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    Russian Air-to-Air missiles

    GarryB
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    Post  GarryB on Sun Jan 01, 2017 2:04 am

    The disign of these missile are different from R-73 and R-77, I don't know for the R-37. The new R-73 is refered as R-74 in some sources.

    They look externally the same... they are clearly upgrades of the older types with likely new rocket motors and digital electronics.

    Note when the R-23R and R-23T missiles of the MiG-23 were upgraded they called them R-24R and R-24T...

    Note the RVV-BD is not on the English version of their website... you have to look on the Russian version to see the RVV-BD. The RVV-BD is not an upgrade of the R-33, it is an upgrade of the R-37 that replaced the R-33.

    RVV SD is export name for the R-77-1, the new missile for pak fa is called izdeliye 180 (K-77M) wich is different than R-77 in disign motorization and guidance; new rear fins, new motor, new seeker.

    So they say but the only photos I have seen of a PAK FA prototype with weapons shows it carrying the old R-77-1 with the grid rear fins externally.

    Those grid fins fold forward for internal carriage and would fit internally as they are now.


    The ramjet version would have huge capacities. Hope we will see it someday, however I've read somewhere Russian are satisfied with rocket motor which are very capable today. Even US don't use ramjet missiles.

    Ramjet powered missiles would not be worth the effort. Scramjet powered missiles can be much much faster and are much more interesting. The Russians have plenty of experience with ramjet powered missiles... the SA-6 KUB, the Kh-31 family of missiles, and several large anti ship missiles also use ramjet propulsion right now.

    I agree. An R-27T would be very dangerous against F-35 however its capacities decrease with a bad weather or with the sun in the line of the lunch. That's why they need a new better missile with a better IR seeker.

    Not strictly true.... current IR technologies would suffice and new sensors can be fitted easily.

    The real thing is that the missile does not have to lock on at launch... it can be fired at a target detected by long wave radar to intercept the invisible enemy fighter... course corrections can be sent via datalink until it gets close enough to use its own seeker to find and kill the target....

    An R-27ET or even a new model scramjet powered version would be interesting....
    Isos
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    Post  Isos on Fri Jan 20, 2017 11:16 pm



    R-77 used as anti radar missile. Nice second role capability. With it's range, it's between Kh-25MPU and kh-58 and can probably be used without electronic pod (with less probability of kill however ?) by any aircraft.
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    Post  Isos on Wed Mar 08, 2017 8:09 pm

    http://www.ainonline.com/aviation-news/defense/2010-07-17/t-50-completes-early-flight-and-bench-tests

    Just found this article where it is said that they were thinking about a R-77ME, ramjet version of the R-77M developed for Pak Fa but they chose the "solid-propellant version–roughly equivalent to the AIM-120D AMRAAM–offers greater potential in a shorter time".

    What does that mean ?

    The ramjet is supposed to work all the way to the target so it has better perfermances for intercepting a taget. The rocket version burns some time and then it goes unpowered so its performances are worse than those of the ramjet version.

    Why are they chosing the "normal" version then ?

    BTW, for how many Km's does the rocket burns for a missile like R-77 ? Half of the max range ?
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    Post  eridan on Sat Mar 11, 2017 2:22 pm

    Isos wrote:
    BTW, for how many Km's does the rocket burns for a missile like R-77 ? Half of the max range ?

    More like first 10-12 km, depending on velocity of the plane that launched it.
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    Post  GarryB on Sun Mar 12, 2017 7:54 am

    Just found this article where it is said that they were thinking about a R-77ME, ramjet version of the R-77M developed for Pak Fa but they chose the "solid-propellant version–roughly equivalent to the AIM-120D AMRAAM–offers greater potential in a shorter time".

    What does that mean ?

    What they mean is that the missile is already rocket propelled so giving it longer range with a rocket engine just means making the missile slightly wider and or longer and using more powerful solid rocket propellent to give it better range. This can be done fairly quickly and easily on existing production lines.

    To convert the missile to ramjet powered means scabbing air intakes on the outside and rearranging the internal bits and pieces to fit a motor and fuel and air intakes. It would require a much greater change in design that would take longer and perhaps offer higher average flight range and speed but at the cost of other problems like manouver performance induced flame outs etc.

    I would suggest that a future scramjet powered model offers much better prospects as a ramjet powered missile would be limited in top speed to around mach 5-6, whereas a scramjet powered missile has no top speed limit... it would be rather more work than a rocket powered model but the potential in terms of improved performance would be worth it.

    In other words rocket power now with something like an R-27E improved bigger rocket motor model to increase range and speed, with future models in scramjet with further increases in performance...

    The ramjet is supposed to work all the way to the target so it has better perfermances for intercepting a taget. The rocket version burns some time and then it goes unpowered so its performances are worse than those of the ramjet version.

    Indeed a ramjet model offers similar speeds to rocket powered versions but better fuel management because you can adjust the throttle to suit the situation... a high energy launch with a climb for altitude and then a long high speed cruise at a low to medium thrust setting to maintain speed and then high thrust for the terminal attack of the target. In comparison the rocket burns in two stages... high energy short burn and then medium energy long burn but is often unpowered when it reaches its target and the burn rates are fixed and cannot be changed after production.


    Why are they chosing the "normal" version then ?

    Simpler and easier and cheaper and available sooner.

    I suspect they will leave the ramjet powered model and go straight to the scramjet powered model with a from scratch design better suited to internal carriage for all types of aircraft... imagine a box shaped scramjet powered AAM with a range of 500km and an IIR seeker and a speed of mach 9 that can be carried in the PAK DA as well as PAK FA.

    BTW, for how many Km's does the rocket burns for a missile like R-77 ? Half of the max range ?

    Depends on the design... normally they have a short burn high energy fuel to accelerate the missile off the rail to get it up to speed and then a slower burning fuel layer that basically counters drag and helps the missile maintain speed.

    the first component might burn out in 5 seconds while the second component might burn for 30 seconds or more.

    Note when launched from low altitude high drag means most AAMs are not going to be mach 2 plus missiles, but their solid propellent burns at the same rate no matter what.

    At higher altitude the first burn gets the missile up to a much higher speed and so the sustainer fuel greatly extends the flight range because the missile is already moving fast.

    With a ramjet motor the throttle can be set to best efficiency and the on board fuel should be enough for a few minutes flight.
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    Post  Isos on Sun Mar 12, 2017 12:57 pm

    If I understood correctly, at the max range the missile is not powered. So the probability of kill of Rocket missiles decrease a lot at its max range as it can't manœuvre using vector thrust ?

    Why not making a third rocket part for the end of the course so that it won't be affected by this. Using just its control surface won't make it able to reach enough G's to hit a target that has 8 G.
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    Post  GarryB on Mon Mar 13, 2017 8:39 am

    Forget the hollywood movie depiction of an AAM as something that will tail chase and dogfight an aircraft.

    Air to Air missiles have control surfaces that act as lifting surfaces at very high speed but are way too small to be of any use at lower flight speeds.

    A plane at 600km/h being chased by an AIM-9 also travelling at 600km/h is perfectly safe because a Sidewinder flying at 600km/h with no fuel left will drop like a rock rapidly.


    AAMs employ slashing attacks at high speed... normally very supersonic and at that speed if they miss and fly past the target they don't have the energy to turn 180 degrees to try to hit the target again... even if they could they would not be able to reacquire the target so it would be pointless anyway.

    An R-37 falling from the sky from a lofted trajectory launch 400km distant means the missile will likely be coming down at mach 4-6... in other words one second it will be 1km away and a tiny dot in the sky and the next second it will be flashing past... not time to dodge or outmanouver... if it misses it will likely keep flying down and hit the ground before being able to turn and climb and attack again... when it is coming down it has gravity to add to its speed and energy... once past the target to turn 180 degrees takes away speed and energy... at such high speed your turning circle will be dozens of kms which means impact with the ground is the most likely result but even if it could turn and then start to climb it would rapidly lose energy because not only is there no gravity assist there is a gravity energy deduction and of course drag at low altitude too... bullets from rifles leave the muzzle at high speeds but within a few hundred metres the bullets are subsonic because air is dense at low altitude and high speed flight difficult to achieve...
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    Post  Fulcrum-35 on Sun May 21, 2017 12:44 pm

    Hello. This is my first post. I've just introduced myself in the dedicated section. I would like to raise the issue about the status of the R-74M missile program. According to my somewhat sparse knowledge, the R-74M short-range air-to-air missile is a further development of the R-73 with a new more sensitive two-band infrared Impuls-90 seeker. It features increased off-bore sight angles and digital signal processing. It completed state evaluation on October 3, 2012 and has been subsequently officially commissioned for service with the Russian Air Force. My questions are the following:
    1. Did external appearance slightly changed with respect to the R-73? I think not but I am not sure.
    2. Are there any engine improvements?
    3. Does anyone have any knowledge of the import substitution program concerning the seeker? I've heard about a follow-on version dubbed R-74M2 being tested (from Butowski I think). If this claim is corroborated, do you have any information about its national components under development?
    4. Is it still under production at Duks facilities?
    5. The same question as 4. regarding the R-73 taking into account that its Mayak-80 IR seeker is also produced and designed in Kiev's Arsenal?

    Thanks in advance for your time and answers.
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    Post  George1 on Mon Jun 05, 2017 11:02 am

    The new Russian air-to-air missile threatens US Air Force

    It can easily infect the systems of long-range radar detection and aircraft

    According to Western military experts, the new Russian long-range missile R-37M (AA-13 Arrow - NATO classification) air-to-air class poses a serious threat to US military aviation. In particular, it can easily infect the AWACS long-range radar detection and warning systems, reconnaissance and surveillance aircraft, refueling aircraft and aviation electronic suppression means. The maximum range of the R-37M is 370 km. Currently, it can be suspended at external sites of MiG-31BM interceptors. In the long term it is supposed to be used as an armament of Su-35S multifunctional fighters and fifth-generation airborne complexes T-50 (PAK FA).

    In the control and support network of the US combat aviation and NATO, accordingly, a weak point has arisen, which nullifies all the capabilities of the fifth-generation F-22 and F-35 attack aircraft, significantly reducing their range. In today's fighting, airplanes that are invisible can not do without refueling in the air and without the work of special aviation aircraft of the tactical and operational control network.

    It is also known that the Russian defense industry is developing an even more effective air-to-air missile KS-172, the range of which will be increased to 460 km.

    https://vpk.name/news/183442_novaya_rossiiskaya_raketa_klassa_vozduhvozduh_ugrozhaet_vvs_ssha.html
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    Post  eridan on Tue Nov 28, 2017 9:54 am

    Does any one have a source talking about development history of r27 missiles? Stuff found on usual English speaking websites is pretty lacking, short and without much details. For example, I can't be sure when R27T variant entered service and when R variant entered service as different sources give out different years and don't specify models...
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    Post  GarryB on Wed Nov 29, 2017 2:34 pm

    The R-27 family of missiles is enormous....

    The MiG-29 originally only carried the SARH and passive radar homing models, and only the Flanker carried the larger longer ranged R-27E models in SARH and IR guided and passive radar homing models. The Su-33 had special models designed to operate over water.

    There were also models designed for older generation aircraft like upgraded MiG-23s.

    And of course there was the active radar homing model.
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    Post  eridan on Wed Nov 29, 2017 2:42 pm

    Yeah.... so is there a trustworthy source which states when R27T was put into active service, and when R27R was was put in active service?
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    Post  Isos on Wed Nov 29, 2017 3:19 pm

    eridan wrote:Yeah.... so is there a trustworthy source which states when R27T was put into active service, and when R27R was was put in active service?

    There is no evidence that the R-27EA (whch is the active radar R-27's name) was ever put into service. It was probably developed during the same time than R-77 and so they choosed the R-77.

    But it should be a very potent missile with a range of 130km. Probably more with new motor technology and lunch by a supercruising su-35.
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    Post  nemrod on Tue Oct 16, 2018 4:46 pm

    Air to air combat, now Russia is definitely ahead against US.


    ANDREI AKULOV | 15.10.2018 | SECURITY / DEFENSE

    Russia’s New R-37M Air-to-Air Missile: Unique and Unmatched

    It has been reported recently that the Su-57 fifth-generation aircraft will be integrated with the Vympel R-37M (RVV-BD, Izdelie 610M) hypersonic anti-aircraft missile. Boris Obnosov, director of the Tactical Missiles Corporation (KTRV), has confirmed this information. The Russian Defense Ministry reported in July that the R-37M was undergoing its final tests and would soon be operational.

    The R-37M is the only one of its class to boast a range exceeding 300 km. For comparison, the US AMRAAM AIM-120D has a maximum range of over 180 km. Compared to its predecessors, the R-37M version boasts a new guidance system and reduced weight, enabling it to be installed on smaller platforms. It was initially designed to equip the upgraded MiG-31BM Foxhound interceptors. The missile is also expected to become the primary weapon of the fourth-generation Su-30s and Su-35s. If this proves true, the R-37M will be used against almost any US military aircraft in various theaters of operation worldwide.

    The system’s prime mission is to take down such assets as AWACS, JTARS, other C4ISTAR, and electronic attack and aerial-refueling aircraft, while keeping its launch platform out of range of any fighters that might be protecting the target. Weighing 60 kg, its high explosive fragmentation warhead is powerful enough to critically damage the largest aircraft.

    The missile’s maximum speed of Mach 6 (compared to the AMRAAM’s and Meteor’s Mach 4) — more than 4,500 mph — and active-seeker homing system to guide it during its terminal phase make it a threat to all fighter jets. The seeker has 2 channels — X and Ku.

    As one can see, this missile gives Russian warplanes an advantage over any NATO combat aircraft in both speed and reach. No other missile in the bloc’s current inventory can match it. Once the R-37M enters service, this will open a vulnerability gap that will remain until the US and other leading NATO members are able to put into operation the MBDA’s Meteor air-to-air missile that is currently being introduced in the Swedish Air Force.

    The R-37M can attack targets at altitudes of between 15 and 25,000 m. It can hit stealth targets, such as the F-35, at a range of 190 km. The F-35 cannot accelerate to a speed that would allow it to escape a collision with the incoming missile.

    Tracking its targets with both semi-active and active radar homing, the missile can also utilize a fire-and-forget mode, making it completely independent of its launch platform. It can destroy air targets head-on. Inertial guidance renders it invisible to radar during its midcourse flight. When active homing is activated, the pilot has only fractions of a second to take countermeasures. The R-37M’s warhead is resistant to electronic warfare and it has an off-boresight capability of 120.

    According to the Russian media, in September 2018, the missile was launched from a MiG-31BM and it intercepted an RM-75 Armavir target missile during an exercise held in the Trans-Baikal region. The Armavir was imitating a high-velocity ballistic target. Its effective radar cross section measured 0.1-0.4 sq. m. The Armavir’s speed ranged from 2,500—3,500 kmh. It took the R-37M only 5-7 seconds to intercept the target from a distance of 30 km at an altitude of roughly 9 km.

    The newest F-35 that the US military is so proud of is far from invulnerable to Russia’s latest, sophisticated surface-to-air systems. The R-37M that is integrated with at least four platforms is another threat to that stealth super aircraft. AWACS and other large planes are not stealth, and they are all relatively easy targets for a platform armed with the R-37M. At present, there is no super weapon the US can rely on in its inventory that will ensure its dominance in the air if the enemy is Russia. Air-to-air warfare is where the US has lost its lead, as the R-37M’s performance is currently unmatched. Russia’s air-to-air missiles outperform any US analogs in terms of both range and speed.

    https://www.strategic-culture.org/news/2018/10/15/russia-new-r37m-air-air-missile-unique-unmatched.html


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    Post  dino00 on Fri Apr 12, 2019 12:26 pm


    Over 360 air-to-air missiles will be received by the Russian Aerospace Forces this year.


    Moscow. 12th of April. INTERFAX - The aerospace forces of the Russian Federation received 140 air-to-air missiles from the beginning of the year, until November 222 more missiles will be delivered, said Nikolai Gusev, director general of the Moscow State Design Bureau Vympel, at the Unified Day of Acceptance of Military Products.
    "Our company, within the framework of fulfilling the tasks of the state defense order in 2019, manufactured and delivered 140 medium-range guided missiles for the needs of the Aerospace Forces. Until November 10, 2019, another 222 missiles of this type are planned to be delivered," N. Gusev said.

    https://www.militarynews.ru/story.asp?rid=1&nid=506047&lang=RU
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    Post  GarryB on Fri Apr 12, 2019 2:26 pm

    @Fulcrum 35, I did read your post, but don't have any answers.


    AFAIK the Russians have done with their AAMs what they are doing with everything else... developing upgrades of existing models and also developing new generation weapons to replace existing models.

    I would expect the new generation AAMs will be developed for the Su-57 for internal carriage and to engage stealthy and non stealthy targets, so likely using a combination of guidance methods to defeat stealth technology.

    I believe a Russian weapons company said something along the lines of they were introducing 14 new types of missile this year and next, and that that included AAMs for the Su-57... so it should be interesting...
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    Post  George1 on Fri Apr 12, 2019 2:34 pm

    GarryB wrote:@Fulcrum 35, I did read your post, but don't have any answers.


    AFAIK the Russians have done with their AAMs what they are doing with everything else... developing upgrades of existing models and also developing new generation weapons to replace existing models.

    I would expect the new generation AAMs will be developed for the Su-57 for internal carriage and to engage stealthy and non stealthy targets, so likely using a combination of guidance methods to defeat stealth technology.

    I believe a Russian weapons company said something along the lines of they were introducing 14 new types of missile this year and next, and that that included AAMs for the Su-57... so it should be interesting...

    its 2 years before..
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    Post  GarryB on Sat Apr 13, 2019 7:48 am

    Yup, I know.

    This is not a topic that would move very much as information on Russian and Soviet AAMs is not so easy to come by.
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    Post  Arrow on Sat Apr 13, 2019 12:17 pm

    Can the R-37M intercept high maneuvering targets over long distances?
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    Post  dino00 on Sat Apr 13, 2019 12:59 pm

    Arrow wrote:Can the R-37M intercept high maneuvering targets over long distances?

    The export downgraded version 200km 8g, so yes.
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    Post  LMFS on Sat Apr 13, 2019 1:51 pm

    dino00 wrote:The export downgraded version 200km 8g, so yes.
    Enough against any naval fighter and most conventional ones if you consider flight normal flight altitudes. But with 60 kg warhead it is not like you need an absolute direct hit...
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    Post  dino00 on Sat Apr 13, 2019 2:47 pm

    LMFS wrote:
    dino00 wrote:The export downgraded version 200km 8g, so yes.
    Enough against any naval fighter and most conventional ones if you consider flight normal flight altitudes. But with 60 kg warhead it is not like you need an absolute direct hit...

    I agree, I just said that the export version is capable to destroy a fighter at long ranges, so the Russian version is even better, that's my answear to Arrow question
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    Post  LMFS on Sun Apr 14, 2019 5:26 am

    dino00 wrote:I agree, I just said that the export version is capable to destroy a fighter at long ranges, so the Russian version is even better, that's my answear to Arrow question
    Sure, was just corroborating that such performance is more than enough as I see it.
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    Post  GarryB on Sun Apr 14, 2019 7:54 am

    The missile will use a lofted trajectory for long range attacks and therefore will be diving steeply on the target, probably at speeds of mach 4-6, so if you think of a target that point on would be the size of a dinner plate that covers ground so quick that one second before impact it will be about 1km away and the next second it will be blowing past your aircraft so fast your eye could probably not follow it, with an explosive on board designed to damage rather large much stronger aircraft than the one you are in...

    It is primarily intended to shoot down large aircraft like bombers and AWACS or JSTARS or inflight refuelling tankers or indeed troop transports, as they would be much easier to detect and track, but its active radar homing system should detect most targets from an almost vertical dive onto them and its ability to turn allows it to hit a manouvering target.

    As mentioned it can hit targets pulling 8 gs, but they have to be the right gs.

    If you can imagine an R-73 is launched at a target to the left of the launch aircraft...that is coming towards the launch aircraft and is going past... so the target is flying straight and level but to intercept the target the missile is no launched directly at the target so the first thing it has to do is turn hard to its left to turn around towards the target and continue to turn past the target because it makes no sense to fly at the target, because the target is moving... so the missile has to keep turning left till it is heading for a point in space in front of the target... the distance is determined by the speed of the target and the speed of the missile so they both get to the same place at the same time.

    If the target detects the missile launch and the target pilot realises the missile is having to turn hard... instead of keeping on flying level and straight... he can make the job of the missile much much harder by turning in to the missile so it has to turn even harder to its left.

    Now if the two aircraft were ten kms apart and the missile was fired at roughly where the interception point is then the target could turn in any direction and the missile could out turn it, because the R-73 can out turn a 12 g target, so it can turn really hard in any direction.

    If it is already turning really hard then its ability to outturn the target is greatly reduced so even a 4g turn by the target might make the missile miss on the first pass... and the R-73 does not have a 180 degree field of view so once it is out turned and goes past the target it can't turn around and reacquire the target... if it could then there is a chance in this scenario that the target might have turned around behind the launch aircraft and the missile locks on to the aircraft that launched it.

    An R-37M falling from a great height at very high speed with a large wide angle seeker with a good long detection range (I think I read up to 50km for that missile seeker) means the missile should be easily able to centre the target in its field of view and steer to a point in front of the target as an interception point and then accelerate down towards it... able to adjust its flight path fairly easily and quickly if needed.

    The fact that it is designed to hit 8g targets means it is designed to hit fighters as well as big heavy targets... a B-52 would break apart and crash trying to pull 3 gs, let alone 8.

    Of course there is nothing in existence that could be called a Hittile... they are all Missiles... so their chance against a fighter sized aircraft would be OK but not amazing... probably 40-50 percent PK, rising to 80-90 for big non manouvering aircraft... especially ones like troop transports and tankers and JSTARs and even AWACs that probably wont even see them coming till it is too late.
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    Post  dino00 on Tue May 28, 2019 11:26 pm

    “Old men” go into battle: fighters will arm missiles for duels

    The superiority of Russian aircraft in the air will provide upgraded R-27


    R-27 air-to-air missiles will be given a second life. This munition was developed for the destruction of manned aircraft in a maneuverable battle, and today is much outdated. Therefore, the rocket has recently been modified using modern technology, becoming a universal medium-range precision weapon. Now the R-27 is capable of hitting complex targets, including cruise missiles, drones and fifth-generation aircraft. Its use will provide Russian fighters with superiority in duel battles, experts are sure.

    The first serial batch of upgraded missiles will go into service with the Aerospace Forces by the end of this year, several sources told the Izvestia news source in the Ministry of Defense. The first samples of the upgraded missiles were tested during an operation in Syria on Su-30SM and Su-35 fighters. The main modern aircraft carrier R-27 will be these winged cars. They can also be used on the Su-27, Su-33, Su-34 and MiG-29, the interlocutors in the military department said.

    Once, the R-27 was significantly ahead of its time, the former commander of the 4th Army of the Air Force and Air Defense, Hero of Russia, Lieutenant-General Valery Gorbenko, told Izvestia. That is why the rocket is still in service.

    - It has good potential, the rocket has a successful design, the warhead works reliably. The homing head can be modified to meet modern technologies, which will significantly improve the accuracy. And after increasing the energy intensity of the launch, the rocket will become longer-range, says Valery Gorbenko.

    The rocket will receive an updated control system and guidance. Modern electronics greatly facilitates aiming, which allows the pilot to pay more attention to piloting the aircraft. Guidance is performed automatically by radio emission. There is also a semi-automatic mode - in this case, the pilot will mark the target.

    In addition, a new fuel charge has been developed for the rocket, which will give the munition an increased energy potential. The upgraded R-27 will be able to shoot down cruise missiles and fifth-generation aircraft.

    The missiles of the R-27P and R-27R series will also be upgraded - they are designed to hit air targets at any time of the day or night in adverse weather conditions. They can also be used during air combat, when the enemy’s aircraft maneuvers and puts up active interference to the radar, thereby covering up its actions. The R-27R is a medium-range missile with an inertial-type control system. The guidance system includes a semi-active radar unit that is activated at the finish of the flight.

    The homing head R-27P1 includes a combination of active radar and inertial correction system. These nodes are activated alternately depending on the phase of flight. The target designation of the missile receives from the radars of the carrier aircraft or ground-based radar. The control system operates according to the “let-forget” principle, ensuring the information secrecy of the attack.

    The length of the rockets exceeds 4700 mm, the starting weight is up to 350 kg, they are equipped with a solid-fuel engine and a high-explosive warhead with 39 kg of explosive. The maximum launch range is 110 km.

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      Current date/time is Thu Sep 19, 2019 6:17 pm