1 ) How do they discriminate between tank A and tank b , lets assume
tank A and tank B are like 15 meters apart and there is Sokol-1
approaching it , and lets assume the gunner targetted Tank A , lets also
assume both tank is moving at a speed of 30 km per/hour.
If both tanks are moving at 30km per hour then the ballistic point of aim as calculated by the fire control system would generate an aim point based on where the target will be when the weapon arrives.
The Sokol-1 is guided autonomously at distinct armoured targets so when the cap comes off it would look around its impact point for an armoured vehicle shaped target I would assume.
how does sokol-1 know it has to hit tank-A and not tank-B , how does it
take care of the fact that till the time the missile reaches the target
the tank could move any where in 360 * space ?
There is no way it could determine which tank it was aimed at and I
would assume it would be guided toward the target nearest the centre of
its field of view that is not on fire.
The target might turn 360 degrees just as the enemy tank fires its guided shell but considering its max range is 5km and it probably covers that distance in about 10 seconds... lets say the target is travelling at 60km/h at 90 degrees to the incoming round but as the round is fired they jam on the brakes and turn 180 degrees and accelerate in the opposite direction at 60km/h... this would be the worst possible situation... remember the launch signature of the SOKOL-1 would actually be pretty difficult to see and impossible to hear from 5km... we can make it even worse and take away all the stopping and turning and accelerating and just say that the tank was going at 60km/h in the opposite direction to that which it was thought to be travelling... for our calculations that means the aimpoint will be in one direction and the actual intercept point will be an equal distance in the opposite direction. In other words work out a 10 second lead on the tank and then double it because it is actually a lead in the opposite direction.
60km/h is 60,000m per hour. Divide by 60 = 1,000m per minute, or 16.6667 m/s. A 10 second lead means the tank will travel about 170m in the 10 seconds it takes for the missile to get to it, but because it is actually travelling in the opposite direction it will actually be 170 x 2 metres in the opposite direction which means the missile will need to turn 340m to its left after travelling 5km to the target... it doesn't sound too difficult.
Of course there might be an enemy tank in the area it was going for so it might hit that tank instead.
In the real world however tanks don't operate at 60km/h very often and they certainly can't turn 180 degrees instantly or accelerate to top speed instantly.
BVR missiles have the same problem in that when they are fired in fire and forget mode they will fly to an intercept point and then search for the intended target, but the problems of the target moving are multiplied several times because aircraft move faster than tanks or ships and might change flight path seconds after the missile is launched. Unless the launch aircraft continues to monitor the targets flight movements and passes those course changes to the missile it has just launched then very long range shots become problematic.
2 ) How does one
distinguish between Tank A getting lased and being targetted by Sokol
versus Tank B getting lased but being targetted by another tank.
Because the laser target marking laser has a coded beam that is completely different from a ranging laser.
The Laser Target Marker or LTM uses a coded beam and that coded beam and the missile weapon are synchronised before the round is fired. If another platform is used to mark the target... like a UAV then the communication link used to call in the shot is also used to synchronise the laser to the missile so the missile only detect the laser that is directed at its target and ignores all others. Ugroza is the same. Artillery laser guided weapons are the same. Laser guided weapons from aircraft are the same. Remember the laser only operates for 1-3 seconds so in practical terms it is unlikely to be a problem anyway, but because they are coded even if they all lit up their lasers at the same time there would be few problems.
Note the same issue exists with the current ATGMs ATAKA which uses coded radio signals to guide ATAKA ATGMs at targets... otherwise a flight of Hinds would only be able to control one missile in the air at one time. The ARENA active defence system also uses coded MMW radar signals to detect incoming targets... imagine a whole platoon of tanks with ARENA all broadcasting MMW radar signals at one time... the secret is they are coded so they can tell their own radar returns from the noise generated by other systems operating in close proximity.
is it possible that if there are two tanks that are getting lased Sokol
would just hit another tank because it was too being lased ?
Armour doesn't need laser designation, but if you specifically needed to hit one particular tank lasing it would be a good way to make sure your missile hit that tank. If two T-90s lased two different tanks then their missiles would hit the tanks their launch platforms were designating. The lasers are visible, but only active in the direct fire mode for 1 second so it is possible that two tanks might decide to hit the same tank. Hopefully communication will mean they wont end up firing at the same target... if the tanks are close together and there is enough time between each tank firing the gunner might have enough time to see the tank he is aiming at is hit and switch to the other target in time to hit it instead.