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    Russian PESA and AESA Radars

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    SerbNationalist

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    Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  SerbNationalist on Thu May 05, 2011 4:46 pm

    Tell me Garry, what is the difference between PESA and AESA, which is better? Sorry for the question but trying to learn that stuff, am really interested in it.
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    Stealthflanker

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  Stealthflanker on Thu May 05, 2011 9:47 pm

    SerbNationalist wrote:Tell me Garry, what is the difference between PESA and AESA, which is better? Sorry for the question but trying to learn that stuff, am really interested in it.

    Related to PESA or AESA , the primary differences between them is their power source , PESA RADAR uses Single transmitter to transmit their beam , their Antenna elements contains no "Active" elements, only Phase Shifters for their electronic Scanning .

    Example is Irbis-E RADAR which uses 2 Travelling Wave Tube to form its transmitter system, it's antenna contains nothing but a beam steering controller and phase shifters .

    as for AESA every antenna elements mounted on it have their own transmitter in shape of MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) along with power amplifier , thus every element can transmit power by itself , and those devices are mounted in the Antenna (PESA transmitter is NOT in the Antenna but in separate module/LRU) .

    as for AESA Vs PESA comparison , the primary advantages held by AESA over PESA is in the Reliability of the transmitter, PESA transmitter (Travelling Wave Tube, Klystrons, Magnetrons ) are usually "short lived" due to the fact that they often handle very high amount of Microwave power in often very confined or small space, like say fighter RADAR's , their MTBF (mean Time Between Failure) is somewhere between 200-300 Hrs , and can be as low as 5 hours (early Su-27's N001 Myech RADAR's) once the transmitter fail , the entire RADAR will cease to function .

    AESA RADAR in other hand , since MMIC modules handle lower power (5 watts till some 100 watts) their reliability is higher , APG-79 MMIC T/R Modules may last with MTBF up to some 20.000 Hours , another advantage is since each modules have its own transmitter, failure of some modules may not hamper the RADAR's performance, however there is a "safe limit" of 10% .. more than it entire RADAR's may fail .

    as for PESA type RADAR, the primary advantages over AESA is price .. AESA is EXPENSIVE.. cost of the AESA  can up to millions of $ , primarily determined by emitted power and numbers of transmit and receive modules  .

    You can try calculate it using following equation, for generalized phased Array system (AESA or PESA) :

    Ch=Ct*Nt+Cpav*Pav*Nt+Cr*Nr


    Ch=Cost of Hardware ($)
    Ct=Cost of Transmitter module
    Nt=Number of Transmitters
    Pav=Average emitted power (PPeak*Duty Cycle)
    Cr=Cost of Receiver Module
    Nr= Number of Receivers
    Cpav=Cost of producing average power (U$/watt)

    Let's have an example.. now we have AESA RADAR with 2000 T/R Modules with peak power of 20 Kilowatts and duty cycle of typical Russian fighter jets (25%), cost of the T/R modules is U$ 500  

    In the other hand we have a PESA RADAR with single transmitter having 2 Travelling wave tube each delivering 10Kw of power thus Peak power of the RADAR's is 20Kw .. cost of the transmitter is U$ 250.000 , the PESA have 2000 receive module with cost of U$ 300 each .

    duty cycle is same .

    cost of producing average power for both RADAR is assumed to be the same U$ 0,1/watt

    so which one is cheaper ?

    AESA RADAR
    Pav= 20.000 watt* 0.25 = 5000 Watt
    Cost of AESA : U$ 3.000.000

    PESA RADAR
    Pav= same as above (5000 watts)
    Cost of PESA : U$ 850.500

    the PESA RADAR with same power and same duty cycle comes in much cheaper .

    perhaps that is why SAM engagement RADAR's which may consist of some 10.000 antenna modules uses PESA scheme instead AESA.
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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  SerbNationalist on Fri May 06, 2011 1:27 am

    Stealthflanker wrote:
    SerbNationalist wrote:Tell me Garry, what is the difference between PESA and AESA, which is better? Sorry for the question but trying to learn that stuff, am really interested in it.

    Related to PESA or AESA , the primary differences between them is their power source , PESA RADAR uses Single transmitter to transmit their beam , their Antenna elements contains no "Active" elements, only Phase Shifters for their electronic Scanning .

    Example is Irbis-E RADAR which uses 2 Travelling Wave Tube to form its transmitter system, it's antenna contains nothing but a beam steering controller and phase shifters .

    as for AESA every antenna elements mounted on it have their own transmitter in shape of MMIC (Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit) along with power amplifier , thus every element can transmit power by itself , and those devices are mounted in the Antenna (PESA transmitter is NOT in the Antenna but in separate module/LRU) .

    as for AESA Vs PESA comparison , the primary advantages held by AESA over PESA is in the Reliability of the transmitter, PESA transmitter (Travelling Wave Tube, Klystrons, Magnetrons ) are usually "short lived" due to the fact that they often handle very high amount of Microwave power in often very confined or small space, like say fighter RADAR's , their MTBF (mean Time Between Failure) is somewhere between 200-300 Hrs , and can be as low as 5 hours (early Su-27's N001 Myech RADAR's) once the transmitter fail , the entire RADAR will cease to function .

    AESA RADAR in other hand , since MMIC modules handle lower power (5 watts till some 100 watts) their reliability is higher , APG-79 MMIC T/R Modules may last with MTBF up to some 20.000 Hours , another advantage is since each modules have its own transmitter, failure of some modules may not hamper the RADAR's performance, however there is a "safe limit" of 10% .. more than it entire RADAR's may fail .

    as for PESA type RADAR, the primary advantages over AESA is price .. AESA is EXPENSIVE.. cost of the AESA  can up to millions of $ , primarily determined by emitted power and numbers of transmit and receive modules  .

    You can try calculate it using following equation, for generalized phased Array system (AESA or PESA) :

    Ch=Ct*Nt+Cpav*Pav*Nt+Cr*Nr


    Ch=Cost of Hardware ($)
    Ct=Cost of Transmitter module
    Nt=Number of Transmitters
    Pav=Average emitted power (PPeak*Duty Cycle)
    Cr=Cost of Receiver Module
    Nr= Number of Receivers
    Cpav=Cost of producing average power (U$/watt)

    Let's have an example.. now we have AESA RADAR with 2000 T/R Modules with peak power of 20 Kilowatts and duty cycle of typical Russian fighter jets (25%), cost of the T/R modules is U$ 500  

    In the other hand we have a PESA RADAR with single transmitter having 2 Travelling wave tube each delivering 10Kw of power thus Peak power of the RADAR's is 20Kw .. cost of the transmitter is U$ 250.000 , the PESA have 2000 receive module with cost of U$ 300 each .

    duty cycle is same .

    cost of producing average power for both RADAR is assumed to be the same U$ 0,1/watt

    so which one is cheaper ?

    AESA RADAR
    Pav= 20.000 watt* 0.25 = 5000 Watt
    Cost of AESA : U$ 3.000.000

    PESA RADAR
    Pav= same as above (5000 watts)
    Cost of PESA : U$ 850.500

    the PESA RADAR with same power and same duty cycle comes in much cheaper .

    perhaps that is why SAM engagement RADAR's which may consist of some 10.000 antenna modules uses PESA scheme instead AESA.



    First of all I never mind, it would be nice to come and read this topic tomorrow and find 50 more responses from different people.  Very Happy
    Second, thank you for that post, it is very educational and is something I looked forward to!
    So generally they have the same effectiveness? I mean they both have the same quality in waging war. PESA will need more maintenance and more spare parts in high level battles while AESA will need less but costs over 3 times more than PESA? They are both LPI (Low Probability of Interception) if I'm not mistaken, and they more or less have the same performance? If I'm not mistaken most if not all AD systems use PESA? I'm guessing that in combat it is as reliable as AESA, just needs more maintenance and spare parts?
    I said as reliable having in mind that strategy will be multiple radars scanning areas when they spot groups or individual targets they track, then they shut down and leave the job for Buk's guidance PESA radar's, guidance radars work for few seconds until they launch (for ARH) or few extra seconds while they guide the target if its SARH! I knew that every Buk has its on radar I just didn't know weather they were PESA or something else.
    And since I really love Buk, I'm interested in your opinion would a good combo be something like AESA radars for surveillance and acquisition radars and PESA as guidance radars, and of course a good command and control center...mobile of course_!
    Thank you in advance and sorry for being boring, I just really like Buk and want to learn everything about it, and I also like radars, and am about to serve on one in few months when I report for military duty after I'm done with college!
    And by Buk I always mean M2 or M2E or M3, although no one knows anything exact about the M#, just guesses and small info that has been released.
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    GarryB

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  GarryB on Fri May 06, 2011 4:29 am

    Tell me Garry, is Buk equipped with an AESA radar, or if it isn't, can
    it be equipped? And by Buk I mean do TELARS have it, I know that it can
    be used as a surveillance radar! And tell me what is the difference
    between PESA and AESA, which is better? Sorry for the question but
    trying to learn that stuff, am really interested in it.

    The difference between Kub and Buk is cost... having a radar on every TEL made the system much more capable and much more survivable, but also much more expensive.

    PESA and AESA are both electronically scanned arrays and share many advantages over mechanically scanned radar.
    AESA is best but expensive. PESA is 70% as good and much cheaper. In terms of guiding missiles all the advantages of low sidelobes is shared by both ESAs.
    PESA is much cheaper.

    Interesting , Source ?

    That book that I mentioned that showed the US turned off civilian GPS over Georgia during the conflict in 2008 to make it harder for the Russians (the Georgians were using military navstar receivers) mentioned it from memory, or it might have been in a CAST article... I will have a look.

    Related to PESA or AESA , the primary differences between them is their
    power source , PESA RADAR uses Single transmitter to transmit their beam
    , their Antenna elements contains no "Active" elements, only Phase
    Shifters for their electronic Scanning .

    In many ways the difference is like the difference between having a grid array of lenses with optical fibres leading to a single bulb where the bulb can electronically send light down one or all of the fibres to shine light in a different area. It can electronically scan the field of view in milli seconds and then examine the results.

    That is a PESA.

    An AESA is a grid array of flashlights where each has the power to transmit and receive light. Obviously it is an order of magnitude more expensive and complicated but each element can do some preliminary processing to reduce noise and lower power settings can be used.

    perhaps that is why SAM engagement RADAR's which may consist of some 10.000 antenna modules uses PESA scheme instead AESA.

    To add to this the Russians have been using PESA radars for 30 years and have improved them over time so their performance is actually very impressive. Their technology with regard to AESA radar antennas is much more limited and "new".
    In performance terms a Russian PESA vs a Russian AESA the Russian PESA is probably a better choice for now and not just because of cost. A Good PESA is likely better than an average AESA.

    The Russians have invested a lot of money and effort into AESA technology and some of the PESA technology can certainly be applied to AESAs so they are not starting from square one.

    Soon next gen SAMs and ships and aircraft etc will be fitted with AESAs as standard.

    So generally they have the same effectiveness? I mean they both have the same quality in waging war.

    Think of it in terms of stealth. For some roles... like air policing duties or intercepting unescorted bombers stealth is pretty pointless. For other duties like penetrating enemy air defences, or shooting down enemy fighter aircraft stealth is pretty useful to have... though C4IR and net centricity and situational awareness is just as important.

    The thing is that PESA is almost as good as AESA and most of the time it is good enough. There are some roles where AESA makes a real difference... for instance using powerful radar emissions as jammers is much easier with 2,000 emitters than with one emitter through 2,000 lenses.

    AESAs tend to be better in low probability intercept modes (LPI) where very low energy beams are used to scan and track targets using different frequencies and wave shapes to find different targets. The use of the right frequency and the right wave shape means you look sharper... the alternative is raw power which makes your scan or track signal like a lighthouse beam to a man with a pair of binoculars.

    Because each of the antenna elements is a complete transmit receive module it can form complex signals and process the return signal to remove noise and unwanted data, which means less powerful emissions are required and the correct signal can be used to get the best data on the target.

    For instance some radar frequencies bounce off rain clouds and are used by weather radars to monitor weather... other frequencies go through clouds and moisture but tend to bounce off the ground and aircraft. Different materials reflect different frequencies differently... and of course there is Doppler shift which will tell you if the target is moving and in which direction.
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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  SerbNationalist on Fri May 06, 2011 7:27 pm

    Tell me is PESA considered an LPI (Low Probability of Interception)radar? (question inspired by your comment on side lobes, which is the characteristic of LPI radars, low side lobes ) I know that SAM's don't need jamming capabilities, but LPi is very important these days, that's why I asked about AESA and PESA.
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    GarryB

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    Buk PESA and AESA

    Post  GarryB on Sat May 07, 2011 12:51 am

    Low (energy) side lobes is a feature of ESA radars, so both PESA and AESA radars benefit.

    In many ways sensor fusion can offer LPI modes to any radar in the sense that the combination of an IRST with any type of radar means that a target that is detected by the IRST can be tracked by a radar without needing a full field of view scan or high energy pulse.

    For a conventional dish radar to find targets it transmits radar beams and mechanically scans one side to the other top to bottom or bottom to top. As it transmits it listens for return signals so the scan has to be slow enough to allow the signal to go out and come back from the target.

    With an AESA or PESA each element covers an area of the field of view so to scan the entire FOV at once you just turn the elements on and off and then listen for the return signal.

    In both cases the return signals for targets are remembered and to "track" the target you occasionally send another pulse in the area of sky the target was to see if it is still there or if it has moved.

    With an IRST detecting targets the radar no longer needs to scan and send out energy in random directions that can be detected by an enemy... the IRST finds the target but cannot give a precise range so using the angular information from the IRST the radar can send a tracking pulse directly at the target and get range and speed and other information in a single fraction of a second pulse that might be missed by the enemy in the noise of other radars and jammers etc.
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    Cyberspec

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  Cyberspec on Wed Feb 06, 2013 1:44 am

    From the Feb. issue Take Off mag...

    The MiG-31BMs upgraded in Phase I (i.e. furnished with the improved Zaslon radar and an advanced cockpit display system at the backseater’s combat station) have been fielded with combat units.

    In December 2012, successful launches of new long- and medium range air-to-air missiles crowned the Phase II trials.

    The official tests report is to be approved in the near future, and aircraft upgraded this way will start fielding with line units too.

    And this on the Irbis...

    Will you dwell on the Irbis radar that is surely the summit of the passive electronically scanned radar technology?

    You are right, the Irbis is second to none in the world, indeed, as far as its test-proven characteristics are concerned. Last year, the fight trials involving the Su-35 fighter produced the unique aerial target acquisition results – much more than 400 km!

    This is the unrivalled achievement of the world’s aircraft

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  Mindstorm on Wed Feb 06, 2013 3:23 pm

    .....Last year, the fight trials involving the Su-35 fighter produced the unique aerial target acquisition results – much more than 400 km!
    This is the unrivalled achievement of the world’s aircraft



    Professor Yuri Bely has, since several years, pointed out the outstanding tracking performances of "Irbis" radar and how them was largely head of the most advanced foreign competitors.


    That is what it wrote about range comparison with AESA radars mounted on USAF F-15s and the future AESA (AN-APG-81) to be mounted of F-35:


    При этом ряд заявленных характеристик не только не уступает, но и превосходит характеристики лучших зарубежных аналогов.
    Так, заявленная в ТТЗ системы «Ирбис-Э» дальность обнаружения малоразмерной воздушной цели класса «истребитель» значительно превосходит аналогичные характеристики зарубежных аналогов. Обнаружение адекватного противника (истребителя) станцией AN/APG-62(V)1 модернизированного самолёта F-15C составляет 100-120 км, а модификации с БРЛС, снабжённой АФАР (AESA) - 160 км. Более «продвинутая» станция с АФАР многофункционального истребителя F-35 (JSF) может работать в см-диапазоне на дальности 170-180 км.


    That is comparison with the most advanced western fighter aircraft mounted radar (AN-APG-77) and how the interaction with relative average RCS of the two aircraft would influence relative detection ranges.


    Интересно сравнить «дуэльные» возможности авиационных комплексов Су-27СМ2 (Су-35) и F-22A «Сухой», оснащенный «Ирбисом», может обнаружить цель с ЭПР 0.1-0.5 м2 (приблизительно в этом интервале лежит величина эффективной радиолокационной поверхности рассеяния малозаметного самолета Локхид Мартин F/A-22A) на дистанции 165-240 км.
    В то же время, американский истребитель «видит» своего противника с ЭПР 1 м2 на дистанции лишь 200 км (Jane's All the World's Aircraft 2005-2006). Таким образом, малозаметный «Рэптор» со своей АФАР по части бортового радиолокационного комплекса не имеет никаких реальных преимуществ перед модернизированным «Сухим» в ракетном воздушном бою на «вневизуальной» дальности


    Is interesting to note that the precise requirements ,by part of MoD, for "Irbis" not only for similar tracking performances but also to being capable to engage, contemporaneously, up to four air targets with very long range missiles ( ranges superior to 300 km Wink ) and the plan to equip modernized TU-22M3M with that radar suggest a possible employment of those long range supersonic bombers also in the critical role of surveillance assets useful at discover and pass the position of inbound groups of cruise missiles even while carrying out their own missile delivery attack missions

    The integration of similar radar (likely also improved in the next years) in improved TU-22M3M would confer to them a real and critical dual-role attack/defense capability , exploiting to the maximum theirs high speed and optional low altitude flight profile capability .

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  Cyberspec on Thu Feb 07, 2013 3:22 am

    Good info there guys...and thanks Mindstorm for the radar range comparison.


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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  Mindstorm on Thu Feb 07, 2013 6:39 pm

    Good info there guys...and thanks Mindstorm for the radar range comparison.


    What i think is even more important to point out ,starting from those data, is how "low observability" ,IN REALITY, contribute to confer to a fighter aircraft implementing it a decisive tactical advantage against enemy aircraft equipped with radar suit with "standard" tracking range capabilities. (it is very different from the fairy tales circulating on the subject).



    In a "Classical" USAF exercise an F-22 is put against an F-15C ; them start in a route of recyprocal interception ,let put, 450 km away.


    F-22 with few controlled pulses of its AN-APG-77 radar is capable to detect an F-15C more than 300km far , on its side an F-15 equipped with legacy AN-APG-63(V)1 (which would very likely alert F-22's AN/ALR-94 from second one) with its 120 km co-altitude closing detection range -5 square meters target - would detect an F-22 at less than 43 km ; one equipped with a (V2) or (V3) AESA radar would, very likely, still be incapable to detect the "Raptor" before 80-85 km range.

    F-22 ,maintaining track of the precise vector of the opposing F-15C (or F-15Cs, if it is a "one vs many" exercise) with its AN-ALR-94 and/or disciplined employment of its AN-APG-77 AESA radar ,can at this point capitalize this huge detection range advantage and its crushingly superior dynamic performances to literally circumvent the cone of coverage footprint of F-15's AN-APG-63 main radar attacking so the "enemy" with AIM-120s delivered at very high speed, high altitude and relatively rear close range and egressing quickly ; all of that from well outside the radar field of view of the "unaware" F-15s attacked .



    Is in THIS WAY that low observable aircraft achieve theirs kills..... "without that the enemy was even only aware to being under attack"; it represent simply the exploitation of a decisive tactical advantage offered by stealth ,but obviously nothing to do with the laughable fairy tales usually circulating on the subject Wink


    Anyone now can realize how the interaction of the Irbis-E much greater tracking range (almost totally offsetting by itself the difference in tactically relevant RCS between the two aircraft) and its capability to combine E-scanning with mechanical steering to enormously expand the field of view, render the up mentioned tactic totally unfeasible (naturally the RCS of the stealth aircraft while executing the outflanking maneuver previously described grow substantially , therefore in order to succeed low observable aircraft must enjoy an enormous detection range advantage over its opponent.)


    It is also the main reason for integration of all around sensor suit (or at least exapanded Field of View AESA radars ,like for the EF Thyphoon CAESAR ) in all latest design expected to "cross the arms" with enemy low observable aircraft in the next years.






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    From the Feb. issue Take Off mag...

    Post  Austin on Fri Feb 08, 2013 10:05 am

    Mindstorm how does Irbis radar differ from the AESA radar of PAK-FA becuause the MKI upgrade is also suppose to get AESA radar from PAK-FA.
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    sepheronx

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    Russian PESA and AESA Radars development

    Post  sepheronx on Thu Jun 13, 2013 2:54 am

    Question regarding PESA vs AESA

    I know Irbis-E is a very powerful PESA, but besides its detection/tracking ranges, how does it fair compare to its competitors that are in AESA form?  As well, since it lacks LPI mode, is it not easier to track an aircraft using PESA vs one using AESA?  As well, due to AESA's better ECM capabilities, how did Russia improve Irbis-E's ECM capabilities over that of the Bars radar?
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    Morpheus Eberhardt

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    Question regarding PESA vs AESA

    Post  Morpheus Eberhardt on Fri Jun 14, 2013 2:38 am

    sepheronx wrote:Question regarding PESA vs AESA

    I know Irbis-E is a very powerful PESA, but besides its detection/tracking ranges, how does it fair compare to its competitors that are in AESA form?  As well, since it lacks LPI mode, is it not easier to track an aircraft using PESA vs one using AESA?  As well, due to AESA's better ECM capabilities, how did Russia improve Irbis-E's ECM capabilities over that of the Bars radar?




    As far as I can remember Ирбис-Э (Irbis-Eh) is not a PESA; it is not an AESA either. ESAs do not consist of only PESAs and AESAs; there are many other types of ESA radar types.


    Irbis-Eh can be classified as ~((3A + P)/4)ESA if a person insists on carrying on from a PESA/AESA type of terminology! As far as I can remember, it is semiactive in transmit and active on receive.


    In relation to LPI-capability and ECM resistance, an Irbis-Eh-type radar is indistinguishable from an AESA type.


    Academically speaking, one of the thing that has the potential of distinguishing a run-of-the-mill AESA from an Irbis-Eh-type radar (not necessarily an Irbis-Eh though) is the potential reliability aspects related to the lifetime of the transmitter TWT(s).


    I should also mention that an Irbis-Eh-type radar has potentially also advantages over a run-of the-mill AESA in certain areas.
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    Giulio

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    Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  Giulio on Sat Nov 08, 2014 5:32 pm

    Hello.
    I'm sorry, but I do not have time to read all the forums.
    By dint of reading in the West about the supposed "backwardness" of Russia, I would like to hear some other bells.
    In short, could you explain briefly what a PESA radar and what an AESA radar are and, above all: is it true that the first AESA radar was on a Mig-31? Thanks for the replies.
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    sepheronx

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  sepheronx on Sat Nov 08, 2014 7:41 pm

    Giulio wrote:Hello.
    I'm sorry, but I do not have time to read all the forums.
    By dint of reading in the West about the supposed "backwardness" of Russia, I would like to hear some other bells.
    In short, could you explain briefly what a PESA radar and what an AESA radar are and, above all: is it true that the first AESA radar was on a Mig-31? Thanks for the replies.

    PESA

    AESA

    In short, PESA is a consentration of energy at a single point that produces a massive beam.  AESA is where you got multiple transmitters creating a beam.  Advantage of AESA is that it is harder to fight against in terms of electronic warfare and pick up its transmissions.  PESA is a lot simpler to make and cheaper too.  As well, what is not mentioned, is that PESA tends to be more accurate in its readings due to high amount of power concentrated at one point.  Problem is that it is easier to pick up its transmissions and easier to combat in EW. In modern times, most aircrafts are equipped with ECM/ECCM subsystems so that can counter this issue.

    MiG-31 radar is PESA radar.  Zaslon radar.

    Irbis-E radar is a hybrid radar (bit of both worlds).

    Phazotron has its Zhuk-A series of AESA radar and Tikhomirov NIIP has their Byelka radar which is AESA.  Zhuk-A has already been tested and flown in the MiG-29M2 for India and is being placed on Ka-52K helicopters.  Byelka is being made for PAK FA and has already been tested/flown.  Possibly can be used as well for current gen aircrafts as well.

    Ground based AESA radar systems are apparently different.  Russia has various ones, one being the NEBO SVU radar.
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    magnumcromagnon

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Sun May 03, 2015 2:23 am

    Unbelievable, Viktor and GarryB will love this! Rostec just dropped a bombshell the size of the Tsar Bomba!!! As I already pointed out the strategic importance to develop 'Photonics' (lasers replacing electrons in electronics, a field backed by the Foundation for Strategic Studies). This Rostec article recognizes that the domestic electronics industry is significantly behind the West, and also the strategic importance in jumping ahead of everyone in the field of 'Photonics'. It documents the potential of 'Photonics' when it's fully developed, and the success of KRET developing the field photonics and it's application in radars, with very promising results in the field while it's in it's infancy.


    Some VERY important data points in the article:

    1.) Electronics based on photonics will have decreased the need for 'servers' down to 1/100th the current level, and will increase the data transfer rate by 10 fold!

    2.) When fully mature photonics will allow truck based radars to have the same power, resolution, and capability as massive OTH radars!

    3.) KRET's early work in radiophotonics (photonics based radars) are incredibly promising. Developments in the field while it's in it's infancy allows airborne radars (AEW while based on photonics) weight to be cut down 1/2 the current weight, and increased the resolution by 10 fold!

    4.) Photonic based radars will have it's ECM resistance grow by several orders of magnitude! Will be heavily resistant to electro-magnetic storms...

    5.) By the 2020's photonic based AESA radars will grow by leaps and bounds in capability. The weight of AESA radar will be cut down by 1.5 to 3 times, increase the reliability and efficiency by 2 to 3 times, and increase the scanning speed and resolution by several dozen times that of contemporary AESA radars!

    6.) Photonics can also be effectively applied in housing, for example, in urban and rural heating systems. Instead of hot water energy photons will be used. They will be distributed in photonic crystal fibers with a thickness of human hair, the energy of which is converted into heat with almost 100% efficiency!

    KRET creates a laboratory for research in Photonics

    The group has been developing radar and EW systems based on new technologies



    In recent years, electronic systems all often replaced on the photon. Linked it in the first turn with a different physical nature of the photon. That same is a photon and what unique capabilities of military technology will provide a new direction – believe that radio Photonics?

    Faster electron

    Photonics is essentially analogue electronics, are used instead of electrons are quanta of the electromagnetic field – photons. These are the most common number of particles in the Universe, unlike electrons, do not have mass and charge. Therefore, photonic systems are not affected by external electromagnetic fields, have much better transmission range and bandwidth of the signal.

    As a field of science Photonics began in 1960 with the invention of the first important technical devices using photons, laser. The very term "Photonics" began to be widely used in the 1980-ies in connection with the beginning of widespread use of optical fiber transmission. By the way, in our country the first development of such fiber optic cables engaged in the design Bureau of the cable industry, now part of KRET.

    We can say that these developments have made a revolution in telecommunications in the last century and became the basis for the development of the Internet. Actually, until about 2001 Photonics was largely focused on the telecommunications.

    Today "telecommunication" Photonics helps in the creation of a new direction – radio Photonics, which arose from the fusion of electronics, wave optics, microwave optoelectronics and other fields of science and industrial production.

    In other words, believe that radio Photonics deals with the problems of transmission, reception and transformation of information by using electromagnetic waves of microwave range and photonic devices and systems. Believe that radio Photonics allows you to create radio frequency devices with the options that are unattainable for traditional electronics.

    Modern radio apparatus moves in the optical range, and ignoring this fact often leads to very serious consequences. For example, initially in the design of information and telecommunication, service and technical networks of the super-Jumbo A380 were not included photonic network. Used aluminum cable, and its length was more than 500 km away. This has led to serious problems on Board the aircraft. For their decision required a full replacement of all cable networks on each side of which was built for the A380. The result – two years of delays and almost 5 billion euros in financial losses, and the largest Corporation narrowly escaped financial collapse.



    Radiophony breakthrough

    In microelectronics Russia, as you know, behind the Western countries. It is through technologies in the field of radio Photonics invited to compete. Today Russian scientists in the sphere of defense technologies consider it impossible to give up electrons and to pay attention to the photons which have no mass and fly faster.

    According to experts, servers, operating on the principles of Photonics, decreased a hundred times compared to the current, and the data transfer rate would be increased tenfold.

    Or, for example, a ground radar station. Today, this radar is a multi-storey building, but if you start to believe that radio Photonics work, then the station can be installed on a conventional truck. The efficiency and range will be exactly the same – thousands of kilometers. Several mobile and small complexes can be combined into a network, which will increase characteristics of these radars.


    Believe that radio Photonics instead of electronics

    Photonic technologies will significantly expand the capabilities and airborne radars. New developments in this area more than twice reduce the weight of existing antennas and radars, tenfold increase their resolution. Also radiophonic antennas will be a unique resistance to electromagnetic pulses, which occur, for example, during close lightning strikes or when solar magnetic storms.

    All this will create a broadband radars that level of resolution and speed can be called radar vision. Such system is also planned in the civil sphere, for example, on high-speed trains for instant detection of obstacles on the tracks.

    Photonics can also be effectively applied in housing, for example, in urban and rural heating systems. Instead of hot water energy will act photons. They will be distributed in photonic crystal fibers with a thickness of human hair, the energy of which is converted into heat with almost 100% efficiency.

    Laboratory of the future

    In Russia radiophonie technology develops KRET. Today, the group and the Foundation for advanced studies working on a promising project "Development of active phased array-based radio Photonics" (ROPAR). The project includes the creation of a special laboratory on the basis of the Concern and the development of universal technology, which will be the basis for radar and electronic warfare systems for the new generation.

    According to KRET CEO Nikolai Kolesov, the latest technology will allow in 2020 to create an effective and advanced transmitting / receiving apparatus, radar, electronic intelligence and electronic countermeasures of the new generation.

    One of the main areas of work will be the creation of an active phased array (AESA) of the new generation, in which the main elements were created using the principles of radio Photonics. They will reduce the weight of the system is 1.5-3 times increase in 2-3 times the reliability and efficiency, as well as dozens of times to increase the scanning speed and resolution.


    If successful, the technology will open up new opportunities for improving the "smart skin" that will be on the Russian aircraft of the latest generation, including the PAK FA. Such a system of built-in elements throughout the area of the fuselage will allow the crew to get in any time solid radar picture within a radius of 360 degrees, will provide for the operation of antenna systems in active and passive radar, raising all kinds of noise, secretive and noise-immune data transmission, communication with the ground and other aircraft, hoopsnake and more.

    In addition, on the basis of new materials and elements, created on the basis of the principles of Photonics, KRET will learn the advanced technologies of high-power photodetectors and semiconductor laser modules.

    KRET creates a laboratory for research in the field of photonics
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    Cyberspec

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  Cyberspec on Sun May 03, 2015 9:43 am

    Big news...thanks for posting
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    magnumcromagnon

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Sun May 03, 2015 8:54 pm

    Cyberspec wrote:Big news...thanks for posting

    I think the article gave us an outline on what will make up the characteristics of a 2nd-gen AESA. The raw capability, as well as what compromises the elements of the next gen AESA. It wont be just a new radar emitting element, made up of a different chemical composition, it will also include made up of photonic equipment (where the true capability will come from).

    The article also specifically stated that the PAK-FA will be one of the first receipts of a 2nd gen photonic based AESA.
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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  sepheronx on Mon May 04, 2015 6:26 am

    magnumcromagnon wrote:
    Cyberspec wrote:Big news...thanks for posting

    I think the article gave us an outline on what will make up the characteristics of a 2nd-gen AESA. The raw capability, as well as what compromises the elements of the next gen AESA. It wont be just a new radar emitting element, made up of a different chemical composition, it will also include made up of photonic equipment (where the true capability will come from).

    The article also specifically stated that the PAK-FA will be one of the first receipts of a 2nd gen photonic based AESA.

    I was curious what you were saying by second generation Photon AESA, since current AESA isn't technically technology using photons. But you are right, after re-reading what you are saying, next gen technology being of AESA radar systems built around photons will surely be impressive and new. Problem is about saying "technologically backwards" is not necessarily correct. If you follow the same path as the west, you will always be behind because one is not trying to create something new or different, but trying to create the same while they create the standards and it is always a game of catchup, but being able to create your own standard and your own technology that isn't direct competitor but something else entirely, is where you will be ahead, especially if what you create brings your own benefits. It is like in semiconductor technology - Russia is definitely behind in x86 processing technology but that is because they don't create it, while they are ahead of the west in VLIW RISC technology since Intel dropped their Itanium line of processors and Russia is having far better performance outcome with their VLIW processors. Or the introduction of Microclets none Vonn Newmann cell processors.

    Anyway, without digressing, thank you for the link. This is surely going to be huge and KRET along with Rostec knows exactly what they need to do to keep up and be ahead in the game. Rostec has shown that being a NGO itself, they have been very effective of what they do (check out Schwabs achievements for example).

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  Svyatoslavich on Sun May 24, 2015 9:39 pm

    One of the critical technologies that Russia seems to be lagging behind the West is in AESA radars for fighters. Su-35S doesn't have it, and I recently read that the first batches of MiG-35 won't also. Anyone knows why? Are Russian AESA radars like the Zhuk-A fully developed and tested? Can they be mass-produced? If so, why are not fighters still equipped with it?
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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  Werewolf on Mon May 25, 2015 2:36 am

    Currently russia is lagging behind in production numbers due the sell out and closure of MIC and lot of other sectors and companies under Yeltzin and russia is rebuilding it to necessary level.
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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  sepheronx on Mon May 25, 2015 3:45 am

    Svyatoslavich wrote:One of the critical technologies that Russia seems to be lagging behind the West is in AESA radars for fighters. Su-35S doesn't have it, and I recently read that the first batches of MiG-35 won't also. Anyone knows why? Are Russian AESA radars like the Zhuk-A fully developed and tested? Can they be mass-produced? If so, why are not fighters still equipped with it?

    No, MiG-35 will definitely have AESA, even initial batches, because that is what the MiG-35's main feature is.  Outside of that, no sale as it is simply a MiG-29M/M2.

    AESA radar tech is what USA went with, while Russia went another route, PESA.  PESA and AESA both have their pros and cons.  Example is power output and how much raw power a radar can produce (PESA) vs AESA with its electronic warfare advantages.  Irbis-E on Su-35's are Hybrid radar where they take a bit of both worlds, but look at it in this perspective: Irbis-E is effectively the most powerful radar for a fighter jet.  It has detection/tracking ranges greater than any other jet.  They get that through its raw power.

    AESA is getting attention now since Russia produces GaN modules that are required in making AESA radar.  They have a few flying testbeds of course.  One with 600 or so T/R modules and another with over 1000 T/R modules.  The one tested on PAK FA has over 1500 T/R modules.  At the moment though, production is lower due to the fact that they are starting out production of it, and not many things in service use it.  Technically, the A-100's being built are going to be the first to fully use them.  N036 isn't quite finished yet as it still is being tested and what not, and I think they are looking for ways to improve Zhuk-A performance more.

    With what Magnum posted though, may give us the indication that they may hold off development a bit till they get the idea of using photons for AESA radar in order to improve its performance greatly, before introducing them.  But that is another 5 years away.  So initially, they may entertain Mikoyan with introduction of MiG-35's in service with the current Zhuk-AM radar and PAK FA's with their N036 till 2020 when Photon technology is introduced to it, and they can start improving the currently platforms with it and future AESA radar.

    But for time being, using PESA radar (Zaslon AM - MiG-31BM's, BARS - Su-30SM, V004 - Su-34) and Hybrid - (Irbis-E - Su-35) are more than enough as they provide performances that has no alternative to in terms of raw power.  They substitute its weak EW, ECM, ECCM capabilities with add on pods.  Su-35's even use AESA L-Band radar modules on the wings.

    Edit: I have also read that Zhuk radars are highly modular and it doesn't take much to upgrade Zhuk-M to Zhuk-A.  Dunno how true that is though.

    One radar that is rarely mentioned, and cannot find much information on it (quite secretive) is the V004 for the Su-34's. Apparently according to some, V004 with modern electronics has detection ranges of upwards to 200km and it has advanced ground mapping capabilities. Add in its heavy EW capabilities, the V004 radar is quite more powerful than most modern fighters radars these days. But cannot really find much on it.

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  Svyatoslavich on Mon May 25, 2015 4:51 am

    sepheronx wrote:No, MiG-35 will definitely have AESA, even initial batches, because that is what the MiG-35's main feature is.  Outside of that, no sale as it is simply a MiG-29M/M2.
    Thanks for your complete explanation. Regarding MiG-35, I read it earlier in March that the first batch (30 planes) of the MiG-35 contract won't have AESA radar:
    http://tass.ru/armiya-i-opk/1775588
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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  sepheronx on Mon May 25, 2015 4:55 am

    Svyatoslavich wrote:
    sepheronx wrote:No, MiG-35 will definitely have AESA, even initial batches, because that is what the MiG-35's main feature is.  Outside of that, no sale as it is simply a MiG-29M/M2.
    Thanks for your complete explanation. Regarding MiG-35, I read it earlier in March that the first batch (30 planes) of the MiG-35 contract won't have AESA radar:
    http://tass.ru/armiya-i-opk/1775588

    Probably an error or they are not buying MiG-35's but MiG-29M's.  There are of course other features that MiG-35's have over MiG-29M's but ultimately, that is what these would be.  Unless they are purchasing them with the ability of having them upgraded once the radars are available.

    Edit: So essentially they are purchasing what is considered MiG-35's but initial batch wont have AESA radar till the production of the airframes are proper then the AESAs production will start in being "proper". I see.

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

    Post  victor1985 on Mon May 25, 2015 7:18 am

    Sukhoi37_Terminator wrote:Here is some information I found about the Tikhomirov NIIP L-Band Active Electronically Steered Array
    http://www.ausairpower.net/APA-2009-06.html





    So...what are the main problems at making a L-band radar? It request bigger equipment? More power? Big antenna?

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA Radars

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