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    Indian Military SAM Systems

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    Vladimir79
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    Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  Vladimir79 on Tue Aug 25, 2009 4:15 pm

    NE India to purchase additional party ZRK "Spider" worth 800 million dollars
    25/08/2009

    More news on these subjects, you can see on the personal pages of those

    MOSCOW, August 24. (ARMS-TASS). After a lengthy evaluation period the Ministry of Defense of India approved a contract for the purchase of new mobile SAM QRSAM (Quick Reaction Surface to Air Missile), designed to provide air defense units, armored columns, as well as key infrastructure, the ground forces of the country, reports the Times of India " .

    The program QRSAM planned to buy complexes worth nearly 40 billion rupees (about 820 million dollars) to equip three regiments.

    Council for Defense Procurement, chaired by Defense Minister AK Anthony discussed the purchase of complexes last week. Despite the absence of official statements, according to sources, the Times of India ", the winner was the Israeli company Rafael, which offered short-range mobile SAM system" Spider ".

    The decision to purchase the Israeli complex was taken due to the fact that established by the Defense Research and Development (DRDO) of India Ministry of Defense, national short-range SAMs, Trishul and Akash does not satisfy the requirements of the Army.

    The program to buy complexes QRSAM, intended to replace the systems operated Osa-AKM and Strela-10M Soviet production is carried out over the last few years, but the MoD did not give approval to the signing of a contract for the supply of SAM "Spider" because of the continuing against Israeli firms IAI and Rafael "investigation of corruption in the procurement of SAM Barak-1 at a cost of 11.60 billion rupees. Despite the suspicions, the Indian government failed to make the Israeli companies in the "black list" and continued implementation of critical importance to the country's defense of joint projects.

    In particular, in late August last year, the Defense Procurement Board approved an agreement for the purchase of SAM "Spider" for the Indian Air Force. The contract with Raphael for the supply of the country's air force 18 Mobile "Spider" was signed on Sept. 1, 2008. The total cost of the agreement amounted to 260.05 million dollars (about 11377,1875 billion rupees). It is planned that the supply of SAM "Spider" will start in 2,5 years since the signing of the agreement and will be completed in four years.

    ZRK "Spider", developed by a consortium of Israeli companies, Rafael and IAI, is a mobile all-weather complex near radius of action, designed to detect and destroy aircraft, helicopters, cruise missiles, UAVs and precision munitions. The complex can be used for air defense of strategic facilities, including military bases, points of contact, nuclear power plants, government and other buildings.

    Launchers oblique launch SAM "Spider-SR", mounted on a wheeled chassis 6x6, calculated to four missiles. As a weapon uses a combination of ground-based version of SD medium-range Derby air-to-air missiles with active radar-guided missiles and "Python-5 short-range with IR guidance. SAM can be operated in the mode of capture target before launch and after launch SAM-type "fire-and-forget" or with the correction of target data in flight. Time embattled after detection of the target is 5 seconds.

    Model division "Spider" consists of one item, a mobile command and control fire, and four to six mobile launchers with optical sensors TOPLITE. Item management is equipped with Three-radar EL/M-2106 ATAR development IAI / "Elta, capable of simultaneously tracking 60 targets at range 35 km, and two terminal operator with data transmission systems to exchange information with rocket launchers, SAMs and neighbors command a higher level of 100 km distance.

    ZRK "Spider-SR" is capable of hitting targets in the Gaza 360 deg. at a range of 1 to 15 km and a height of 20 m to 9 m. The system is capable of thousands of hit singles and team goal at any time and any climatic conditions.

    "Rafael has also developed a SAM Spider-MR" medium-range missiles, which can hit targets within a radius of 50 km at an altitude of 20 m to 16 km. Unlike "Spider-SR", launched "Spider-MR" equipped with 8 vertical launch missiles. Missiles launched from the use of boosters. In addition, in the "Spider-MR" is a new radar MF-STAR joint IAI / "Elta with a range of up to 100 km. Time shelling target after its detection is 2 seconds.

    In addition, the company currently Raphael, together with Indian companies launched a joint project to establish working for the Army of India ADMS medium / long-range (MR / LR-SAM) of new generation, the potential cost that could reach 100 billion rupees (2 , 5 billion).

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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  TR1 on Thu Aug 30, 2012 10:35 pm

    Wait, when did India buy S-300PUM-2?!?!
    I am totally ignorant of this.
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  SOC on Thu Aug 30, 2012 10:59 pm

    TR1 wrote:Wait, when did India buy S-300PUM-2?!?!
    I am totally ignorant of this.

    Half past never. India, Syria, and someplace else that I always forget are often mentioned as S-300 users but in reality have never procured the system.

    India and an S-300 is an obvious marriage that apparently makes way too much sense to ever happen. They've already got numerous ST-68U TIN SHIELD EW radars around that would be able to serve as supporting assets for an S-300P series SAM. I recall hearing that they did evaluate either the P or the V at one point but weren't impressed with the vehicle components, which didn't work quite well across the entire range of Indian climates.
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  Sujoy on Fri Aug 31, 2012 11:22 am

    TR1 wrote:Wait, when did India buy S-300PUM-2?!?!
    I am totally ignorant of this.

    Here you go , maybe this will help .

    India
    Since 1995 India has been negotiating with Russia regarding purchase of the S-300, in response to Pakistan's deployment of M-11 missiles from China. In 1995 Russian Defense Deputy Minister Kokoshin offered to sell S-300 missiles during his trip to India. Following this offer Indian officials started negotiations with the Russian manufacturers, and in August 1995 the Indian Defense Secretary Nambiar went to Russia to observe tests of the missiles near Moscow. The $1 billion purchase is said to include six S-300 systems, with each combat system consisting of 48 missiles. Reportedly in June 1996 27 S-300 missiles were delivered to India.


    http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/russia/airdef/s-300pmu.htm

    India's BMD system started to take off only from 2001 onwards . Even till date the emphasis is more on developing NLOS - BM than an active BMD system . India's purchase of the S 300 makes complete sense as India had been stating from the mid 90s onwards that there is an active BMD system in place . As we know even till this date the country's indigenous BMD system has still NOT been deployed . I recall that after the Dec 2001 attack on the Indian Parliament by Pakistani backed terrorist when India decided to mobilize troops for an assault on Pakistan it was reported in the Indian media that S 300 have been put on stand by to defend New Delhi .


    Last edited by Sujoy on Sat Sep 01, 2012 7:56 am; edited 1 time in total
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  Viktor on Fri Aug 31, 2012 1:27 pm

    Judging by that report India basically bought 1 S-300 regiment for 1 billion if true. It is somewhat strange no India S-300 had being seen.

    Sujoy have you got any pictures?

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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  Sujoy on Fri Aug 31, 2012 2:46 pm

    Viktor wrote:Judging by that report India basically bought 1 S-300 regiment for 1 billion if true. It is somewhat strange no India S-300 had being seen.

    Sujoy have you got any pictures?

    Am afraid none right now. Infact even the actual number of S 300 bought are questioned by many . Some journalists say India never bought any . However, I do remember that in 2001 there were reports in the media that S 300 will protect New Delhi in case war breaks out with Pakistan. Some newspapers did carry pics of the S 300 , but not of the S 300 stationed anywhere in India.

    I remember something similar with India's stealth program as well . It was reported by a leading news paper in 1995 that Indian Jaguars & a few other fighters are undergoing "stealth treatment" . However, later the newspaper retracted.



    Last edited by Sujoy on Sat Sep 01, 2012 7:57 am; edited 2 times in total
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  Zivo on Fri Aug 31, 2012 3:46 pm

    If they actually have them, I'm surprised they haven't shown up on Google Earth. S-300 sites are distinct, and India AD grid isn't what I would call robust.

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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  Sujoy on Fri Aug 31, 2012 6:43 pm

    I cannot verify the claim or the authencity , however a few Pakistani & even Indian analysts recon that the below picture taken possibly in Pakistan using Google Earth is that of a S 300 site in a north Indian state . Whether this site is still active or not could not be ascertained.

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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  Viktor on Fri Aug 31, 2012 7:57 pm

    SOC can here be of help.
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  SOC on Sun Sep 02, 2012 2:48 am

    Sujoy wrote:I cannot verify the claim or the authencity , however a few Pakistani & even Indian analysts recon that the below picture taken possibly in Pakistan using Google Earth is that of a S 300 site in a north Indian state . Whether this site is still active or not could not be ascertained.


    lol!

    That's a former S-75 position in India (near New Delhi if I remember right) re-armed with two S-125 batteries. There are no S-300P components visible. Just like everywhere else in the nation.
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  medo on Sun Sep 02, 2012 9:57 am

    As I know, India have S-300V complex.
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  Sujoy on Sun Sep 02, 2012 11:31 am

    Some more news about India and S 300

    http://www.defensenews.com/article/20120410/DEFREG03/304100001/India-Boost-Airfield-Defenses

    The air defense system of the Indian Air Force is being further strengthened with new inductions and integration of weapons and modern sensors,” Antony said. “All airfields of IAF are being upgraded in a phased manner with modern navigation equipment and runway aids.”

    Currently, the Air Force is using Russian-made Osaka and Pechora systems, and eight squadrons of homemade Akash medium-range surface-to-air missile systems have been ordered in the last two years.

    The Russian S-300 anti-tactical ballistic missile system also is in use, while a homemade anti-missile missile system, the Pad-3, is under development by the Defence Research and Development Organisation.

    http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/IAF/Today/Contemporary/325-SAD.html

    Further to these developments, news began leaking out about the deployment from 1998 onwards of an Anti-tactical Ballistic Missile screen. This system is to comprise the Russian S-300V ATBM (SA-12) and India's own 'Akash' missile which has a considerable ATBM capability. In March 1997, the Indian press confirmed these reports, stating that one S-300V squadron was being purchased, with more to come in the future
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  Sujoy on Sun Sep 02, 2012 5:51 pm

    SOC wrote:

    lol!

    That's a former S-75 position in India (near New Delhi if I remember right) re-armed with two S-125 batteries. There are no S-300P components visible. Just like everywhere else in the nation.

    Thanks for the explanation . I don't think Govt of India or India’s armed forces has ever deployed BMD systems during peace time. Not to the best of my knowledge. I don't know if there are any current satellite images available from Google Earth of any BMD anywhere in India . For example Pakistan obtains overhead recce satellite imagery from Canada ( RADARSAT 1) about India's SAM positions.
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  SOC on Mon Sep 03, 2012 12:22 am

    Sujoy wrote:
    SOC wrote:

    lol!

    That's a former S-75 position in India (near New Delhi if I remember right) re-armed with two S-125 batteries. There are no S-300P components visible. Just like everywhere else in the nation.

    Thanks for the explanation . I don't think Govt of India or India’s armed forces has ever deployed BMD systems during peace time. Not to the best of my knowledge. I don't know if there are any current satellite images available from Google Earth of any BMD anywhere in India . For example Pakistan obtains overhead recce satellite imagery from Canada ( RADARSAT 1) about India's SAM positions.

    You can see the Green Pine BMD radars in India using Google Earth.
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  Sujoy on Tue Sep 04, 2012 11:34 am

    SOC wrote:You can see the Green Pine BMD radars in India using Google Earth.

    I recon there is one Green Pine radar near Bangalore and another on the West Coast . However, there are no BMD / SAM sites anywhere near these radars . The Indian Govt. must be under some sort of delusion that they will not face an un provoked air onslaught .
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  SOC on Tue Sep 04, 2012 9:14 pm

    Sujoy wrote:
    SOC wrote:You can see the Green Pine BMD radars in India using Google Earth.

    I recon there is one Green Pine radar near Bangalore and another on the West Coast . However, there are no BMD / SAM sites anywhere near these radars . The Indian Govt. must be under some sort of delusion that they will not face an un provoked air onslaught .

    They've got a number of 36D6 radars all over the place, other EW sites, and AEW assets. An unprovoked and undetected aerial incursion is not a realistic threat.
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    Wait, when did India buy S-300PUM-2?!?!

    Post  Sujoy on Wed Sep 05, 2012 6:17 am

    SOC wrote:They've got a number of 36D6 radars all over the place, other EW sites, and AEW assets.


    Correct . The entire South West coast is dotted with such radars & more are coming up.

    SOC wrote:An unprovoked and undetected aerial incursion is not a realistic threat.

    Unprovoked yes , http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Atlantique_Incident

    Undetected less likely


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    Akash SAM comparison with Buk-M2

    Post  Austin on Thu Jul 11, 2013 1:26 pm

    SOC a question for you.

    I often hear from Indian friends that a Ramjet SAM like Akash with a PESA radar and using COmmand Guidance is better then BUK-M2 like system , as Ramjet is propelled all the way to the target and does not loose energy till the end game.

    While system like BUK-M2 using solid propellent burn for few second in total and most of the time it is coasting and does not retain end game energy against manouvering target.

    For eg Akash with ramjet propulsion with advertised range of 28 Km would still be very energetic at 28 Km against manouvering target while BUK-M2 with an advertised range of 45 Km would be loosing most energy at the last few km and wont be effective , so solid propellent range advantage is not much an advantage.

    How true is it because I do not fine Europe , US or Russia pursuing a Ramjet based solution for SAM but has stuck with solid propellent and these days dual pulse motor gives end game energy advantage too.

    Also would like your view on Command Guidance Mode Guidance versus SARH mode which is better choice and why ?
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  Viktor on Thu Jul 11, 2013 4:17 pm

    SOC wrote:
    medo wrote:Isn't MEADS practically dead project? As I know, US, Germany and Italy will only fund development, to have technology for future projects, but not buy it.

    US is apparently funding it until 2014, with Patriot upgrades being the cheaper way to go for now.  Germany and Italy still both want the system, and are funding development, but are looking for others to get involved and for their budgets to be able to support procurement.  The problem appears to just be money right now.

    I agree. But If US decides to go with the Patriot modernization (which I think It will), MEADS is as good as dead because its price will skyrocket and Germany (which is slashing its defense forces considerably) and Italy (which already bought 5 batteries of SAMP-T) wont order that much.

    I personally like MEADS project much better than Patriot and I think it would be a good thing for US forces to move to a next level but it would cost a tanker load of cash and US is also slashing growth of its budget so I think they will rather opt for modernization.

    Perhaps Poland could save the day but that remains to be seen. Even some Baltic states who still live in great fear of their Easter neighbor might buy MEADS.

    Viktor wrote:Depends on how they do the radar.  That's what makes Patriot and THAAD take more time to set up.  It's also what makes the S-300P take up to an hour if they have to use the 40V6 masts.

    Yup and in line with that thinking we can see what a great job Russians did with 64N6. Its a 5 minute system respekt 


    SOC wrote:Completely true, but I don't see why they couldn't also incorporate the SM-2 if the capability was desired.  Probably won't though, it appears that MEADS is the Patriot successor.

    Yup, Patriots are already in place in Poland and Turkey. Its only a matter of time when will we see it in other countries too. US has (correct me if Im wrong) unused batteries of Patriot system in US (some are active but huge portion is not) and those can be delivered across the sea.

    Still Russians value mobility of their systems above all and Im sure that whatever comes at the end, time necessary to deploy S-500 will be many times shorter than any SM-3.

    medo wrote:Isn't MEADS practically dead project? As I know, US, Germany and Italy will only fund development, to have technology for future projects, but not buy it.

    Germany on itself is having huge difficulties financing Armed forces. They slashed numbers considerably just recently and the price of Typhoons skyrocketed so they may decide to buy less MEADS too. That remains to be seen.


    Austin wrote:SOC a question for you.

    I often hear from Indian friends that a Ramjet SAM like Akash with a PESA radar and using COmmand Guidance is better then BUK-M2 like system , as Ramjet is propelled all the way to the target and does not loose energy till the end game.

    There are many factors by which you must compare air defense systems and all of them must be taken in consideration not just one Wink 

    Anyway BUK-M2 is not in the same league with Akash although Akash is a very good modernization of KUB system (4 guidance channels for targets and 8 for missiles per battery). I think from KUB family only KUB-M4 has more guidance channels but at the same time Akash has some drawbacks too.

    Austin wrote:While system like BUK-M2 using solid propellant burn for few second in total and most of the time it is coasting and does not retain end game energy against manouvering target.

    Well thats not how it works, when determining engagement probability in range and altitude same rules should apply for all air defense systems dont you agree.

    So while both missiles of BUK and Akash have more range than cited 45 and 27 km in distance at 45 and 27 km distance both missiles are able to achieve cited kill probability.

    They both can score a kill even after given range but kill probability will drop so sharply that kill can be achieved at only slow moving / non-maneuverable targets.

    Because of what has been said there is no point for you to try to further derail BUK-M2 missiles in comparison with Akash ones because one is ramjet and

    other has solid propellant. You have kill probability at ranges given by manufacturer. Still, it would be great to check Akash declared kill probabilities

    according to Russian standard at Ashuluk Twisted Evil
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  TR1 on Thu Jul 11, 2013 9:22 pm

    Well, they DID move from ramjet Kub to solid-fuel Bu so presumably the trade off was worth it.
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  NickM on Thu Jul 11, 2013 9:48 pm

    Viktor wrote:both missiles are able to achieve cited kill probability.

    You are the discounting the fact my old friend that kill probability is target specific . Those "cited" figures are mostly against an adversary that is defenseless .

    The Growler aircraft is specifically designed to jam systems like the BUK M2 ( not sure what this Akash is) .
    So the chances that NATO aircrafts will fly in hostile territories without escort jamming are the stuff wet dreams are made off . Reality is a lot different .
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  SOC on Thu Jul 11, 2013 10:44 pm

    Austin wrote:I often hear from Indian friends that a Ramjet SAM like Akash with a PESA radar and using COmmand Guidance is better then BUK-M2 like system , as Ramjet is propelled all the way to the target and does not loose energy till the end game.

    While system like BUK-M2 using solid propellent burn for few second in total and most of the time it is coasting and does not retain end game energy against manouvering target.

    For eg Akash with ramjet propulsion with advertised range of 28 Km would still be very energetic at 28 Km against manouvering target while BUK-M2 with an advertised range of 45 Km would be loosing most energy at the last few km and wont be effective , so solid propellent range advantage is not much an advantage.

    How true is it because I do not fine Europe , US or Russia pursuing a Ramjet based solution for SAM but has stuck with solid propellent and these days dual pulse motor gives end game energy advantage too.

    Look at the Kub. Missile max speed is about 600 m/s. Rocket booster burn time is 4.1 seconds, sustainer ramjet burn time is 22.5 seconds. That means you've got power for roughly 27 seconds. If it was going at max speed instantly at launch (it isn't, it only gets to Mach 1.5 after the booster is done, for example), that'd give it a total flight time to max range of 23 km of 38.3 seconds. That's at minimum a full 11 seconds, or roughly 30% of your useable flight time, that you have no power.

    Now, Akash does have power all the way to intercept, but it's max velocity is no more than 700 m/s. Compared to the Kub, it should possess more kinetic energy at endgame, which can be translated into maneuvering capacity.

    Buk-M2, on the other hand, has a velocity of over 1200 m/s. The problem is that I don't know the burn times for the two-phase motor in the 9M317. They might be in one of these books or files but I haven't found them yet. If I knew those I'd know when the motor burnt out, and could figure the kinetic energy at burnout, and go from there to see how much it retains at max range. However, due to the much higher peak velocity, I don't think the difference will be anything overly significant anyway.

    Austin wrote:Also would like your view on Command Guidance Mode Guidance versus SARH mode which is better choice and why ?

    Depends on the platform. For a fighter aircraft, a SARH missile is laughable in the 21st Century. For a SAM, it's not a big deal. The advantage to SARH over command is that the missile is constantly getting a better, more accurate idea of where the target is as it closes in. Since the missile is "guiding itself" insofar as it needs no off-board inputs, you can also use a cheaper radar system. A command system has to have a second function for missile tracking in order to tell it where to go, and this is usually a separate, smaller array. If it uses a separate signal (common), then you've just doubled the number of signals your SAM is radiating. Which means an enemy has twice as many signals to try and screw with, because if you cancel either one the missile is a miss. One of the CIA EW systems used in the A-12 was meant to screw up the command link to the S-75 if I remember right. Worked ridiculously well, too.

    Viktor wrote:Yup and in line with that thinking we can see what a great job Russians did with 64N6. Its a 5 minute system

    ...and is ridiculously awesome.

    NickM wrote:not sure what this Akash is

    India's attempt to reinvent the Kub SAM system.

    NickM wrote:The Growler aircraft is specifically designed to jam systems like the BUK M2

    ...and systems like the Buk-M2 and a host of others have these nice home-on-jam modes. Growler is a waste of money anyway. An unaerodynamic, high-RCS, emitting and therefore extremely visible platform could've been made for a lot less money.

    NickM wrote:So the chances that NATO aircrafts will fly in hostile territories without escort jamming are the stuff wet dreams are made off .

    Irrelevant, as they always do that anyway, regardless of perceived threat environment or friendly system capability. Hence EA-6Bs operating to support F-117s and B-2s over the FRY. You're just assuming that whatever EW systems NATO fields will work 100% of the time, which is as stupid as assuming the FSU SAMs will be 100% effective. The EW/ECM/ECCM environment is ridiculously fluid and constantly adapting and readapting itself to new developments. Digital systems these days also mean they're a hell of a lot easier to upgrade with the latest material.
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  NickM on Fri Jul 12, 2013 9:31 am

    SOC wrote:India's attempt to reinvent the Kub SAM system.

    Funny how these Hindoos steal everything and yet pretend to hold the high moral ground on everything .

    SOC wrote:...and systems like the Buk-M2 and a host of others have these nice home-on-jam modes. Growler is a waste of money anyway.

    The ALQ-99 tactical jamming system on board the Growler cannot be locked on by the BUK M2 . And now they are becoming more potent with the Next Generation Jammer .

    http://www.aviationweek.com/Article.aspx?id=/article-xml/awx_07_08_2013_p0-595077.xml

    To effectively lock on / jam such jammers one needs to have indepth knowledge of Electronic Warfare in general and jammers in particular . Russia fell behind in this race to the UK & US . So they may advertise such features on the BUK M 2 ,i.e home-on-jam modes but they know themselves it doesn't work . Have they ever explained how "home-on-jam modes" operates in real time ?

    BUK M2 can easily be taken out by attack helos armed with precision guided missiles like PARS 3LR .

    The 10µ-technology employed in both the gunner's sight and the seeker head and its technical layout and design, unambiguous target identification and designation at a range of 7,000 m is enabled . Is there a Russian equivalent to the 10µ-technology ? Last heard ... there ain't any .

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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  Austin on Fri Jul 12, 2013 9:42 am

    The Akash is more like a modern day Kub , it has slightly better speed , a little more range and has got a phased array radar thats developed indigenous by us , its really our first attempt to develop something that is resonable state of art by todays standard and is mass product cost effective SAM with high tactical mobility and veratility on platforms deployed.

    I had the opportunity to speak with Akash SAM developer and in its trial it has been tested against all the EW equipment that IAF has and its Rajendra Phased Radar has known to be ressiliant against it , so its a good deal for Indian Armed Force viz our potential foes.

    A big advantage for us with Akash system being mostly indiginous we can upgrade it inhouse and dont have to pay any one for upgrade or pay for making any changes , And and improvement is on the anvil too

    http://www.livefistdefence.com/2010/06/exclusive-akash-mk-ii-sam-to-fly-in-two.html
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    GarryB
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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

    Post  GarryB on Sat Jul 13, 2013 11:28 am

    as Ramjet is propelled all the way to the target and does not loose energy till the end game.

    A ramjet engine is a jet engine and therefore succeptable to flameouts... a rocket engine is not. Whether the missile could restart its engine is unknown but it would certainly not be able to restart during high g manouvers...

    BUK M2 can easily be taken out by attack helos armed with precision guided missiles like PARS 3LR

    Hahahaha... TRIGAT-LR? How would a helo with 7km range missiles get past Tunguska-M vehicles from the early 1980s with 8km range SAMS to use these wonderful ATGMs?

    More importantly how would it get past Tunguska-M1 from 2004 with 10km range SAMs or the soon to be adopted Pantsir-S1 with 20km range SAMs?


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    Re: Indian Military SAM Systems

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