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    Μilitary Questions & Answers

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    Post  nightcrawler on Sat Oct 23, 2010 6:39 pm

    First entry...
    Why the conventional flat bullets are succeeded by Rebated Boattail Base??
    Doesnt in the former case a uniform pressure be exerted across a flat base to effectively push the bullet out of muzzle with precise orientation??
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    Post  GarryB on Sun Oct 24, 2010 8:48 am

    At the start of last century most rifle bullets had flat bases.
    Bullets often also had rounded tips too.

    As we learned more about aerodynamics however it was realised that a pointed tip bullet would reduce drag and improve flight range for supersonic bullets.
    For low velocity bullets like the 9mm a pointed nose was of no use because the bullets only spent very short periods at supersonic speeds and at subsonic speeds it didn't effect drag at all.

    During testing it was found that even a high velocity rifle bullet does not retain supersonic flight speed for all of its flight and for most calibres they are subsonic before they get to 800m.
    Once they transition from supersonic to subsonic the tip of the projectile is no longer the main source of drag... the tail end is.

    With a flat tailed bullet the entire width of the projectile is generating drag.
    With what is called a boat tail or narrowed rear the airflow narrows behind the bullet and reduces the drag area and therefore extends range during the subsonic flight portion of the bullet.

    This has nothing to do with accuracy, and everything to do with bullet drop and bullet velocity.
    All bullets drop at the same rate due to gravity. A bullet that retains velocity will cover more ground as it drops than a high drag bullet.
    Comparing a pointed boat tailed projectile with a lead ball of the same weight fired from a gun at the same velocity at the same (ideal for max range) trajectory angle the ball will hit the ground potentially thousands of metres short of the modern bullet.
    A boat tail bullet in a 303 might travel 5km, whereas a flat based bullet in a 303 will travel half that distance.

    The minne (spelling?) bullet was an elongated ball with a hollow base that was designed so that the gas pressure would spread the hollow base outward to better engage the rifling and improve accuracy. The better aerodynamic shape of the projectile over the standard round ball (that was easier to muzzle load) probably had more to do with its improved performance.
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    Post  nightcrawler on Thu Nov 11, 2010 7:09 pm

    J-10 has been deployed in Xizang (Tibet)
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    The cover, according to Chinese BBS, was supposed to protect the planes from high levels of ultraviolet rays in Tibet. Excessive radiation could weaken the titanium and cause the rubber wheels to weaken.
    Why dont they just build hangers??
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    Post  nightcrawler on Sat Nov 13, 2010 8:47 pm

    [QUOTE=sorter;2982084]Μilitary Questions & Answers C6xxvp3

    Notice the folding rear fins and fact that they are at 45 degrees X relative to the intake.
    Μilitary Questions & Answers C602xxxnm5

    But clearly the rear fins r "+"

    Now provided that former missile is oldy with respect to the latter one; I am confused at this
    A design progression where the "x" fins didn't work out so they changed to non-folding "+" fins which probably give more range (less drag?, less weight?) but take up more space?[/QUOTE]

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    Post  GarryB on Mon Nov 15, 2010 5:26 am

    They might simply have made the change to simplify manouvering with horizontal and vertical control surfaces climb an dive controls can be applied with just moving two surfaces instead of all four, while turning in the horizontal plane will likely require the two vertical surfaces plus a little bit adjustment as a horizontal turn often leads to the outer wing surface moving faster than the inner wing surface which causes some roll, but that can easily be corrected.

    In very long range flights I would think that horizontal control surfaces would make trimming the tail slightly down much easier and simpler. The other alternative would be nose mounted canards lifting the nose so the main wings can generate lift and keep the missile airborne.
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    Post  IronsightSniper on Thu Dec 30, 2010 6:00 am

    Here's a question, what's the difference between a semi-rigid gun and a swiveling one?
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    Post  GarryB on Fri Dec 31, 2010 9:27 am

    The Ka-50/52 have a semi rigid mounted 30mm cannon. So does the Ka-29 model fitted with a 30mm cannon too.
    The Mi-28 and the last model Mi-24 have chin turret mounted cannon.
    The model of Hind with a twin barrel 30mm GSh-30 as fitted to the Su-25 but with longer barrels is a case of a rigid mounted fixed gun.

    Let me start by saying the 30mm cannon that is standard in use in the Russian Army, Navy, and Air Force is a very powerful round and it has rather significant recoil effect on the platform firing it.

    The very first Hind had a manual 12.7 x 108mm calibre HMG that had a dedicated gunner to operate it.
    This was rapidly replaced with a chin mounted 4 barrel gatling 12.7mm HMG with a rate of fire of about 4,500rpm. This new gun put a lot more rounds on target and was more accurate and effective and had an excellent field of fire. It was operated by the gunner/weapons operator. Its main problem was that the targets often were firing back with 50 cal weapons over which it had little or no range advantage over.
    The next step was an attempt to fit a twin barrel 23mm cannon in a chin turret but that failed so they resorted to the twin barrel 30mm GSh-30 fixed to the side of the aircraft.
    This solved the range issue and was accurate to 2km or more and was very powerful but because it was fixed it was aimed and fired by the pilot so the weapons officer only had ATGMs to operate in combat as the unguided rocket pods were aimed by the pilot too.

    Finally in the last model Hind they managed to solve the problems with the twin 23mm gun mount in a chin turret and control of the guns was returned to the weapons officer.

    In the Mi-28 they wanted more power than the twin 23mm gun offered and so they adopted the successful and reliable 2A42 cannon used on the Armys BMP-2. This is mounted in a chin turret that allows wide angles of fire, though firing sideways will effect the pilots control of the aircraft more than firing ahead.

    With the Kamov Ka-50 and later Ka-52 one of the advantages of the coaxial rotor design is that the pedals to turn the nose of the aircraft are effective and fairly high speed. This is because the mass of the main rotors is rather high and the torque generated by differential power settings on the main rotors exerts much more force on the airframe than the tiny tail rotor of a conventional helo.
    The end effect is that the Kamovs can all point their noses directly at targets while flying in all sorts of different directions so a chin mounted turret is not needed.
    This means the gun can be mounted on a limited elevation mount near the centre of gravity which means the aircraft is rather less effected by the recoil of the weapon and is rather more accurate than most other helo mounted cannon while still being one of the most powerful helo mounted cannon in service.

    The gun is able to elevate through about 90 degrees or something and can move sideways about 15 degrees or so to allow the gun to remain on target despite minor manouvers by the pilot during firing.

    It should be noted that the Soviets and now Russians have a wide range of guns in gunpods that have limited mobility and can be fitted firing forward or backwards.
    The Su-17 for example could carry pods carrying 23mm cannon that can depress down about 30 degrees so that the aircraft can start in a shallow dive towards the target and open fire and then pull up 20 degrees or so while still firing at the target... the guns depressed by computer to keep them aimed at the same angle as when firing began.
    There are several other pods including one with a 6 barrel 30mm cannon that can be depressed 30 degrees and can be aimed 90 degrees, 45 degrees either side of straight ahead.
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    Μilitary Questions & Answers Empty Can Russian aircraft carry US/Western guided bombs and missiles?

    Post  ahmedfire on Thu Jan 06, 2011 10:56 pm

    some sources said syria would get some iranian qassed bomb(copy from american GBU-15),,syria has russian aircrafts (mig 29 and su 24,,mig 21 ,,etc)

    qassed is alaser guided bomb..
    can syria use them on their russian aircrafts ?!!

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    Post  GarryB on Fri Jan 07, 2011 3:16 am

    I don't see why not.

    The Indians use French and Russian LGBs on their French and Russian aircraft as far as I know. (perhaps check with Austin on that...)

    I would think it would make more sense to buy Russian LGBs however as that weapon looks rather large.
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    Post  Hoof on Fri Jan 07, 2011 4:30 am

    Looks a bit on the old side... they could have probably used different type stabilizers on it...

    but I think Russian planes can use it... as long as mounting system on a hardpoint is compatible... but then equipment on board of aircraft also has to be compatible with guidance system on a bomb itself...
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    Post  ahmedfire on Fri Jan 07, 2011 3:55 pm

    Hoof wrote:Looks a bit on the old side... they could have probably used different type stabilizers on it...

    but I think Russian planes can use it... as long as mounting system on a hardpoint is compatible... but then equipment on board of aircraft also has to be compatible with guidance system on a bomb itself...
    you mean software ??
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    Post  nightcrawler on Tue Feb 08, 2011 11:29 am

    plz someone explain this phenomenon I am unable for now!!

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    Post  GarryB on Wed Feb 09, 2011 4:40 am

    Wiki is your friend... I must admit that the only engine injection I had read about before reading this was the injection of a spray of alcohol into the air intake of a Mig-25 to cool the air and add combustion potential when it hits the combustion chamber.

    Water injection has been used in both reciprocating and turbine aircraft engines.
    When used in a turbine engine, the effects are similar, except that
    preventing detonation is not the primary goal. Water is normally
    injected either at the compressor inlet or in the diffuser just before
    the combustion chambers. Adding water increases the mass being
    accelerated out of the engine, increasing thrust, but it also serves to
    cool the turbines. Since temperature is normally the limiting factor in
    turbine engine performance at low altitudes, the cooling effect allows
    the engines to be run at a higher RPM with more fuel injected and more
    thrust created without overheating.[2]
    The drawback of the system is that injecting water quenches the flame
    in the combustion chambers somewhat, as there is no way to cool the
    engine parts without cooling the flame accidentally. This leads to
    unburned fuel out the exhaust and a characteristic trail of black smoke.
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    Post  nightcrawler on Sat Feb 12, 2011 2:26 am

    Which launching method you relatively prefer either Hot launch or a cold launch??Mine understanding is it is cold launch systems that are heavier, and in the case of mobile launching, more cumbersome. They have a gas-generator at the bottom of the pit, which is usually a solid rocket motor on its own, whose exhaust pops the missile out of the canister. The only advantage they have is shorter reload time since the same canister can be reused without having to be repaired. Western systems have classically preferred hot launches, changing the whole cell is easier if more expensive.Also which system is relatively preferable in naval versions; though many western missile pics suggest a major use of hot launch even onboard ships

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    Post  GarryB on Sat Feb 12, 2011 3:09 am

    Which launching method you relatively prefer either Hot launch or a cold
    launch??Mine understanding is it is cold launch systems that are
    heavier, and in the case of mobile launching, more cumbersome.

    A cold launch system adds weight and cost to a system... but it also means the missile starts its motor well clear of the launch vehicle which means potential damage is minimised and with an added feature that the missile can use nose mounted rockets to point it in the direction of the target so time is not wasted turning an arm launcher in the direction of the target before launch.

    Many Russian SAMs currently use vertical launch and those that do use vertical launch use cold launch systems to protect the launcher and sensors from rocket blast damage.

    I would suggest those that do not do that simply haven't bothered to develop the technology to do so.

    The Soviets/Russians have developed effective reliable catapult systems for missiles so a cold launch for them makes a lot of sense as reloading is simpler and cheaper without the blast damage.

    Some of their larger older missiles still used hot launches like Moskit and Vulkan and Granit, but the current missiles like Brahmos/Oniks and Club seem to be cold launched too... and of course cold launch is a standard practise with SLBMs.
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    Post  Austin on Tue Nov 13, 2012 9:36 am

    Hello , I found this anthem "Anita Tsoy - Anthem of Russia (2000) .mp3"

    http://beemp3.com/download.php?file=251938&song=Anthem+of+Russia+%282000%29

    I liked it a lot , I want to know where can i just download the music minus the lyrics in mp3 format , my search gives me full song but i am more keen on the music part.

    Thanks
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    Post  TR1 on Tue Nov 13, 2012 10:16 am

    Do you mean the instrumental only version of this pop-cover, or an instrumental of the anthem itself?
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    Post  Austin on Tue Nov 13, 2012 11:19 am

    TR1 wrote:Do you mean the instrumental only version of this pop-cover, or an instrumental of the anthem itself?

    Instrumental of this pop-cover
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    Post  BTRfan on Mon Apr 22, 2013 1:36 pm

    Well I have not yet come up with the funds for a BTR series vehicle or a Kamaz but I have found two BRDM-2 armored recon vehicles for sale... One is about $12,500 dollars and is stated to be in excellent condition, fine working order, fully functional, stored indoors, with low mileage.

    The next is about $6,500 dollars and it is stated as "needs a lot of love, much work to be done to get it up and running decently, stored outside, also needs a new paint job."


    I wonder, knowing nothing about the maintenance/repair of vehicles, especially Soviet armored vehicles, how much time and money/parts could it wind up costing to get a BRDM-2 up and running?

    I consider myself a fairly intelligent individual, I am almost finished with my degree in electronic engineering technology [and I have another degree in addition to that, which I earned a while ago], and my father is an electrical engineer who can pretty much fix anything ever made if it is electrical, electronic, especially if is radio/communication equipment related. But electronics is not the same as mechanics.


    Also, about the capabilities of the BRDM, I understand it will not withstand .50 BMG fire, but how will it stand against 7.62mm NATO or 30'06 [or .30 caliber rifle/machine gun fire in general?] Also how well does it withstand molotov cocktails?
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    Post  GarryB on Mon Apr 22, 2013 2:41 pm

    The BRDM-2 was a popular vehicle... its armour wasn't amazing, but it was full amphibious and seemed to have pretty good mobility.

    I do remember reading that the extra wheels under the belly that were chain driven were not often used, as a post apocalyptic vehicle it would be a reasonable basis to start from. Not super roomy inside, but then rather more mechanically simpler than the BTR-60 as it only has the one engine.
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    Post  milky_candy_sugar on Mon Sep 30, 2013 12:36 am

    This question has been bugging me since i started cataloging my ammo collection.

    Why are some calibers who's dimensions are listed in their name, different from their actual dimensions?

    Examples:
    -5.56mm bullets
    Actual Bullet Diameter is 5.7mm
    -anything 7.62mm
    actual diameter measures 7.8-92mm
    -anything 8mm
    diameter measures 8.2-3

    these wouldn't bother me so much, if there werent other calibers that actually listed their dimensions correctly.

    5.7x28mm for example is (5.72x28.8mm) so thats much closer.

    I dont know anything about reloading, so im going to claim ignorance if there is something important that im missing here.

    Also, i'm getting most of this information from Wikipedia and my own physical measurements
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    Post  flamming_python on Mon Sep 30, 2013 1:27 am

    milky_candy_sugar wrote:This question has been bugging me since i started cataloging my ammo collection.

    Why are some calibers who's dimensions are listed in their name, different from their actual dimensions?

    Examples:
    -5.56mm bullets
    Actual Bullet Diameter is 5.7mm
    -anything 7.62mm
    actual diameter measures 7.8-92mm
    -anything 8mm
    diameter measures 8.2-3

    these wouldn't bother me so much, if there werent other calibers that actually listed their dimensions correctly.

    5.7x28mm for example is (5.72x28.8mm) so thats much closer.

    I dont know anything about reloading, so im going to claim ignorance if there is something important that im missing here.

    Also, i'm getting most of this information from Wikipedia and my own physical measurements
    As I recall the calibre refers to the diameter between the groves in the rifled barrel; not to the diameter of the bullet. The diameter of the bullet, and the diameter of the barrel will be a bit larger
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    Post  GarryB on Tue Oct 01, 2013 5:39 am

    The other problems include manufacturing and also designation systems.

    For instance some countries measure calibre from the depths of the grooves in the barrel while other countries measure calibre from the tops of the grooves (called the lands).

    Another issue is tradition and habit... the Russian 7.62mm calibres... ie the 7.62 x 54mm, 7.62 x 39mm, and 7.62 x 25mm calibres are all actually .311 calibre... the same as the .303 Twisted Evil 

    This means you can take an old 303 rifle and rechamber it to 7.62 x 54mm, 7.62 x 39mm, or 7.62 x 25mm.

    Here in New Zealand there is still an abundance of old 303 rifles but 303 ammo is getting rather expensive, so a cheap solution is to get them re-barreled in the 7.62 x 39mm calibre of the AK as a short useful hunting round for use against light and medium game like Goats and Pigs.

    The advantage is that with a chamber bore adapter you can fire 7.62 x 25mm rounds without any modification of the original 303 rifling..

    Would be interesting to see how a rifle can handle such a range of projectiles with the Nagant 7.62mm having projectiles in the 150-203 grain range, the AK 7.62 having rounds in the 122-154 grain range and the Tokarev pistol 7.62mm calibre having 90 grain projectiles.

    I imagine a 90 grain projectile in a 7.62 x 54mm case would be a very zippy light recoiling round for use against small goats... would be fun experimenting...

    BTW what sort of variety do you have with your ammo collection?

    I have tried to focus on Soviet and Russian ammo types but I have a few others as well... I am missing the Soviet HMG calibres... ie 12.7 x 108mm and 14.5 x 114mm, but also would be interested in 5.45 x 18mm pistol ammo. I have a Nagant 7.62 revolver round, a 9 x 18mm Makarov, but none of the new suppressed ammo types or exotic rounds.

    I also have a western 105mm howitzer shell and three rounds of 25mm cannon shells with links from a LAV... both from my Nephew... Smile (all fired of course)
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    Μilitary Questions & Answers Empty How does Ramjet, Turbojet and Scramjet differ from one another ?

    Post  Deep Throat on Sun Dec 15, 2013 11:34 am

    Just need to find out how Ramjet, Turbojet and Scramjet are different from one another and what advantages do each of these provide .
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    Post  GarryB on Sun Dec 15, 2013 12:36 pm

    We have discussed this before but very simply all three can be thought of as long tubes that start out wide... get narrow in the middle and then get wider at the rear.

    The Turbojet has a shaft down the centre with fan blades mounted on them all the way along the tube. The ones at the front are large and suck air into the engine. The ones in the middle are smaller but still fill the tube and are geared to the shaft at the front of the engine... so as fuel is added to the middle narrow section and burned it is forced back out the rear of the engine developing thrust.

    The narrow bit in the middle of the tube is the high pressure section or hot section and as more fuel is added the air moves faster through the tube... making the blades at the front turn faster accelerating the engine.

    There are lots of different engine types... a Turbojet is just that single tube of air flow, a low bypass turbofan has the front fan enlarged and another tube around the outside where air flows through. In a turbojet the air is hot and is flowing fast but by heating it is is lower in density than normal air. A low bypass turbofan directs some cold air around the outside and then blows it out the rear... the cold air being denser and offering more push and because it is still oxygen rich burning fuel in the exhaust in an after burner is more powerful and efficient.

    A high bypass turbofan has a small turbojet driving a much larger fan and most of the thrust is from that larger fan blowing subsonic air... commonly used on subsonic transports and civilian airliners.

    A ramjet has no blades and no shaft... air comes in the front and is compressed as the tube narrows... fuel is added and burned which heats the air and generates thrust... simple and cheap and very light.

    The problem is that most jet engines burn fuel at subsonic speed and choke on supersonic airflows so a mach 2 fighter has ramps on its air intakes that open during takeoff when air is moving slowly so that more air can enter the intake. At high speed the ramp closes and reduces the amount of air entering the intake which reduces its speed to subsonic.

    On a scramjet... or supersonic combustion ramjet, you have a tube of a design that allows fuel to burn at supersonic speeds so not complex air intake is needed and the only limit on speed is the heat capacity of the aircraft and the engines... a ramjet just needs forward movement... during WWII Polikarpov tested ramjet engines on an Il-15 biplane that could fly at about 200km/h. The ramjet engines added about 40-50km/h to the top speed but it shows forward speed does not need to be high to start a ramjet engine.

    Top speed for a scramjet is orbital speed or higher.

    Because of its design you could fit an aircraft with scramjets and close the intakes on takeoff and pump fuel and oxygen into the chambers to accelerate down the runway on rocket propulsion... once moving forward however the O2 could be cut off and the intakes opened to use air for the O2 and liftoff could be achieved using scramjet propulsion right up to space where the intakes could be closed again and rocket mode could be used.

    Similarly a Turboscramrocket design could be used where on takeoff it could get airborne via a turbojet engine... once airborne the airflow through the jet engine could be cut off and airflow through the scramjet could accelerate the aircraft to altitude and orbital speed... once in orbit the intake could be closed off and rocket mode could be used to manouver in space till rentry and landing normally using turbojet and or scramjet.

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