6.AIP SYSTEM (POWER SUPPLY)AMUR 1650 SUBMARINE
• The provision is made for the boat to be fitted with an air-independent propulsion plant with electrochemical generators to considerably increase submerged endurance and cruising range. The plant with stock of reagents is located in a special compartment module, which can be incorporated into the submarine during construction or repair / refit.
•. According to estimates, Kristall-27E AIP system
will increase the Amur Class submarines' submerged endurance by 15 to 45 days
(the longer endurance is ensured by a short-term operation of the diesel engine in the snorkeling mode).
•The Kristall-27E AIP plant, featuring the intermetallid storage of hydrogen, cryogenic storage of oxygen and low-temperature electrochemical generator with alkali matrix electrolyte, fully meets all requirements including those of fire/detonation safety, and can beat the AIP system of Project 212 submarines, surpassing it in terms of fuel efficiency and shore-based support facilities due to the availability of dedicated autonomous shore-based refueling complex.
•The shore-based refueling complex does not integrally belong to the AIP system. However, it can be supplied optionally: this feature contributes to the competitiveness of the Russian project. Customer will receive in a single package the autonomous refueling complex which will provide hydrogen and oxygen for the submarine's AIP system in peace and war time
•TsKB Rubin is testing an AIP generator for submarines, RIAN reported in Sep 13 according to Rubin's Gen Director Andrey Dyachkov. He criticized the German hydrogen elements for flammability of their storage. The currently developed Russian AIP is built on the same electro-chemical generation principle, as hydrogen elements, but uses different less flammable reagents. The chemical ingredients used in the new AIP are not disclosed however. Like foreign analogs the last Russian AIP is built in plug-in module. Dyachkov also said Rubin is working in parallel to improve the lithium-ion batteries for subs. Currently the installation of lithium-ion batteries allows to make underwater time longer on 40%, while it's only 35-40% of the theoretically limits of this technology.
http://ria.ru/defense_safety/20110913/436639922.htmlTYPE 214 SUBMARINE
• Performance of the AIP system has been increased withtwo Siemens PEM fuel cells which produce 120kW per module
• In Type 214 submarines the two BZM 120 fuel cell modules
are connected to the ship’s power system via a DC/DC converter
allowing adaptation of the fuel cell power plant to different battery voltage levels .This becomes
important in retrofit projects in which an integrated fuel cell system, consisting of the fuel cells, oxygen and hydrogen
storage tanks, control system, process equipment and product water tanks,is integrated into an already existing submarine during a major overhaul.
• These service proven components completely satisfy military specification requirements with respect to magnetic signature,
low electrical stray field characteristics, system safety standards, acoustic properties, and shock/vibration criteria.
• Endurance: 3 weeks without snorkeling, 12 weeks overall
Using the AIP system on submerged patrol and intercept missions enables the boat to remain submerged for up to 13 days at a speed of 4 kt. Submerged sprint speeds of between 16 and 20+ kt are possible for periods of a few hours several times during a 50 day mission. At a speed of 6 kt the mission range is almost 12,000 n miles. Endurance will be 84 days.The fuel cell works at an operating temperature of 70 to 80ºC, which makes the submarine difficult to detect using external heat sensors.
http://s7.invisionfree.com/worldconflictsforum/ar/t109.htmRegarding AIP system TYPE 214 SUBMARINE has a better Siemens PEM fuel cells(BZM 120)AIP system which give sub much more endurance days & energy efficient AIP system as compare to AMUR 1650 SUBMARINE's Kristall-27E AIP system.But russian AIP systems are claimed to be more safer as compare to german AIP system as they use less flammable reagents as claimed by russians.Russians are now currently working & developing 3rd gen AIP system which can give them nearly 90 days endurance
http://milparade.udm.ru/29/022.htm 7.SENSOR SYSTEMSAMUR 1650 SUBMARINE
• The sonar system comprises highly sensitive passive transducers and electronic equipment, which make it possible to detect even low-noise submarines and surface ships at long ranges. The submarine carries a towed transducer, which is dispensed from the top vertical tail fin.
• The sonar complex is outfitted with a highly sensitive passive array, the area of which exceeds the area of array on the previous generation submarines by several times.
• Technology has been developed and mastered for installation of a quasi-conformal (abutting to the hull of the submarine) antenna of “LIRA”
sonar system;The Lira sonar system with quasi-conformal (abutting the hull of the submarine) antenna can detect low-noise targets located at long ranges.
• The radar system is equipped with passive and active antennas arranged on the non-penetrating mast. The radar system furnishes surface situation data, detects and classifies targets, as well as generates targeting and IFF data.
• The commander’s periscope has two channels: optical and TV. A multipurpose periscope (optronic mast) is of a non- penetrating type. It has a thermal imager and a laser range finder. The boat’s communications facilities provide for reliable communication, both underwater and on the surface, with shore-based installations, ships and aircraft.
• Submarine and its weapons are efficiently controlled by automated command and control system with operators’ consoles in the main control room. The system provides highspeed sensor data exchange, processing,analysis, and presentation of
the integrated information on operators’panels.
• The onboard inertial navigation system ensures safe navigation and determination of submarine motion parameters with
precision required for missile employment.
• The submarine is fitted with Litiy automated combat control system.
The integrated system controls the combat and technical systems of the submarine.
• The countermeasures are provided by the electronic support measures (ESM) system, radar warning receiver and direction finder.
• Accordingly, the Amur 1650’s communications system is equipped to pick up command and information messages at a depth of up to 100 meters.TYPE 214 SUBMARINE
• The sonar suite CSU 90 (DBQS-40FTC)
includes following types of sonar:
* cylindrical array (CAH) for medium frequency passive detection
* FAS-3-1 flank array sonar for low/medium-frequency detection
* thin line towed array (TAS) for low frequencies in a medium self-noise environment (fitted for)
* passive ranging sonar PRS-3-15 for calculation of target data
* active sonar (CTA) , for determination of target range and bearing.
* Intercept array sonar for detection of active emissions of surface ships.
* The active high-frequency mine detection sonar (MAS) is the MOA 3070.
• The command, sensor and weapon control outfit comprises the STN ATLAS Elektronik ISUS 90-15 system
upgraded to provide increased low frequency detection range.
• It has SPHINX-D with 4Kw pulse and tactical LPI radar sensor
by Thales Defence Deutschland GmbH in Kiel. It uses an additional pulse transmitter in the top of the mast.The radar sensor is a FMCW transceiver which can't be detected by ESM systems in medium terms. This technology is so called LPI radar, which means "Low probability of intercept". The transmitting power is lower than the power of a mobile phone but the resolution more precise compared to high power Pulse radar. Thales SPHINX radar is a tactical radar, designed for submarines.
• It is equipped with an attack periscope, an electro-optic mast OMS-100 (both manufactured by Zeiss) . The optronic mast will be equipped by thermal camera , laser range finder and low lightness TV (LLLTV) .
Periscopes: Carl Zeiss SERO 14, with FLIR and optical rangefinder
Carl Zeiss SERO 15, with laser rangefinder
• Decoys:TAU 2000 torpedo countermeasures system
A consortium led by STN ATLAS Elektronik and Allied Signal ELAC is responsible for the development of the TAU 2000 torpedo countermeasures system. TAU 2000 has four launch containers, each with up to ten discharge tubes equipped with effectors. The effectors are small underwater vehicles, similar in appearance to a torpedo. The effectors are jammers and decoys with hydrophones and acoustic emitters. Multiple effectors are deployed in order to counter torpedoes in re-attack mode.In the occasion of upcoming torpedo 3 jammers and 2 decoys will be fired from the system.
• ESM:TIMNEX II(Elbit)
Elbit Systems' TIMNEX submarine ESM/ELINT system is an advanced tactical & intelligence gathering system. The unique receiver technology offers excellent sensitivity to detect, analyze, identify and counter a full spectrum of sophisticated emitters in extremely dense electromagnetic environments.
• Other systems include inertial platform, attitude and heading reference equipment, EM-log, echo-sounder and GPS. All sensors and weapons are controlled via five multipurpose consoles of the ISUS 90-15.
http://s7.invisionfree.com/worldconflictsforum/ar/t109.htmwell regarding sensor system ,here TYPE 214 SUBMARINE has a clear edge over AMUR 1650 SUBMARINE. As TYPE 214 SUB's sonar suite CSU 90 (DBQS-40FTC) is technologically highly superior to AMUR 1650 SUBMARINE's LIRA sonar system .
TYPE 214 SUB's SPHINX-D with 4Kw pulse and tactical LPI radar sensor is a cutting edge technolgy .& also addition TAU 2000 torpedo countermeasures system & Electronic Support Measures :TIMNEX II(Elbit)adds more teeth to it's capabilty .
SO here AMUR 1650 SUBMARINE is completly overwhelmed TYPE 214 SUBMARINE8.CREW CAPACITY & PROVISION AMUR 1650 SUBMARINE
• Crew: 35
• The submarine design takes into account the ecological requirements. Provision is made for installing the equipment used to clean bilge water from oil products, decontamination of wastewater, briquetting of rubbish and food cans, as well as
crushing of garbage.
• The submarine’s crew is accommodated in comfortable cabins. The boat has a dinette, pantry, air-conditioners, air cleaners and regenerators.
http://militaryforces.ru/weapon-2-26-164.html TYPE 214 SUBMARINE
27 (including five officers)
• The Type 214 can carry food, fresh water and fuel for 84 days of operation.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Type_214_submarineWell TYPE 214 SUBMARINE has less crew members compare to AMUR 1650 SUb & both have almost same comfort & provisions .Well one can only point out 19-20 difference between the two on this ground .9.FIRE POWERAMUR 1650 SUBMARINE
• The boat is distinguished by the capability of firing up to 6 missiles in a salvo from all Torpedo Tubes
at the bow against sea and fixed land targets state-of-the-art electronic warfare systems and a sonar with a unique passive antenna to detect silent targets at a large range.
•These ships may be fitted with [COLOR="red"]vertical launch missile silos if customer demanded
• The submarine’s armament includes multipurpose torpedoes, antisubmarine rocket-assisted torpedoes, cruise missiles and mines.
• TORPEDOES: It has 6 x 533mm torpedo launchers/tubes & can carry 18 TORPEDOES (533)
i)[B]VA-111 Shkval supercavitating torpedoes. They are capable of speeds in excess of 200 knots
All current versions are believed to be fitted only with conventional explosive warheads,
Range: Around 7 km to 13 km (new version).
• MISSILES : i)Brahmos supersonic AsCM/LACM
range:290km either tube launched (most likely) or vertical launched on demand
Flight altitude: Sea-skimming as low as 10 m (30 feet)
Warhead: 300 kg Conventional semi-armour-piercing
ii)Klub S AsCM/LACM/ anti submarine missile (91RE1 / 91RE2)
range: 275-300 km tube launched
Flight altitude:10-15 m
speed:0.8-2.5-2.9 mach flies at subsonic speeds while going supersonic as it nears its target.
• MINES : PMK-2 ANTI-SUBMARINE MINE SYSTEM
The caliber of the PMK-2 weapon is 533 mm and its length is not more than 6 m. The distinguishing feature of these systems is that though they are basically active mines, they attack targets themselves. The equipment of these mine systems detects and classifies an underwater target, determines its course and running depth, optimizes the target intercept trajectory and generates a command to launch either a rocket, which runs at a speed of about 80 m/s, or torpedo.
http://milit.ru/mines.htmTYPE 214 SUBMARINE
• It has 8 x 533mm torpedo tubes & All tubes can launch torpedoes and four are configured with weapon expulsion system supporting missiles.
• TORPEDOES: SEEHECHT ( Sea Hake )/DM2A4 mod 4 Torpedo (With eight torpedoes positioned ready & total payload of 16.)
It features an advanced electrical propulsion system and a fiber optic cable for torpedo guidance and communication, which, in conjunction with advanced signals processing and mission logic, makes the torpedo largely countermeasure resistant.
The DM2A4/SeaHake mod 4 is the first torpedo ever to be guided by a fiber optic wire.
The weapon has a modular design that includes up to four silver zinc battery modules and is able to achieve a range of more than 50 km (27 nm) and a speed exceeding 92.6 km/h (50 kt) powered by a high frequency permanent magnet motor, with a closed-loop cooling system independent from the environment.
The DM2A4 differs to an appreciable degree from the predecessor model, the DM2A3. The innovations include the extremely powerful electrical propulsion system, the control and data transmission via fibre-optic instead of copper cable, the replacement of the mechanical gyro by a strap-down system using fibre-optic gyros, and the wake homing sensors.
• MISSILES : i)IDAS short-range missile
IDAS (Interactive Defence and Attack System for Submarines) is a short-range missile currently being developed for the new Type 212 submarine class of the German Navy.IDAS (based on the IRIS-T air-to-air missile) is primarily targeted against air threats, such as ASW helicopters, but also against small or medium-sized surface vessels or coastal land targets. IDAS will be fibre-optic guided and officially has a range of approx. 20 km. Four missiles will fit in one torpedo tube, stored in a magazine.
The IDAS system is also the world's first missile which gives submarines the capability to engage air threats whilst submerged, and the first tube-launched missile that does not emerge in a capsule, but is fired directly from the torpedo tubes.
ii) Sub harpoon
Harpoon is an all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system, the UGM-84, fitted with a solid-fuel rocket booster and encapsulated in a container to enable submerged launch through a torpedo tube
•Range : RGM/UGM-84D (Block 1C): 140 km (75 nmi)
•Speed: High subsonic, around 850 km/h (460 knots, 240 m/s, or 530 mph)
•Guidance: Sea-skimming cruise monitored by radar altimeter, active radar terminal homing
•Warhead: 221 kilograms (490 lb), penetration high-explosive blast
• MINES :24 external naval mines (optional) AMUR 1650 SUBMARINE has a advantage of supersonic ANTISHIP cruise missile /LACM likes of brahmos over TYPE 214 SUB & that too at capabilty of firing SIX missiles in a salvo,while it gives an extra option Of VLS capability too on demand of customer.While Type 214 sub lacks an effective antiship cruise/lacm having sub sonic SUB HARPOON missile & it can only do that with 4 tubes While AMUR 1650 SUBMARINE has 18 torpedoes capabilty & TYPE 214 SUB has 16 torpedoes capabilty while skhval torpedoes are more faster & has less range compare to DM2A4 mod 4 Torpedo so advantage nullified for amur 1650 sub against TYPE 214 SUB.While mines capabilty AMUR 1650 has the advantage ,but one thing that clearly gives TYPE 214 SUB a unique capabilty is the ability to launch to engage air threats whilst submerged, and to have the first tube-launched missile that does not emerge in a capsule, but is fired directly from the torpedo tubes through IDAS missile, which AMUR 1650 SUBMARINE doesnt have .
SO overall AMUR 1650 SUBMARINE has more fire power than TYPE 214 SUB thanks to brahmos missile & also with VLS capability on
demand by customer 10.STEALTHAMUR 1650 SUBMARINE
• The low noise level of the submarine’s equipment and systemic utilization of advanced acoustic protection facilities provide for reduction of the noise level produced by Amur-1650 by several times than that of other submarines of this class.
• A new technology has been introduced for application of the anti-sonar coating of the new generation “Molniya” (“Lightning”)
• The AIP system based on oxygen / hydrogen fuel cells increases the Lada Class submerged endurance from 15 to 45 days. It also reduces noise by avoiding the need for frequent battery recharge by diesel generators.
• An anechoic tile coating on the outer hull reduces noise & a skewed seven-bladed propeller.
• According to Russian reports, it is one of the most quiet and lethal submarines ever built. TYPE 214 SUBMARINE
• A hull shape, which has been further optimised for hydrodynamic and stealth characteristics, and a low-noise propeller
combine to decrease the submarine's acoustic signature.Thus, the hull design and its hydrodynamic form emphasise stealth capabilities, offering good low signature features including both self-generated noise and flow noise and magnetic signature.
• The propelling power is provided by a seven-blade Skew-Back propeller whose extremely low rotation speed prevents cavity and which generates thrust silently even at high speeds.
• SPHINX Radar System is a FMCW transceiver which can't be detected by ESM systems in medium terms. This technology is so called LPI radar, which means "Low probability of intercept"
. The transmitting power is lower than the power of a mobile phone but the resolution more precise compared to high power Pulse radar. Thales SPHINX radar is a tactical radar, designed for submarines.
• A submarine that uses fuel cells rather than a diesel engine to recharge its batteries produces much less sound while doing and consequently the effective detection range of many of the current passive acoustic sonobuoys is reduced.
Using the Siemens PEM fuel cells enabled AIP system
the Type 214 sub on submerged patrol and intercept missions enables the boat to remain submerged for up to 13 days at a speed of 4 kt. Submerged sprint speeds of between 16 and 20+ kt are possible for periods of a few hours several times during a 50 day mission. At a speed of 6 kt the mission range is almost 12,000 n miles. Endurance will be 84 days.The fuel cell works at an operating temperature of 70 to 80ºC, which makes the submarine difficult to detect using external heat sensors.so both sub are designed specifically bearing in stealth in mind ,while AMUR 1650 SUB has better suface coating & materials
while TYPE 214 SUB has better AIP & LPI sphinx radar along with stealthy hull cross section & shaping which gives Type 214
a edge over amur 1650 in terms of stealth .CONCLUSION
Well before jumping into conclusion we should take into consideration those negative points which are alleged against TYPE 214 SUBMARINE like
1. Hellenic navy reported many problems * instability while traveling on the surface, the boat rolls excessively in bad weather.
* Attack periscope vibrates at speeds greater than 3 knots;
* The air-independent propulsion system has lower output power than specified; the unit must be shut down after several hours of sailing due to higher than normal operating temperatures;
* Increased propeller cavitations;
* Seawater leakage into hydraulic systems;
* Problems with the proper function of the flank arrays.
well one may argue that these are deliberate tactics by greece which had bankrupt economy & couldnt afford to procure such sub so that to avoid payment for these subs by giving these excuses.But irony is korea also had some similar problems but
majority of them have been resolved .
While these problems in the South Korean Type 214s have been reportedly resolved, the noise level has yet to be reduced as promised by HDW. The company was fined $4.1 million by DAPA in February 2008 for ongoing technical problems. In November, a South Korean National Assembly demanded price reductions for the remaining six submarines, arguing that HDW was using the South Korean market to correct faults in the Type 214 to increase the submarine's overall international export potential. It is uncertain if DAPA received a price reduction for the fourth unit when it was contracted to DSME.
But all in all many problems in TYPE 214 has been resolved .LAYMAN'S REPORT CARDSo one can clearly see that TYPE 214 sub excels in allmost all department in comparision to AMUR 1650 sub, leaving aside certain few departments .
Well clear advantage AMUR 1650 SUB has over TYPE 214 sub is
* FIRE POWER (BRAHMOS MISSILE)
* VLS CAPABILITY
Well that criteria is also going to be overcomed as HDW has started development of TYPE 216 SUB to fullfill the criteria of
INDIAN NAVY's PROJECT 75 I programme TYPE 216 SUB EXTRA FEATURES
• Bigger size Length: 89 m; Breadth: 8.1 m ;Maximum Draft: 6.6 m
• Double hull design.
• AIP system enabled which gives it endurance of 80 days same as nuclear sub
• Vertical Launch System (2.5 m diameter to deploy cruise missiles or UUV)
• Swimmer Delivery Vehicle (SDV) to deploy special forces
Well India can also make provision to have brahmos fitted into TYPE 216 also ,and later it can also be armed with NIRBHAY Sub launched LACM missile.So with all the extra features & correction of almost all faults from TYPE 214 sub , HDW's next
gen TYPE 216 SUB looks the best eligible contender for INDIAN NAVY's PROJECT 75 I programme.[SIZE="4"]FROM THE AUTHOR:[/SIZE] I had tried my level best to present & give as much accurate information on both the subs i could find .Well
after all this is a layman's analysis not professional so mistakes can also happen ,& i would welcome all ur views & suggestion if i am wrong on any grounds.
I hope everyone would like & appreciate my hard work & most importantly distinguish which SUB suits our future defence needs