitioning from Russian aircraft made with international parts to Russian aircraft made of Russian parts... something no other country had to go through during this period so it makes it appear like there is a problem when there is clearly not.

    Using all Russian components makes Russian aircraft stronger on the international market... how many countries would love a Gripen but fear the US might block engines or weapons or components for some made up reason in the future... the same thing makes Typhoon and F-35 less desirable too.

    Having foreign parts might make some designs more attractive to some customers where they already have foreign aircraft in service and buying a new Russian plane will be much easier if it uses the same French engines or avionics systems already used in their existing types for instance, but for Russia it is actually more valuable to control all the parts in their aircraft and have their own final say as to who they sell and who they do not sell aircraft to.

    It is even more important because some of the systems these Russian companies are developing are actually better than the western systems they are replacing, so it is actually even better for Russian airlines and the Russian Air Force for them to make money and further improve their products.

    As already mentioned commonality and standardisation are good things as long as they standardise up and not down.

    You don't want a brand new super car that cost half a million dollars to have cheap parts from the sports hatchback the company already makes... especially when the maker charges you super car prices and just makes more profit...
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    Post  Cyberspec on Sat Aug 24, 2019 11:40 am

    New gear for Russian pilots

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    Post  GarryB on Sun Aug 25, 2019 6:07 am

    Ahh, yes... they are fire resistant... rated for about a minute or so...

    They are also better for evasion on the ground than the previous blue suit they normally wear.
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    Post  Cyberspec on Mon Aug 26, 2019 3:36 am

    Looks like a new helmet too
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    Post  GarryB on Mon Aug 26, 2019 7:40 am

    Wooden mockup pistol looks funny...

    No attachment points on the helmet for the various helmet mounted systems like NVG or the targeting system shlem (spelling)... perhaps they have helmet mounted displays... they mentioned new active HUD systems in their army visors, so perhaps they are further advanced for aircrew helmets?
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    Post  Viktor on Thu Aug 29, 2019 8:49 pm

    for high intensity conflicts

    New tank truck dramatically reduces planes’ refueling time — Russian Defense Ministry

    "One truck is capable of refueling 24 planes simultaneously. According to our estimates, the planes get ready for flight 15 times faster than before," he said. wrote:
    George1
    George1

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    Post  George1 on Fri Nov 01, 2019 11:18 pm

    Russian fighter jets scrambled 12 times on interception missions in last week

    https://tass.com/defense/1086461

    Sponsored content

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