Are Russian SAMs equipped with thermobaric warheads and if no would such a thing work?
Let me explain.
A standard block of HE has by weight about 1/4th fuel, and 3/4ths of the HE by weight is material that rapidly generates oxygen.
This means that a 150kg warhead of an S-300 might have 40kgs of HE, with the rest of the weight as metal fragments and fuses. Of that 40kg HE charge 10kgs will be the material that actually explodes, while 30kgs will generate oxygen for the 10kg to "burn".
Because it provides its own oxygen it will explode underwater and also in space and if you detonate it at high altitude or low altitude it will explode.
Thermobaric explosive is all fuel... think of a thermobaric warhead as being petrol. 40kgs of petrol is all fuel, but it needs to be distributed around as an aerosol before it can explode in a detonation, but if it did then it would explode more powerfully than the equivalent of HE... the main problem is that because a Thermobaric warhead relies on taking oxygen from the environment where it is set off it is not as effective in thin air at high altitudes and it wont work at all in space or in water.
It also does not tend to detonate as fast as HE, though it often tends to burn longer and hotter, which is good for destroying chem and bio agents for instance.
In SAMs it makes much more sense to use the less powerful HE warheads because they are more consistent in power and rate of detonation.
Keep in mind when a SAM is intercepting a very fast target it may not hit the target directly so when the proximity fuse sets off the warhead the active fusing will set off the warhead to deliver the majority of fragments in the direction of where the target will be so knowing how fast the warhead explodes is critical in ensuring a good kill. If the target is a Scud for instance then the fuse will direct the fragments at the nose of the target because hitting the body of a falling object is largely useless, the only effective way to defeat an incoming Scud is to hit the warhead and detonate it... smashing up the engines is pointless as they are not operating when the missile is falling onto the target area.
Speaking of the morphei , are there any pictures of how exactly the missiles should look or is it top secret like the S-500?
Just models of vehicles so far.
The Vityaz will have Active guidance system. In other words, the battery can engage as many targets as it has missiles ready for launch.
Even ARH missiles require guidance to the target area... there are limits to how many R-77s a fighter plane can guide at once to different targets... for the Mig-29S it was 2 I believe. The targets need to be tracked and the outgoing missiles directed to intercept points where they can turn on their own radars and self guide. For targets 100km away that means significant periods where the missile is not using its ARH seeker and relies on the launch platforms radar to direct it. As the article above mentions 12 guidance channels it will certainly be able to engage a lot of targets and once the missiles get to ARH range and they get locks the battery can launch another missile, plus I suspect with an IADS and net centricity it is rather likely that other platforms could take over guidance like Su-35s or A-100s.
The system is probably bulky or complex (spherical radar, superfast computing power, large number of vertically stowed rounds).
Spherical radar is unlikely, the information I have is that it uses an IR spherical sensor array to find targets, much like the spherical IR sensor array used on RHAWs to detect incoming missiles by their thermal signature (ie speed heated noses and control surfaces and operating rocket motors).
I would expect the time taken for its development suggests it likely has a FPA or QWIP seeker with a one or two way datalink and full thrust vectoring rocket motor. This means that a missile can be launched without seeing the target (so it can be launched vertically and turn based on data provided by the launch platform towards the target and then look for a signature of the target. It will have a signature library database and should be able to select its own target. A two way datalink should allow it to transmit target data back to the launch platform. Its wide angle array seeker might detect a range of targets of which it might select the highest threat target to engage itself.
In terms of range it will be inferior to Igla-S, but in terms of performance and sophistication it will be a generation ahead of Igla-S.
It will likely be used on its own for some roles but also likely used in a "standard" launcher (ie Vityaz) as a standard self defence missile.
For aircraft it will likely perform the role of the little anti missile missiles as depicted in the movie Firefox. Certainly a ARH radar seeker model would be a useful weapon for light aircraft like Yak-130 and helos along with the IIR guided model... with air launched models the range is likely 15-20km.
but not as mobile as an army SAM (like the SA-13. Potentially, I see the replacement of the SA-13 in a system based on the Sosna missile mounted on a tracked chassis.
I don't disagree with your logic, but the purpose of SA-13 and SA-9 was a light mobile air defence missile that operates in the IR spectrum to compliment the SA-19 and now SA-22 that are radio command directed. A laser guided model like SOSNA-R is rather a lot like SA-19 and a platform that carried SOSNA-Rs would not be that different from one that carried SA-19/-22s.
The Morfei on the other hand will be a small compact missile which in vertical launch tubes would likely fit into the MTLB chassis of the SA-13. I don't see it as being a huge system.