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    Russian Space Forces: News Thread

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    Russian Patriot

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    Russia Must Be Ready for Space, Cyber Wars

    Post  Russian Patriot on Sat Jan 28, 2012 8:53 pm

    Russia Must Be Ready for Space, Cyber Wars

    Russia must be ready for wars in space and in networks, Chief of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces Nikolai Makarov said on Saturday.

    "As you see, warfare center has moved to aerospace and information spheres, including cyber security, from traditional war theatres on land and sea. Concepts of network-centric war have made great progress," Makarov told an Academy of Military Sciences meeting. "We appraise how ... this question is being solved in Western leading countries."

    Makarov also said that an initial period of war had begun to exert a decisive influence on its course and outcome so modern wars became more short-timed.

    The chief added that hi-tech technologies force to cut number of soldiers for higher effectiveness of troops' actions.

    http://www.en.ria.ru/mlitary_news/20120128/171006069.html


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    SOC

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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  SOC on Fri Mar 02, 2012 4:56 am

    Has Russia made any mention of testing a new OTH system? Think along the lines of the old Duga-3 STEEL YARD BMEW radar.
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    GarryB

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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  GarryB on Fri Mar 02, 2012 6:56 am

    You mean other than their new Voronezh-class radars they are using to replace the old Daryal and Dnepr class radars?

    Or do you mean something else?

    The focus Putin mentioned in his many recent "going forward" speeches mentions air defence as a priority right after strategic defence, so I am guessing the Aerospace Defence Forces might have quite a budget... but then they do have to defend the worlds largest country.
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    SOC

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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  SOC on Fri Mar 02, 2012 7:42 am

    Something new, an OTH-B along the lines of the old Duga-3 STEEL YARD. They've got a prototype near Nizhny Novgorod, suggesting that it's an NNIRT product.

    vK_man

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    what is the current status of russian satellite based wake detection system?

    Post  vK_man on Mon Mar 12, 2012 6:27 pm

    what is the current status of russian satellite based wake detection system which was being developed in the soviet era?
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    GarryB

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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  GarryB on Mon Mar 12, 2012 10:55 pm

    No idea, but they have set up a new separate force called the Aerospace defence force which takes over the role of controling the air space above Russia and the space above Russia, for which they are launching quite a large number of military satellites over the next few years...

    There has been talk of 100 new military satellites to be launched.

    The purpose of the merge was to combine the Space defence forces and the Air Defence forces to use radars in space, in the air and on the ground to search for missiles and aircraft from ground level and out into space including hypersonic and subsonic things.
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    Sujoy

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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  Sujoy on Sat May 05, 2012 11:40 am

    The Kremlin has been briefed about the need to come up with an Air Sea Battle concept. Russian Navy & Air Force see cyber operations particularly those involving wireless attacks as a continuum of EW techniques that started inserting false and misleading information in communication and sensors from 2001 onwards. Chinese hackers are neither simplistic or amateurish . China's KJ 2000 is among the platform dedicated to electronic and cyber attacks of airborne targets , particularly those with wide aperture radars that provide paths to invade electronic systems.

    I recon Russian aero space designers -

    (A) Will follow the engineering template of compartmentalizing and isolating functionalities like flight control, weapons & mission systems from cyber weapons that can be delivered wirelessly to corrupt, destroy or exploit digitally controlled capabilities . They key is letting systems interact without providing a path for malware .

    (B) They can also try to obfuscate data so as to break a package of information into parts , distributes the pieces and encrypts each differently . The information can only be re assembled by someone who has the key and instructions about where to find each part.


    Austin

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    Sorry dont know where to post but since its Air Defence Related posted it here , Mods can move to the right thread if needed.

    Post  Austin on Sun May 13, 2012 7:30 pm

    Sorry dont know where to post but since its Air Defence Related posted it here , Mods can move to the right thread if needed.

    Russian Air and Space Defense Troops: Gaping Holes
    Moscow Defence Brief May 2012

    Alexander Stukalin, Kommersant Publishing House

    The Russian Armed Forces have recently completed a major reorganization with resulted in the formation of the Air and Space Defense Troops (Voyskavozdyshno-kosmicheskoyoborony) as an independent armed service. The decision was unveiled by the government with great fanfare, after much squabbling behind the curtains and heated debates among the military. Nevertheless, the ASD Troops began their service as scheduled, on December 1, 2011. Several months on we have enough information about them to draw some preliminary conclusions.

    Background


    Soviet air and space defense research began back into the 1970s at the Air Defense Command Academy and at the MoD’s 2nd Central Research Institute. Air Defense Troops were an extremely important and powerful component of the Soviet Armed Forces, and an independent armed service. They included anti-aircraft missile and radar troops augmented with fighter aviation, as well as missile defense and space defense troops. The latter component operated the Soviet Missile Attack Early Warning System (SPRN) and the Space Monitoring System (SKKP). In essence, the Soviet air defense system already had all the components of the future ASD Troops in terms of technology, organization and equipment — but those components were not integrated into a single whole. The Soviet military had not yet formed the concept of the various ASD forces and weaponry working in concert in a variety of combat situations against a whole range of the adversary’s weapons and their combinations, from low-altitude and low-speed cruise missiles to strategic warheads and military satellites.

    Soviet research in that area was stepped up after the United States announced its Strategic Defense Initiative program in 1983. In 1986 the HQs of the Soviet Air Defense Troops and the Soviet Air Force ordered the military research institutions to develop “means of defending against air and space attacks using space weapons and new air defense (missile defense) systems”. As part of the Perspektiva R&D project conducted in 1986-1988 the military researchers proposed the organizational structure for the future ASD troops. In the 1980s and 1990s the Air Defense Troops conducted a number of technical experiments during which they used the SPRN stations to detect air targets and provide target designation to the Air Force. They also experimented with using air defense and missile defense weaponry against aeroballistic missiles and assessed the possibility of using the MiG-31 fighter to intercept cruise missiles. During the same period the MoD conducted a series of at least three command staff exercises codenamed “Deflection” (Otrazheniye) which involved air defense and missile defense troops, as well as the SPRN and SKKP systems. Territorially the exercises covered the Central Zone of the Soviet/Russian air defense system.1

    Work on the project proceeded apace even after the break-up of the Soviet Union. Russia’s first comprehensive ASD program involved the country’ largest radio-electronic, missile and aircraft design bureaux. Decisions to that effect were made by Defense Minister PavelGrachev and the MoD Council. The specifications for the project were approved in 1993 by the commander of Air Defense Troops, Col. Gen. Viktor Prudnikov. Informed military sources claim that all the main principles of the program were outlined in President Boris Yeltsin’s Decree No 1032 of July 13, 1993 “On the Organization of the Air Defense System of the Russian Federation”. Immediately after the decree was issued the MoD held a special command staff exercise codenamed Zenith-93. Following the exercise Gen. P. Grachev announced that forming the new branch of the Russian Armed Forces, the Air and Space Defense Troops, was one of the central objectives of the MoD. The first comprehensive ASD program was given the green light. In 1994-1996 the MoD drew up details of the organization of the Main ASD District (covering Central Russia and Moscow) and other territorial districts. It also produced a concept of ASD development up to 2005.2

    However, shortly afterwards, on July 13, 1997, President Yeltsin issued Decree No 725c “On optimizing the structure of the Russian Armed Forces”, which abolished the ASD troops as a separate armed service. The ASD tasks and functions were distributed between the Air Force, the Strategic Missile Troops (which initially took over the Missile Defense Service, the SPRN and the SKKP systems) and the Navy. The Space Defense System was taken off combat duty, and for the next decade the whole ASD program remained suspended.

    The new stage

    The Russian government and the MoD ordered work on the program to be resumed in the mid-2000s, under President Vladimir Putin. Before that, in 2001, the MoD set up an independent Space Troops service, which took over all the divisions that controlled space launches and satellites from the Strategic Missile Troops, as well as the Missile Defense Service, the SPRN and the SKKP services. The latter three services were merged into the 3rd Independent Missile and Space Defense Army. A year later the Moscow District of the Air Force and Air Defense service was transformed into the Special Purpose Command. Both the 3rd Army and the Special Purpose Command were tasked with defending Moscow; the MoD once again began to think about closer integration between the two structures.

    In 2006 President Putin approved a new Air and Space Defense Concept for the period of 2016 and beyond. The document had taken three years to develop. But neither the Concept nor the 2005 Russian Security Council Resolution “On the prospects of developing the Russian military organization up to 2015” contained any plans for making air and space defense a separate armed service. In fact, the Security Council resolution stipulated that Space Troops should become part of the Air Force3 — but the decision was not announced publicly. Discussions at the time focused on the most suitable name the existing structures. For example, the chief of the Special Purpose Command, Col. Gen. YuriySolovyev, said that at some point in the future the Command could be renamed the Moscow Air and Space Defense Zone, arguing that "the name more accurately reflects the purpose and the status of these forces".4

    Interestingly, the first official to predict the merger of the Moscow Air Defense System with the capital’s A-135 Missile Defense System into a kind of “superstructure” was the then commander of the Russian Air Force, Gen. Vladimir Mikhaylov. He also correctly predicted the time frame for such merger. “The S-400 SAM system can form the core of the space defense service. In addition we have the A-135 system. All of this should be merged into a single whole. I believe that such a model will become operational after 2011,” the general said in August 2006.5 From then on, all the discussions among the top brass focused on the question of how to integrate the two separate systems and who should be in charge once the reorganization was completed. In 2008 Mikhaylov’s successor, Col. Gen AleksandrZelin, insisted that “as part of our efforts to create the Air and Space Defense service it is absolutely necessary to merge the Air Force and the missile and space defense forces under a single command within the Air Force; this must be done as soon as possible.” Zelin’s proposal was that the remit of the Space Troops should be reduced to launching satellites and “anti-satellite measures”. He later added that “if the need arises”, the Space Troops could be tasked with “waging warfare in space”6 — which, given the current situation, sounded more like a cruel joke by the Air Force commander.

    But Zelin’s advice was not heeded by the government and the MoD. All he managed to achieve was to rename on July 1, 2010 the Special Purpose Command the Operational-Strategic Command of the Space Defense Forces. Apart from that small victory, the Air Force lost the bureaucratic tussle for control of ASD. One of the reasons for that was the radical military reform launched in 2008 by Defense Minister AnatoliySerdyukov and the chief of the General Staff, Gen. Nikolay Makarov. One of the goals of that reform was to reduce the number and size of various command structures, and to abolish unnecessary tiers of command. The Air Force and the Army saw some of the most drastic transformations.

    The Air Force lost many units and airfields; its armies, divisions and regiments were abolished. The service moved to an entirely new organizational structure. It now includes Air Force and Air Defense commands, Air and Space Defense brigades subordinated to military districts, air bases and air groups. The intensity of combat training has been ramped up. The usual practice of combat duty has been restored across the Air Force; all the units now permanently remain in a combat-ready state. The number of exercises and inspections has been increased. Finally, the bloated officer training system has been overhauled.

    In other words, the Air Force Command has had its hands full ever since the second half of 2008. Its energies have been completely monopolized by trying to “fight off the reform”. Even if we admit for the sake of argument that Zelin and his subordinates have been doing their best to implement the MoD’s reform plans precisely and on schedule, it is clear that they have had no time or energy left for squabbles over who should control the ASD forces. To make matters worse, all three of the Main Commands (of the Army, the Air Force and the Navy) have also undergone serious transformations, and lost all but five of their previous 30 functions in the process. They are now in charge of such relatively menial tasks as training, ordering new hardware and overseeing peacekeeping missions. In essence, the Main Commands are no longer in control of their respective armed services. The size of each Main Command has been slashed from 1,500 to 150-170 officers. In such a situation it would clearly be pointless for Zelin to keep fighting for control of the Air and Space Defense service. It would be equally pointless for the MoD to task the Air Force with creating and running that service.

    Meanwhile, the relatively small and compact Space Troops service has been in the MoD’s and the Russian government’s good books ever since its creation. There have been very few complaints about its performance. The service has also escaped the military reform relatively unscathed and preserved a lot of bureaucratic clout, which put it in a very good position to take control of the ASD Troops. Still, nothing was certain.

    The problem was that many of the top brass favored a third option under which neither the Air Force nor the Space Troops would be put in charge of creating and running the Air and Space Defense Troops. For example, the president of the Academy of Military Sciences, Gen. MakhmutGareyev, whose opinions have been held in high regard since Soviet times, has insisted up until very recently that there was no need to create a separate new armed service or to subordinate it to the Air Force. He argued that it would be enough to set up a separate Strategic Command within the General Staff itself, modeled on the United States Strategic Command. Under Gareyev’s proposal the new Strategic Command would be tasked only with combat command-and-control, as well as organizing combat duty operations. The actual Air and Space Defense forces, their day-to-day running, training and logistics would be distributed between the already existing services. Gen. Gareyev argued that "such an option is the least costly in terms of money and resources; it requires 50 per cent fewer officers and can be implemented much more swiftly“.7

    But the chief of General Staff, Gen. Makarov, already had his hands full with the reform of the armed forces. Besides, he had repeatedly expressed his annoyance over the disjointed nature of all the forces that constitute the Russian air and space defense capability, and over the absence of a single body in control of that capability.8 It was therefore quite naïve to hope that Gen. Makarov and the General Staff would accept the Gareyev plan and busy themselves with creating the Air and Space Defense service on top of all their other commitments.

    Be that as it may, during his address to the Federal Assembly on November 30, 2010 President Medvedev said that the government was determined to merge all the Russian air and space defense components “under a single strategic command” before the end of 2011. By that time the MoD and the General Staff had already decided that it would not be merely a “command” but a separate armed service, and that the service would be created on the basis of the Space Troops. In January 2011 the commander of the Space Troops, Lt. Gen. Oleg Ostapenko, held a press conference to announce that “all the main documents outlining the future Air and Space Defense system” were already being drafted, and that he would soon be ready "to submit one of the versions of the concept for the development of that system to the MoD and the General Staff“.9 In April 2011 the general looked visibly pleased as he told journalists that the concept had been approved and that work on forming the new Air and Space Defense system had already begun.

    The current state


    It is known that in 2011 President Medvedev issued the decree “On changes to the composition of the Russian Armed Forces until January 1, 2016”, which ordered the creation of the Air and Space Defense Troops. But next to nothing is known about the actual contents of that decree. The government has not made public the remit of the new armed service, its numerical strength, organizational structure or the schedule of its creation. Even the number of the decree and the exact date of its signing remain unknown. The date is actually a very interesting detail, because in late July 2011 the commander of the United Strategic Command of Air and Space Defense (which was still part of the Air Force at the time), Lt. Gen. ValeriyIvanov, told journalists without a hint of doubt that “the Air and Space Defense system is already in place”. He immediately added, however, that it had yet to be decided whether Air and Space Defense would be an independent armed service. “We are not clear on that for now... The final decision will be made by the political leadership of our country,” the general said.10 He also insisted during the interview that the air force units which constituted part of the air defense system would remain directly subordinated to the Air and Space Defense command. As we now know, the general was wrong. In other words, only three months before he was put in charge of the Air and Space Defense Troops as first deputy commander, Gen Ivanov (who was the commander of the Moscow air defense system at the time) was almost completely in the dark about the shape of the future system. Meanwhile, as expected, in November 2011 the commander of the Space Troops, Gen. Ostapenko, was appointed as commander of the Air and Space Defense Troops.11 And on December 1, 2011 these troops were put on combat duty.

    The main outlines of the new organizational structure emerged shortly afterwards. The Air Defense and Missile Defense Command and the Space Command have become part of the Air and Space Defense Troops. The Air Defense and Missile Defense Command is headed by the former deputy commander of the Air Force in charge of Air Defense, Maj. Gen. Sergey Popov. The Command includes the 9th Missile Defense Division (the A-135 system, with an HQ in Sofrino) and three missile defense brigades stationed in Moscow region; all three — the 4th (Dolgoprudnyy), the 5th (Vidnoye) and the 6th (Rzhev) — were previously part of the Air Force’s ASD Operational Strategic Command.

    The Space Command includes the 820th Main Missile Attack Early Warning Center (Solnechnogorsk), the 821st Main Space Intelligence Center (the former Space Monitoring Center), and the 153rdTitov Main Space Testing Center (Krasnoznamensk), in addition to 14 separate measuring stations spread from Komsomolsk-on-Amur in the east to Kaliningrad in the west. The former chief of the 153rd Main Space Testing Center, Maj. Gen. Oleg Maydanovich, has been appointed as chief of the Space Command.12

    The Air and Space Defense Troops also include the 1st State Experimental Cosmodrome (Plesetsk) and several centrally-subordinated units.13, 14

    The decision to designate the space launch center in Plesetsk as an operational-strategic unit of combat troops has drawn immediate criticism. By its very nature the facility in Plesetsk has no air or space defense capability. It is merely a support facility; in addition, it is heavily involved in civilian programs. When asked after the reform what the space launches in Plesetsk had to do with air and space defense, the commander of the facility, Maj. Gen. Aleksey Golovko decided not to invent any plausible explanations. His answer was simple: "No comment“.15

    Worse, Russian military experts have immediately noticed that whereas all the former Space Troops units have been taken over by the Air and Space Defense Troops with very few changes, the air defense component of the new service looks extremely weak. In fact, the “air” and “defense” parts of the Air and Space Defense Troops name are more of an aspiration than a statement of fact.

    The three air defense brigades are each the size of regiments, but they are spread too thin over their large area of responsibility. They are clearly not strong enough for the tasks laid upon them; that is especially true of the outer-ring 6th Brigade in Rzhev. In 2008 the area of responsibility of the Special Purpose Command, the predecessor of the Air Defense and Missile Defense Command, covered Moscow and 26 administrative regions around the capital. That territory is home to 30 per cent of Russia’s population and has 140 separate protected facilities. It was said that the fighting ability of the Special Purpose Command was sufficient to hit up to 500 high and medium-altitude targets and up to 400 low-altitude targets in a “single volley” of surface-to-air missiles and air-launched weaponry.16 But even back then it was not very clear how such a feat can be accomplished for a protected area of 1.3 million sq.km. Since then the Central District of the Russian air defense system has not received any new weaponry; neither has it been augmented by any mobile reserves. In fact, the new Air and Space Defense Troops have taken over the SAM systems but not the aircraft. Those aircraft are still assigned to the Military Districts (Operational Strategic Commands) and to the Air Force. They were an important component of the air defense system — and its only mobile component. For example, the MiG-31 fighters which were assigned to the Special Purpose Command (the Command also had Su-27 and MiG-29 regiments) were supposed to be able to take out as many as 144 air targets.17

    Neither has the merger of Air Defense and Missile Defense strengthened the whole system. The commanders of the Air and Space Defense Troops say they want Air Force, Missile Defense, the SPRN and the SKKP systems to work hand in hand to achieve synergies. The Air Defense and Missile Defense branch now even has a common catalogue of targets with single designations.18But in practice such integration will be difficult to pull off. The specifics of the combat tasks performed by the various weapons systems now in service are so different that merging them into a single operational system would be very premature. Back in the 1990s the MoD attempted to integrate the S-50 system (Moscow air defense) and the A-135 (missile defense) system. The resulting performance was adequate only for SRAM-type targets which are no longer representative of the kind of adversary the integrated system may have to face.19

    Grand plans for the next decade

    The commanders of the ASD Troops seem to be well aware of these problems. Gen. Ostapenko has politely described the current fighting ability of the force as “somewhat limited”. But there are grand plans to ramp up that ability, and most of them have already been unveiled. They are part of the State Armament Program 2020, which will cost an estimated 3 trillion — 4 trillion roubles.20 According to a presentation held by the ASD Troops commander, the plans for his force are as follows21:

    * Deploy a United Space Detection and Combat System (consisting at the initial stage of four new satellites which will monitor all the potential missile launch areas in the Northern Hemisphere around the clock)

    * Augment the SPRN system with three new prefabricated radars (RLS VZG type) near Armavir and Kaliningrad (77Ya5-DM Voronezh-DM, decimeter range) and near Irkutsk (high-potential meter-range 77Ya6-VP Voronezh-VP)

    * Build and launch new RLS VZG radars in Pechora, Barnaul, Yeniseysk, Murmansk and Omsk

    * complete the development of an over-the-horizon (OTH) radar to detect space objects

    * equip combat units with the latest S-400 SAM systems; complete the development and begin the rollout of the next-generation S-500 system

    * improve the Moscow air defense system by further augmenting its fighting ability

    Looking at these objectives it becomes obvious that the focus is on strengthening the capability of the ASD Space Command. Plans to build new missile attack early warning radars along the perimeter of the country in order to cover the existing blind spots make perfect sense and deserve praise — especially since the list above appears incomplete.

    In at least two of his interviews Gen. Ostapenko mentioned that the MoD intends to build another radar in Orenburg Region.22,23 The completion of one more Voronezh-DM radar in Gabala, Azerbaijan is scheduled for 2019 (provided that an agreement can be reached with the Azeri government).24 This means that a total of seven new RLS VZG-type radars will be built. Their manufacturer, the Saransk Television Plant, has already been promised orders which will keep it in business well after 2030. Meanwhile, the developer of these radars, the RTI holding, has designed specially for the ASD Troops "new mobile stations which can be deployed where necessary as and when new threats emerge from new directions".25

    During his presentation Ostapenko did not say anything about any new space reconnaissance systems, but we have reliable information that there are ambitious plans in that area as well. For example, at the 7th Independent Measuring Station near Barnaul (Savvushka village) the MoD is building the second stage of an optics and laser center equipped with Eurasia’s largest laser telescope. The instrument has a diameter of 312 cm and weighs 85 tonnes. It was designed by the Precision Instruments Systems corporation to track satellites. The completion of the project is scheduled for 2014.26

    In addition, the Main Communications Directorate of the Armed Forces has announced that the ASD Troops will be the first armed service to be equipped with the latest digital communication technology. Meanwhile, the MoD is aiming to complete the upgrade of the ASD command center and put it on combat duty later this year (in essence this will be a new facility rather than a mere upgrade).

    Investment into upgrading the intelligence and space segment of the ASD troops is of course very important. We especially welcome the plan to launch a new generation of missile attack warning satellites, given that the current system is in a woeful state and that the program of launching the old 71X6 Oko-1 satellites has already ended.27 But we believe that the government is not moving fast enough to modernize and increase the firepower component of Air and Space Defense, i.e. the very component which actually underpins the “Defense” bit of the title.

    As of this moment the ASD Troops have only two SAM regiments equipped with the S-400 system: the 606th Regiment of the 5th Brigade near Elektrostal and the 210th Regiment of the 4th Brigade near Dmitrov. Under the SAP‑2020 program the armed forces have been promised enough of the new systems to equip 28 regiments (or 56 divisions, under the current system). That would enable the armed forces significantly to strengthen the air defenses of the Central District, which was seen as a priority not so long ago. But as soon as the brigades and regiments stationed near Moscow became part of the Space Troops system rather than the Air Force, strange things started to happen. More precisely, there have been serious changes in the list of the destinations of the new S-400 systems to be supplied to the armed forces.

    For example, the last regiment-sized batch of the S-400 systems delivered in 2011 (three such batches were delivered last year) was sent to Kaliningrad Region. Shortly afterwards the Air Force commander, Gen. Zelin, hinted that that the ASD troops would not be receiving any of those new missiles any time soon. “Several S-400 batches will be delivered in 2012 — but unlike in previous years, they will be supplied to units stationed along the Russian land and maritime borders rather than around Moscow,” the general said.28Zelin’s subordinates later added that the next regiment-sized batch of the S-400 will be deployed in the Far East. When asked who exactly determines the allocation of the S-300, S-400 and S-500 systems, Gen. Zelin said that "for now, these matters are decided by the Air Force... After that, we’ll see. For now let me just emphasize once again that the ASD troops’ area or responsibility is limited to the Central Industrial District".29 If that is really the case, it appears that the Air Force has very little interest in the Central Industrial District and seems bent on stationing all the new S-400 batteries as far away from Moscow as possible.

    Meanwhile, the future S-500 system is very far from being ready for prime time. Under the SAP-2020 program about 10 S-500 batteries should be supplied to the troops. But it has recently been announced that the beginning of tests of the new system has been pushed back by another two years.30 Representatives of the ASD Troops say all the old S-300PM systems have now been upgraded to the Favorit-S specification. The second stage of the upgrade, to the S-300PM2 spec, will improve the SAM system’s kill ratio for ballistic targets, replace the obsolete control stations and IT elements, and add autonomous target detection and designation components, upgraded communications systems and modern geo-positioning capability.31 But all these upgrades cannot change the fact that the underlying S-300 hardware is very aged. The life of the S-300 missiles in service with the ASD regiments has already been extended to 30 years, and now the time is approaching for yet another extension if they are to remain in service.32

    Meanwhile, the Moscow missile defense system is being upgraded as part of the Samolet-M (Aircraft-M) program (for details see an article in Issue 4, 2011 of MDB). The purpose of the program is “to augment the system’s fighting ability”. But in actual fact the program holds no promise of any radical improvement in the performance of the A-135(M) system. Gen Ostapenko has said that “at some point in the future” the system may be equipped with long-range missile interceptors, though it is not clear what time frame he had in mind. But such an upgrade would merely restore the system’s functionality to the level last seen in Soviet times, i.e. before the old long-range interceptors were decommissioned. Even back then the system’s capability was so limited as to be unsuitable for defending against any serious strikes. At the very best it could cope with a few single ballistic missiles, making it effective only against accidental missile launches or “terrorist” attacks by some hypothetical adversary.

    Doctrinal vacuum

    It appears, however, that inadequate equipment and insufficient anti-aircraft/anti-missile firepower is not the main problem facing the new ASD Troops. More worryingly, it turns out that, as Gen. Ostapenko put it during a presentation held in January 2012 at the Academy of Military Sciences, Russia “lacks a clear understanding in its military doctrines and strategies of what the ASD Troops are for”.

    The general then went on to describe his own understanding of the situation. “In our own opinion, the ASD system consists of the forces and hardware deployed on the ground, in the sea, in the air and in the outer space, and functionally united into a single system designed to protect the territory of Russia and its allies from attacks from the air, from outer space and via outer space”. Based on that interpretation the general formulated the tasks set before the current and future ASD system. These tasks are as follows33:

    * provide early warning about missile and space attacks, conduct reconnaissance of the situation in outer space, and alert the rest of the armed forces to any threats

    * intercept the warheads of intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles, destroy or functionally suppress the adversary’s military satellites

    * provide early warning about air raids; conduct reconnaissance of the situation in the airspace and monitor the use of the air space by the air defense and missile defense systems; defend the key command-and-control, military and economic infrastructure, as well as large concentrations of troops and key military facilities

    * monitor the radio-electronic situation and provide radio-electronic defense of ASD elements

    The ASD commander must recognize, however, that his understanding of the nature of the ASD system is not entirely compatible with the tasks he believes that system must perform. The “forces and equipment” which the general says make up the system are enough to protect the “key facilities and infrastructure”. But they are clearly not up to the task of “protecting the territory of Russia”, let alone Russia’s allies.

    It has become quite clear that the Russian ASD system suffers from a “doctrinal vacuum”. Such a situation raises some legitimate questions. For example, can it be that the ASD Concept for the period up to 2016 is so vague on the main principles and objectives of the system? And if it is, then who wrote that concept? What for? And why did it take three years to write it? Are we to understand that the main principles outlined in the document signed by President Putin in 2006 have been abandoned only six years later?

    In his pre-election article on defense issues published three months ago, Putin continues to insist that ASD is a national security priority. To be more precise, in the list of these national security priorities he ranks it second after the Russian nuclear deterrent. Based on his view of the global military-political developments (i.e. the deployment of the American missile defense system) and on the need to maintain the current global balance of power, Putin sets only two main strategic tasks before the armed forces. These tasks are “to be able to penetrate any missile defense system, and to protect the Russian retaliatory strike capability”. He goes on to say that "these tasks are to be fulfilled by the Strategic Nuclear Forces and the Air and Space Defense system“.34

    Despite these proclamations it has to be recognized that neither the ASD Troops in their current shape, nor the future ASD force the Russian military planners hope to build by 2020 are up to the task of “protecting the Russian retaliatory strike capability”. That capability is not concentrated in the Central Industrial District. It is spread all over the country, from Kamchatka in the east to Kaliningrad in the west (the Iskander missiles Moscow wants to station in Kaliningrad can well be considered as part of that capability if Washington deploys its missile defense elements in Poland). Protecting all that capability from possible missile attacks or air raids by means of anti-aircraft systems and fighter aviation is completely unrealistic. The ASD system Russia is building clearly appears to prioritize the reconnaissance and space-based capability. In theory, there is only one way such a “Reconnaissance and Space” model can protect the Russian retaliatory capability: it needs to put in place an effective and reliable system of detecting missile launches (including cruise missiles launched at various altitudes) and providing early warning about such launches. The system must be efficient and reliable enough to guarantee that in the event of an attack the Russian leadership will have enough time to give launch-under-attack orders, and that the Russian strategic nuclear forces will have enough time fully to execute those orders before being hit. But is that the kind of defense scenario Putin actually has in mind?

    The doctrinal vacuum, or rather the doctrinal uncertainty, can undermine the new ASD Troops service and eventually spell its untimely demise due to the lack of any concrete purpose. That uncertainty should be the main target of criticism. In fact, the military have plenty of various alternative options, models and proposals for how the ASD service should be built, complete with all the necessary projections and calculations. All that is really necessary is to make the right choice, and for someone (the Kremlin, the MoD, or some individual general or government official) to take the responsibility for making that choice.

    In the end, all we need is clear answers to a clear set of questions:

    * Does Russia need Air and Space Defense, and why? Does it actually have to be a defense service, or would an early warning system be sufficient?

    * Does the ASD service have to cover the entire Russian territory, or only the most important sites?

    * Should the launch sites of the Strategic Nuclear Forces be among the protected facilities? Should they actually be on top of the list of such facilities?

    * Can such an ASD service be built, and how much will it cost?

    * Finally, if the whole country cannot be protected, would it make sense to limit the protected area to Moscow and central Russia?

    A perfectly protected Moscow would stop being an attractive military target if the adversary has sufficient resources and is free to attack the rest of the Russian territory unimpeded. Conversely, a haphazardly built Moscow defense system would be of very little value for Russia itself. Many of the Russian generals understand that very well.

    Naturally, it would have been preferable to answer these questions before creating the ASD Troops — but it is not yet too late. If all these questions are left unanswered, sooner or later people will start asking one final question: why have such an inadequate ASD system at all?

    1 Volkov S.A. The foundations of ASD.Air and Space Defense, No 6, 2010.

    2 Volkov S.A. The foundations of ASD.Air and Space Defense, No 1, 2011.

    3 Mikhaylov A. ASD: the right decision is needed. Air and Space Defense. No 6, 2010.

    4 Interfax-AVN, April 7, 2005.

    5 ITAR-TASS, August 9, 2006.

    6 ITAR-TASS, January 19, 2008.

    7 Gareev M.A. Creating the ASD service is a priority national task. Air and Space Defense, No 3, 2011.

    8 Interfax-AVN, December 14, 2010.

    9 ITAR-TASS, January 27, 2011.

    10 RIA Novosti, July 22, 2011.

    11 Kommersant, November 7, 2011.

    12 RossiyskayaGazeta, December 9, 2011.

    13 Voenno-promyshlenyyKuryer, No 5 (422), February 15, 2012.

    14 Panorama Mirnogo, No 12 (64), March 29, 2012.

    15 Vesti TV news, March 8, 2012.

    16 KrasnayaZvezda, May 16, 2008.

    17 KrasnayaZvezda, February 14, 2007.

    18 KrasnayaZvezda, February 22, 2012.

    19 Krinitskiy Y. Russia’s ASD: signs of the future system. Air and Space Defense, No 2, 2012.

    20 Interfax-AVN, February 14, 2012.

    21 Voenno-promyshlennyyKuryer, No 5 (422), February 15, 2012.

    22 Komsomolskaya Pravda, March 13, 2012.

    23 MoskovskiyKomsomolets, February 28, 2012.

    24 RIA Novosti, December 12, 2011.

    25 KrasnayaZvezda, April 4, 2012.

    26 KrasnayaZvezda, March 28, 2012.

    27 Kommersant, March 31, 2012.

    28 RIA Novosti, February 13, 2012.

    29 NezavisimoyeVoennoeObozreniye, No 8, March 16, 2012.

    30 MoskovskiyKomsomolets, February 7, 2012.

    31 KrasnayaZvezda, January 27, 2012.

    32 NezavisimoyeVoennoeObozreniye, No 3, January 28, 2011.

    33 Voenno-promyshlennyyKuryer, No 5 (422), February 15, 2012.

    34 RossiyskayaGazeta, February 20, 2012.
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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  Viktor on Fri Jun 22, 2012 5:01 pm

    Here is one interesting development.

    I guess new Russian destroyers apart from being nuclear will also field S-500 system.

    Ships will be part of mobile NMD.

    06/22/12 THE LATEST MISSILE DESTROYERS WITH THE ELEMENTS IN RUSSIA WILL BEGIN CONSTRUCTION IN 2016

    June 22 2012 .



    RIA Novosti reported. United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC) in 2016, plans to lay the first ship in a series of destroyers with the elements of a missile defense (NMD), reported in Friday's CEO Roman Trotsenko.



    "There is talk of building a series of six destroyers eskadrovyh new model with the elements of a missile and space defense on them," - said Trotsenko reporters at the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum.



    Which elements of the missile is in question, is not specified. According to the USC, designing destroyers already begun, "laying of the first ship will happen in 2016."



    The project is developing specialists destroyers of the Northern Design Bureau, said Trotsenko. Build an order will be in St. Petersburg. "Most likely, order will be divided equally between the North and Baltic shipyard factory", - said the head of the corporation.



    "It will, in fact, pivot points of the Russian space defense system in the world ocean" - said Trotsenko of destroyers of the new series.

    http://ria.ru
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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  GarryB on Sat Jun 23, 2012 12:14 pm

    Placing ABM missiles on ships makes them very mobile and more flexible.

    Almaz-Antei have publicly stated that the ABM missiles after S-500 will likely be air launched.

    Certainly something released from a Mig-31 at mach 2.5 at 18km up should be able to hit satellites operating in quite high orbits.


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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  Viktor on Sat Jun 23, 2012 5:55 pm

    GarryB wrote:Placing ABM missiles on ships makes them very mobile and more flexible.

    Almaz-Antei have publicly stated that the ABM missiles after S-500 will likely be air launched.

    Certainly something released from a Mig-31 at mach 2.5 at 18km up should be able to hit satellites operating in quite high orbits.

    Or perhaps satelite launched?
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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  flamming_python on Sat Jun 23, 2012 6:11 pm

    Viktor wrote:Here is one interesting development.

    I guess new Russian destroyers apart from being nuclear will also field S-500 system.

    Ships will be part of mobile NMD.

    06/22/12 THE LATEST MISSILE DESTROYERS WITH THE ELEMENTS IN RUSSIA WILL BEGIN CONSTRUCTION IN 2016

    June 22 2012 .



    RIA Novosti reported. United Shipbuilding Corporation (USC) in 2016, plans to lay the first ship in a series of destroyers with the elements of a missile defense (NMD), reported in Friday's CEO Roman Trotsenko.



    "There is talk of building a series of six destroyers eskadrovyh new model with the elements of a missile and space defense on them," - said Trotsenko reporters at the St. Petersburg International Economic Forum.



    Which elements of the missile is in question, is not specified. According to the USC, designing destroyers already begun, "laying of the first ship will happen in 2016."



    The project is developing specialists destroyers of the Northern Design Bureau, said Trotsenko. Build an order will be in St. Petersburg. "Most likely, order will be divided equally between the North and Baltic shipyard factory", - said the head of the corporation.



    "It will, in fact, pivot points of the Russian space defense system in the world ocean" - said Trotsenko of destroyers of the new series.

    http://ria.ru

    Well that was pretty much a given. Where else are they going to place such systems? There's probably only room on the new destroyers, Kirovs and maybe Slava's with some heavy conversion (although I doubt that they will place it on the Slavas)
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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  TR1 on Sat Jun 23, 2012 8:44 pm

    Python you not only are a Russian but served in Russian navy, stop using them foul Western names for our ships! :p

    I agree however that Nakhimov and Lazarev (if the gods smile) would be perfect BMD platforms given size and power source.
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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  Viktor on Sat Jun 23, 2012 11:55 pm

    flamming_python wrote:
    Well that was pretty much a given. Where else are they going to place such systems? There's probably only room on the new destroyers, Kirovs and maybe Slava's with some heavy conversion (although I doubt that they will place it on the Slavas)

    Who knew Russia will use ships as part of NMD. It makes difference with radar system and missile load. I tought S-400 will be weapon of its choice and Russia future destroyer will have primary air defense role besides ability to launch devastating missile attack or seek and destroy subs.
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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  GarryB on Sun Jun 24, 2012 12:36 am

    Or perhaps satelite launched?

    Actually satellite launch would introduce a few problems... the obvious is lack of quick reload capability. The second would be that it would be like putting a sniper on a Merry Go Round to shoot another person on that MGR... which would actually make sense because as they are both on the same ride each would appear stationary... the problem is that unless the target follows a trajectory that matches the trajectory of your satellites it would be like a sniper going round on one MGR trying to shoot someone on another Merry Go Round. It is easier to just stand on the ground and shoot... and cheaper too... the price to get on these merry go rounds is hundreds of millions of dollars for a large satellite with several tons of missile interceptors.

    If you want to start basing weapons on satellites it makes sense for them to be reentry vehicles of ICBMs or SLBMs... a large satellite could carry dozens and release them like a cargo ship can release sea mines... the enemy wont have any idea of where they came from...

    Well that was pretty much a given. Where else are they going to place such systems? There's probably only room on the new destroyers, Kirovs and maybe Slava's with some heavy conversion (although I doubt that they will place it on the Slavas)

    These destroyers are going to be the numbers vessels of the Russian Navy so it makes sense for them to carry them... but an important thing to keep in mind is that if the naval S-500 is similar size to the S-400 big missiles or smaller then they can be loaded into the Redut launchers being fitted to many new and upgraded Russian surface vessels. If it turns out to be bigger I would think configuring it to be launched from the UKSK launchers could be worth while... the 9m length could allow a booster model.

    Then all you need is the appropriate radars able to look up... the data sharing network they are working on should allow satellite data and data from a range of platforms... land, sea, and air be combined to search for and track targets.

    Python you not only are a Russian but served in Russian navy, stop using them foul Western names for our ships! :p

    I agree in principle, but do find the Russian names hard to remember (and spell). Embarassed

    Yekaterinburg arriving @ Zvezdochka for repairs after the fire.

    Nice photo.

    Who knew Russia will use ships as part of NMD. It makes difference with radar system and missile load. I tought S-400 will be weapon of its choice and Russia future destroyer will have primary air defense role besides ability to launch devastating missile attack or seek and destroy subs.

    I very much doubt every Redut tube will be filled with S-500 missiles... the purpose of multi missile launch systems is variety and choice and flexibility.

    Such weapons will not likely be fired in salvo by one ship... 5 x S-500s launched from 5 different ships spread over a few thousand square kms would have a much better chance of intercepting one target than 5 launched from one vessel.

    With this in mind.... even on an ABM patrol a vessel fitted to fire S-500 will only likely carry 2-4 missiles at most, with the rest of the tubes filled with other SAM types to defend the group and the ship itself.


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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  Viktor on Tue Jun 26, 2012 3:28 pm

    Here is another article about new Russian destroyer and S-500 (S-400 at first) missile system combined. What is interesting is mentioning of 185km atitude 40N6 missile.

    Now I dont know how credible this source is but I find unlikely that 40N6 will take some years for development as was earlier already reported that 40N6 missile will come in production this year.




    26.06.12 DESTROYERS WILL SHIP NEXT VERSION OF C-500
    June 26 2012 .

    News, Denis Thalmann. Destroyers (destroyers), which Russia should start producing in 2016, will be equipped with anti-ship variant of the C-500. This "Izvestia" said a source in the military-industrial complex. He also noted that the development of the complex may be delayed, so the first ships can equip the previous generation C-400.

    - The S-500 will be ready in the gland until 2014. Not the fact that we're gonna bring it to the version of the ship in 2016. So, probably on the ship's head will be installed shipboard version of the C-400, which is almost ready. Then it will replace the separate systems for S-500. But the problem lies elsewhere - to work in near space is needed long-range missile, which is still not ready for either C-400 or C-500, - said the source, "Izvestia".

    The system of aerospace defense S-500, which promises to construct in 2015, will have to knock down objects flying at an altitude of more than 185 km at a distance of more than 3,5 thousand km from the launcher.

    The latest development of the existing manufacturers is S-400 system, which can destroy targets at a height of 5 m to 185 km . However, for high-rise buildings need a new missile 40N6E, which can not be created for several years. Next-generation missile that can fly even higher, too, is open to question.

    Source of "Izvestia" added that without the launch complex will be unfit for combat missile, and compared the situation with submarines, "Northwind" - the lead ship of "Yuri Dolgoruky" was launched in 2008, but due to problems with the missile "Bulava" to has not yet been adopted by the Navy.

    In Concern PVO "Almaz-Antei", "Izvestia" refused to specify what kind of system they will develop for the new destroyers, arguing that "the issue is still too early to discuss."

    At Northern Shipyard "Izvestia" confirmed that they will participate in the tender for the construction of destroyers, but noted that as long as they do not know what the project.

    - What the designers lay in the ship, we do not know. What lay - and then we will build. Currently work is being done at the design stage, so anything definite can be said only when the project will be approved by the head of ship - said the representative of the shipyards.

    In the North PBC "Izvestia" were told that the complex air-defense destroyers will be the new modular and interchangeable, but declined to specify the parameters of the system, referring to state secret.

    The expiring July 1 of the USC Roman Trotsenko told reporters that the anti-missile destroyers will be built in 2016 as an "anchor points of the Russian space defense system in the oceans."

    Chief Editor of "Arsenal of the Fatherland" Victor Murakhovski believes that the system S-400 or C-500 on the new destroyers will provide cover for naval forces outside Russian territorial waters.

    - The U.S. is now developing the concept of "Prompt Global Strike", which involves striking the intercontinental ballistic missiles and cruise strategic U.S. for a few hours to anywhere in the world, including the ship's connections. We have also a powerful long-range air defense system is not available - in fact only the C-300F is on a single atomic cruiser - said Murakhovski.

    In addition, the expert pointed out that the C-500 in contrast to the C-400, which is designed for air defense, creating a missile defense system, including it will be able to deal with hypersonic facilities that are actively developing the United States.

    He stressed that the naval variant of the C-500, 56 samples of which are going to purchase up to 2020, fit only ships with a large displacement from the destroyer and above - on the corvettes and frigates, C-500 will not fit.

    Former Chief of Staff Viktor Esin announced SRF "Izvestia" that we are talking about creating a unified system of air and missile defense borders of Russia.
    http://izvestia.ru/
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    Here is one interesting development.

    Post  GarryB on Mon Jul 02, 2012 2:37 am

    Actually to be properly useful the S-500 would need to be compatible with the Redut standard launcher, which means its dimensions would be limited by the physical dimensions of that launch system.

    The benefits include flexibility as a dedicated launcher would not be necessary, but also that an enemy would really never have any idea if your ship is or is not equipped with the ability to shoot down a range of targets in near space.

    You have to keep in mind that currently the S-500 is for shooting down IRBMs and even some ICBM RVs, but in 10 years time some of the missile threats to ships could have similar performance levels and require a much more capable missile like S-500. In less than 5 years Russia and India expect the mach 5-7 Brahmos II to enter service... who knows what hypersonic atmosphere skimming weapon will be developed by 2025.

    But back to Redut, its dimensions are fixed, but another possibility could be to use the UKSK launcher which is the surface to surface missile launcher which can carry 8 or 2 missiles depending on its configuration.

    The main problem is what will the S-500 actually look like... we have seen lots of line drawings, but from what has been said it seems the S-500 might actually be smaller than the full size 1.8 ton S-300/S-400 missiles so there should be no problems fitting them to the Redut launchers and in fact for some vessels the fitting of the missiles to the UKSK should be trivial as the large S-300 missiles are about 7.5m long (not the S-300V, I am talking about the S-300P missiles) so the Redut tubes should already be big enough and the UKSK would have plenty of space at about 9m.

    So what could you use them for?

    Well actually they would be rather useful for a range of tasks... you could send a ship to the equator and launch a micro satellite with the boost given by the earths rotation you should get a higher orbit than if launched in Russian territory. You could base ships near NATO forces on an ABM mission so AEGIS class vessels operating in the North Sea hoping to intercept Russian ICBMs might find their own interceptors being intercepted, and most importantly... as long as the missile fits in standard launchers it means that pretty much every Russian naval vessel could have a missile that protects it and a large chunk of the area around it from ballistic threats... Corvettes in the Black and Caspian Sea could form part of an ABM system protecting Russia... if needed a couple of Russian destroyers could be sent to Myanmar or Syria and offer real protection from ballistic threats and with S-400 missiles offer protection from cruise missiles too.

    It is a bit like the new sabot ammo in 5.45 x 39mm calibre... it can be used in standard AK-74 assault rifles but is effective under water, or into water, or out of water. A soldier might never use it, but its existence means that his weapon is more capable than any other assault rifle available now because it becomes effective in 2/3rds more of the planet, yet it is still the same rifle. It doesn't matter if the new ammo is never issued and the new ammo would have made no difference in Afghanistan or Chechnia, but for Naval Infantry it means that one weapon instead of two can be carried.


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    Duga radar

    Post  SOC on Fri Jul 06, 2012 1:19 am

    I think I figured it out. The object near Nizhny Novgorod should be an Object 5452 radar, built by the same people behind the Voronezh series. One of their annual reports mentions its export potential, so it might not be anything the Russians are going to use. With a bunch of Voronezh radars and a crapload of BIG BIRD E radars operating with the S-400s all over the place soon it's not like they'll need it anyway.

    You can see it here, second and third images from the bottom:

    http://dedugan530.livejournal.com/227953.html

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    ΑΒΜ Systems game and Arms Race

    Post  Austin on Thu Sep 06, 2012 9:14 am

    Defense: defense system S-500 will exceed their foreign counterparts

    INTERFAX.RU - The newest anti-aircraft missile system S-500, which is created for the benefit of air-space defense, tactical and technical characteristics surpass American counterparts, "Interfax" Commander Col. Gen. EKR Oleg Ostapenko.

    According to him, work on the S-500 is on schedule and will be completed before 2020.

    He noted that the C-500 will be better than any American counterpart.

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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  Austin on Thu Sep 06, 2012 9:18 am

    Some times it seems to me Russia is obsessed with every thing America does , An official statement has to say this system will be better than American one or this missile can defeat American system Laughing

    Well no different than our own DRDO which will use American presentation ( slides/PPT ) and will use American system as benchmark to gauge its own Razz

    I am sure US stands in an envious position Smile
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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  GarryB on Thu Sep 06, 2012 10:30 am

    Just shows that the US leads the way in aggressive military hardware and that the rest of the world is just chasing it to keep up.

    Just shows for all the paranoia in Europe that if Russia was in charge the ABM treaty would still be in place and the S-500 would not be necessary and ICBMs and SLBMs would remain an effective deterrent so Russia would be happy to go down to 500 strategic warheads... which would be plenty for its "defence" deterrence.

    Unfortunately the US wants ABM systems in the US and Europe and presumably in Asia eventually too which will require Russia to maintain a level of strategic nuclear power to ensure deterrence.

    I rather suspect it will also draw China into an Arms race to ensure it has a retaliation capability so it might start working on larger missiles and more warheads... they can put men in orbit, so there is no reason they couldn't develop a range of land and space based weapons to defeat any ABM system.


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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  TheRealist on Thu Sep 06, 2012 1:02 pm

    China is really being dragged in this missile defense arms race. As you might know a X-Band Radar is being prepared to be deployed here in the Philippines.

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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  Mindstorm on Thu Sep 06, 2012 3:28 pm


    Some times it seems to me Russia is obsessed with every thing America does , An official statement has to say this system will be better than American one or this missile can defeat American system


    In this instance similar statement represent a strong message to USA, on the line :

    " We will produce a vehicle mounted ground based ABM (therefore easily capable to disperse, possible to defend/hide/move through underground redeploying tunnels with covered silo-like fire stations -totally invisible even to space based sensors- , aided IR/radar "active" mechanical/inflatable decoy batteries etc...etc... Cool Cool ), completely mobile (therefore virtually immune to stand-off missile attacks) and with universal target engagement capabilities (from ICBM to hypersonic UCAV) technically superior to the ABM element of the NATO project now in development ; if USA will go ahead with its plan in East Europe, similar superior S-500s launchers will be deployed not only on Russian territory ,greatly eroding the deterrence capabilities represented by the largely outdated arsenal of NATO ICBM ,almost completely devoid of any anti-ABM feature, but mounted in great numbers also on any new "blue water" Russian naval unity, generating immense problems for any NATO's SLBM coming from the critical Nothern sector "


    The unilateral exit by part of USA from ABM Treaty in 2002 was the attempt to find a remedy of some kind (ABM systems placed in positions useful for intercept Topol-M class ICBMs in the only segment of theirs vulnerability) to the quickly widening gap in nuclear delivery technology between USA and Russia after the introduction of Topol-M and ,even more, with "Bulava" and "Yars" (and the nuclear vector's huge technological gap suffered by West in comparison with Russian Federation promise to become a true abyss in the next years with the introduction of future ICBMs and perspective strategic "vehicles"...).

    This remodulation of S-500's requirements aim merely at put another time ,the enormous technological burden of matching the outstanding capabilities of Russian startegic arsenal on the frail shoulders of western outdated ICBM arsenal; forcing, in this way, USA at put all its eggs in the basket of the high-risk hypersonic program (and this is a "move" that Russia expect since a long time and against which has begun to prepare itself more than a decade ago...).


    It is all much more complex than what a shallow observation of the situation could suggest, it is instead an attentively covered chess game in play since more than a decade by now Wink .







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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  TR1 on Thu Sep 06, 2012 10:18 pm

    Austin wrote:Some times it seems to me Russia is obsessed with every thing America does , An official statement has to say this system will be better than American one or this missile can defeat American system Laughing

    Well no different than our own DRDO which will use American presentation ( slides/PPT ) and will use American system as benchmark to gauge its own Razz

    I am sure US stands in an envious position Smile


    To be fair any US weapons news release has this aura of "For sure this is the best system in the world".

    Makes sense for others to compare with the one nation that spends close to 50% of the world's military spending.
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    Re: Russian Space Forces: News Thread

    Post  Viktor on Thu Sep 06, 2012 11:47 pm

    GarryB wrote:
    I rather suspect it will also draw China into an Arms race to ensure it has a retaliation capability so it might start working on larger missiles and more warheads... they can put men in orbit, so there is no reason they couldn't develop a range of land and space based weapons to defeat any ABM system.

    Recently China tested DF-41. That shows in what direction is China thinking.

    Mobile missile is capable of hitting US mainland.


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