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    Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

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    Militarov
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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  Militarov on Thu Jan 21, 2016 8:26 am

    Abit of Aviastar shots:































































    Source: http://gelio.livejournal.com/213883.html

    PapaDragon
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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  PapaDragon on Thu Jan 21, 2016 9:57 pm


    Militarov, you should also put those pics on multimedia tread, those are some good shots. thumbsup


    ALSO:

    Aeroflot picked up 25th and 26tth Superjet:

    http://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/73055/
    http://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/73121/


    RedJasmin
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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  RedJasmin on Sun Jan 24, 2016 11:03 pm

    wilhelm wrote:I see in an earlier post, someone mooted the possibility of a twin engined Il-96 with one of the new more powerful engines likely to be developed.
    Is that possible with the current landing gear and wing? I get the impression such an engine, with larger fan, would require a redesign of either the wing (for a different engine placement) or a longer landing gear (for ground clearance).

    EDIT: Actually, looking at pictures, they could go the Boeing 777 route with a shorter engine pylon, so it can probably be quite easily achieved with the current landing gear and wing.

    I mooted it, though I wasn't necessarily thinking mostly of using the existing 96 in it's entirety, but only as a basic starting point, though obviously the less re-tooling needed the better! Looking at the 777 and 96 side by side, I think you are dright that you could get away with keeping the existing landing gear if the engine pylons were made more like the B777, or even the B737 Classic.

    The original 737-100/200 ("Original" class) used low-bypass engines with very small fans, and they already sat quite low to the ground, and were still changed in favour of high-bypass for the "Classic" class 737-300/400/500, whilst retaining the same landing gear, fuselage cross-section and the much of the wing, just by pushing the engines forward as well as upward, so the top of the engine sits almost entirely in front of the wing, and with the top of it's housing being almost with the upper wing surface. If either the 777 or 737 solution is achievable for a 96-twin then it would save a lot of re-tooling and re-design of the undercarriage, whilst at the same time giving options for aerodynamic improvements.

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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  RedJasmin on Sun Jan 24, 2016 11:24 pm

    PapaDragon wrote:
    Militarov, you should also put those pics on multimedia tread, those are some good shots. thumbsup


    ALSO:

    Aeroflot picked up 25th and 26tth Superjet:

    http://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/73055/
    http://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/73121/


    Agreed, great photography, and nice to see the factory floor so full Very Happy

    What surprised me, was that the IL-76 is still being built with the glass nose. I would have thought that with modern avionics it would have been deemed redundant and deleted to save weight / simplify construction etc.

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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  Militarov on Mon Jan 25, 2016 9:10 am

    PapaDragon wrote:
    Militarov, you should also put those pics on multimedia tread, those are some good shots. thumbsup


    ALSO:

    Aeroflot picked up 25th and 26tth Superjet:

    http://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/73055/
    http://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/73121/


    I shall Smile

    sepheronx
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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  sepheronx on Tue Jan 26, 2016 3:18 pm

    Militarov wrote:
    sepheronx wrote:It was cheaper to operate.  Ilyushin just didnt have a suitcase full if money to bribe the right people.

    Now? They dont need it, as the west did all the hard work for Ilyushin.  Now they just need to modernize the avionics and engines, use the extended version of the plane, and they will have a wide body aircraft that will work fine and be both less costly, beneficial for donestic enterprise/workers and safer since spare parts are made at home.

    Actually reason also might be small fleet, imagine having to obtain spares and maintenance from IL, Boeing, Airbus and whoever else, its expected that IL would get cut down due to fact they had small number of them and spares were probably more expencive due to fact they often were produced per piece, unlike for 737 for an example whos parts are produced in thousands, even tho maybe operating them was cheaper.

    Well it still requires fairly big changes to the design due to probably? new engines etc and avionics etc. Hopefully i get to fly it one day.

    Nyet

    I specificially saud maintenance was cheaper too.

    x_54_u43
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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  x_54_u43 on Wed Jan 27, 2016 7:49 am

    RedJasmin wrote:
    PapaDragon wrote:
    Militarov, you should also put those pics on multimedia tread, those are some good shots. thumbsup


    ALSO:

    Aeroflot picked up 25th and 26tth Superjet:

    http://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/73055/
    http://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/73121/


    Agreed, great photography, and nice to see the factory floor so full Very Happy

    What surprised me, was that the IL-76 is still being built with the glass nose. I  would have thought that with modern avionics it would have been deemed redundant and deleted to save weight / simplify construction etc.

    You do realize that's for helping the crew land on unprepared/ghetto-tier airfields? No replacing that with avionics.

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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  JohninMK on Tue Feb 02, 2016 1:45 pm

    Hardly 'get rid' more like 'sell off'.

    Russia is about to get rid off its flag carrier. According to the Financial Times Russian president Vladimir Putin is preparing Aeroflot to be sold off, together with 15 other companies, in attempt to tackle the financial crisis in the largest country of the world.

    Once also the largest airline of the globe when the Soviet Union still existed, Aeroflot has been diminished to a fleet of hundreds of Soviet made aircraft to 162 mainly Western made but competitive machines. The company joined the SkyTeam alliance of airlines in April 2006, but remained a sort of state company with 51 percent of Aeroflot owned by the Russian Federation.


    http://airheadsfly.com/2016/02/02/mother-russia-says-goodbye-to-aeroflot/

    sepheronx
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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  sepheronx on Tue Feb 02, 2016 2:18 pm

    Thats a retarded article.  If they had any intelligence, they would know its supposed to be sold off to a domestic buyer, not foreign.  Amd it isnt guaranteed yet either.

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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  higurashihougi on Thu Feb 04, 2016 10:24 am

    Keep up the good work, Sukhoi.

    https://www.rt.com/business/331230-egypt-order-russian-sukhoi/

    Moscow and Cairo are discussing the possibility EgyptAir buying Russian-made Sukhoi Superjet 100 (SSJ-100) aircraft, according to Russia’s Minister of Industry and Trade Denis Manturov.

    "We are now discussing the possibility of delivering up to 40 airplanes: 20 plus an option for other 20. This is a big ambitious project," Manturov told Rossiya 24 TV channel on Wednesday.

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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  RedJasmin on Sun Feb 07, 2016 3:32 pm

    x_54_u43 wrote:
    RedJasmin wrote:
    PapaDragon wrote:
    Militarov, you should also put those pics on multimedia tread, those are some good shots. thumbsup


    ALSO:

    Aeroflot picked up 25th and 26tth Superjet:

    http://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/73055/
    http://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/73121/


    Agreed, great photography, and nice to see the factory floor so full Very Happy

    What surprised me, was that the IL-76 is still being built with the glass nose. I  would have thought that with modern avionics it would have been deemed redundant and deleted to save weight / simplify construction etc.

    You do realize that's for helping the crew land on unprepared/ghetto-tier airfields? No replacing that with avionics.

    How is it used in those circumstances? I'd be interested in the setup, as a lot of aircraft (western and former Soviet) have unprepared field abilities, but don't use a glass nose, i.e. A400M, C-130J, AN-24 and AN-72. I believe the IL-114 also has unprepared field ability, even as a primarily civilian design and built with a focus on computerised navigation.

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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  Svyatoslavich on Sun Feb 07, 2016 5:36 pm

    Well, both the C-17 and the C-130 have lower windows near the cockpit floor. The A400M, however, has normal windows like a passenger plane.
    Interesting thing is that, before Maidan and Russia leaving the project, the An-70 received an optronic ball in the nose, probably to give pilots unobstructed downward view.
    http://russianplanes.net/id131647

    Militarov
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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  Militarov on Sun Feb 07, 2016 6:06 pm

    Svyatoslavich wrote:Well, both the C-17 and the C-130 have lower windows near the cockpit floor. The A400M, however, has normal windows like a passenger plane.
    Interesting thing is that, before Maidan and Russia leaving the project, the An-70 received an optronic ball in the nose, probably to give pilots unobstructed downward view.
    http://russianplanes.net/id131647

    I belive Americans call those "lower windows" scanner windows, mostly used to keep eye on ground crew, and to aid landing and take off on unprepared airstrips but they are most of the time covered from what i noticed. Russians on other hand kept whole "navigator" glass nose installation which helps in bad weather to navigate and detect airdrop places, airfields, observe other transporters during massive airdrops, even to navigate flight in case of malfunction by using maps and orientation marks like back in time, helps with landing on bad airfields too.

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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  GarryB on Mon Feb 08, 2016 4:12 am

    The windows are there for the navigators position... when they remove the position AFAIK they generally remove the windows...

    Makes sense to let the navigator see... especially when evaluating landing strips etc.


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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  Militarov on Thu Feb 11, 2016 11:55 pm





    So apparently for now 3 PD14 engines were assembled for testing (i assume at least 1 is for bench testing) and plan is to build another 4 during 2016.

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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  Austin on Sat Feb 13, 2016 12:12 pm

    UAC : official results 2015

    http://alexeyvvo.livejournal.com/166620.html

    Formed order books on the aircraft: SSJ-100 and MS-21. The portfolio of firm orders for the activities of the Corporation at 12.31.15 was equal to more than 1.375 trillion. Rub. (excluding VAT). Task order book now exceeds 550 units.

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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  Militarov on Wed Feb 17, 2016 10:22 am


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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  Austin on Wed Feb 17, 2016 10:25 am

    Tu-204 flies with production

    http://www.aviaport.ru/digest/2016/02/17/379512.html

    United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) can freeze the production of Tu-204SM. They believe that in the context of limited demand content of the two assembly lines of niche products - Tu-214 and Tu-204 - unnecessarily. Sources "Kommersant" in the aviation industry attributed the decision to freeze including the upcoming release of the plane analogue market - MS-21, the first flight is planned for the end of the year.

    KLA did not rule out the possibility of the production of medium-preservation of the Tu-204SM, said its vice president of civil aviation Vladislav Masalov. The decision to freeze the production of the Tu-204 was published simultaneously with the adoption of new environmental standards in civil aviation International Civil Aviation Organization. Il-96 and Tu-204 will not reflect accepted norms, the release of such vessels is expected to cease in 2028.

    Tu-204 - medium-range passenger aircraft. Produced since 1990, the factory "Aviastar-SP" in Ulyanovsk, and since 1996 - at KAPO Gorbunov Kazan (modification of the Tu-214). Maximum capacity in monoklassnoy arrangement - up to 215 passengers. Tu-204SM - deep modification of the Tu-204. Its capacity - 174-196 passengers, flight range - 4 thousand. Km. The idea of ​​Tu-204SM program appeared in 2006, but four years later due to lack of orders, it was on the verge of closing. Now airplanes are produced by the piece, mainly for public customers.

    But back in the mid-2015 the government had plans to support the development of the project. Head of Industry and Trade Denis Manturov talked about plans to produce up to seven Tu-204SM year in the Ulyanovsk region. According to the Minister, the aircraft has gained a competitive edge on the background of ruble devaluation. He said that there are prospects for orders from corporate clients, despite the fact that orders and saved from the manager of the president of Russia. Yesterday Mr Masalov said that for the production of special plane more suited Tu-214. KLA representative said "Kommersant" that the limited demand build content niche products - Tu-214 and Tu-204 - unfairly, especially when the plant in Ulyanovsk increases the load on the production of the modernized Il-76.

    Sources "Kommersant" in the aviation industry believe that the production of the Tu-204 can be frozen, but "subject to output in the period of its modern counterpart - MS-21." According to the KLA, the aircraft rolled out is planned in the middle of the year, and the first flight - in December. At the same time "in the case of aggravation of the foreign relations of" competence in the production of the Tu-204, in any case, should be retained, said the source "b". However, a spokesman for the KLA insists that the direct link between the freezing of the program of the Tu-204 and exit to the MS-21 is no market.

    Lead researcher of the Institute of Transport Economics and transport policy the HSE Fedor Borisov says that in the conditions of limited resources need to direct them to projects that have a market potential. For example, to improve the SSJ-100 program, revision of MS-21 and the modernization of the Il-114. He noted that attempts to build a commercial strategy to promote the Tu-204 suffered repeated setbacks.


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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  GunshipDemocracy on Wed Feb 17, 2016 12:23 pm

    Russia and China signed contracts for the supply of seven helicopters Ka-32A11BC

    http://m.ria.ru/east/20160216/1375212102.html?rubric=economy


    SINGAPORE, 16 Jan — RIA Novosti. Russia and China have signed several contracts for the supply of seven helicopters Ka-32A11BC helicopter and two transport helicopters Mi-171E, said to journalists on Tuesday during the international aerospace salon Singapore Airshow 2016, Deputy CEO of the holding "Helicopters of Russia" Alexander Shcherbinin.

    "We signed several agreements with China on seven Ka-32A11BC helicopter and two Mi-171E is the upgraded vehicles with engine VK-2500 specially adapted for flights in China's mountainous areas. Two Mi-171 and five Ka-32 we will deliver in 2016, and two Ka-32 in 2017", — he said.

    Shcherbinin did not disclose the amount of the contracts, citing commercial confidentiality.

    The Ka-32A11BC is used in more than 30 countries. The experts recognized this helicopter one of the best firefighting helicopters in the world. The European aviation safety Agency (EASA) has certified the Ka-32A11BC in 2009, and Australia's aviation regulator in February 2013. The helicopter also meets the standards of the FAR29 and AP-29.




    Austin wrote:Tu-204 flies with production

    http://www.aviaport.ru/digest/2016/02/17/379512.html

    United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) can freeze the production of Tu-204SM. They believe that in the context of limited demand content of the two assembly lines of niche products - Tu-214 and Tu-204 - unnecessarily. Sources "Kommersant" in the aviation industry attributed the decision to freeze including the upcoming release of the plane analogue market - MS-21, the first flight is planned for the end of the year.


    Lead researcher of the Institute of Transport Economics and transport policy the HSE Fedor Borisov says that in the conditions of limited resources need to direct them to projects that have a market potential. For example, to improve the SSJ-100 program, revision of MS-21 and the modernization of the Il-114. He noted that attempts to build a commercial strategy to promote the Tu-204 suffered repeated setbacks.


    Interesting options that Tu-204/214 is dead since what? Boeing 737 or Airbus 320 is newer? Once Russia has cost advantage new regulations to make it not competitive anymore?

    Superjet is like 50% from countries which introduced sanctions then Russia needs to push it even more dependency huh?


    Ahh I would forget Kommersant = HSE = US V column
    Tu 204 can be nice niche for countries using still DC-10 or Boeing 737 rust buckets because of costs. Not to mention ASW role for navy. It is available now and does not need any parts form US/EU.

    MS-21 is OK but you need to wait long time to be realistically in you rhangar.






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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  RedJasmin on Mon Feb 22, 2016 1:28 am


    I was thinking the same. It seems premature to "freeze" the TU-204/214 programme before the MS-21 has hatched - though also understandable given the desire for UAC to avoid having two of it's own models cannibalise each other. That said, what is going to happen to existing orders? I hope they will be honoured as they stand with current commitments met. The alternative would be converting the order to the MS-21, but it doesn't help create a reputation for reliable, long-term product and client support that UAC desperately needs. I also recall Airbus getting a lot of flak from their clients when they tried to do this with the A340 (quite sudden announcement of the programme ending, and pressure on clients with outstanding orders to convert them to A330neo or A350 - with at least one sticking in their heels and demanding their original order be fulfilled)

    Given the article states the IL-96 won't meet new standards, I wonder if this is implying it's for the chop - again - as well? I hope not.

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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  Austin on Mon Feb 22, 2016 6:12 pm

    Case of better late then never , Reengine IL-96 and IL-114 production to be started

    Russia Backs UAC to Expand Airliner Product Range

    Russia’s government has given approval for United Aircraft Corporation (UAC, Stand J39, Chalet CD41) to press ahead with series production of the new Ilyushin Il-96-400M widebody. In December, it instructed the state-owned group’s VASO factory in Voronezh to boost its annual production rate to eight per year.

    The move, confirmed in December, is part of a Kremlin move to reduce the dependence of the country’s air transport industry on foreign aerospace equipment at a time of mounting tensions with the West. It also comes as UAC is undergoing a further restructuring in a bid to be more competitive in difficult market conditions (see below).

    Equipped with more fuel-efficient new powerplant, the new four-engined -400M now appears to be viewed as a more attainable and affordable alternative to the government-backed plans for the Russian and Chinese industries to jointly develop a new widebody. Plans for the Il-96-400M were first disclosed in November 2015 when Ilyushin general designer Nikolai Talikov addressed an aviation conference in Ulyanovsk.

    The new model is a follow-on from the early Il-86 and Il-96-300/400 families, the main innovation being the replacement of the existing Aviadvigatel PS-90A1 turbofans with new PS-14Ms. The Perm-based engine maker developed the 14-metric-ton-thrust (30,864-pounds) PS-14 for Irkut’s MC-21 narrowbody and is now able to offer an uprated 16-metric-ton-thrust (35,273 pounds) M version (initially developed for the new Il-214-based military airlifter being developed by Russia and India).

    According to UAC, the PS-14M turbofan will make give the Il-96-400M comparable direct operating costs to the twin-engined Airbus A330-300 and the Boeing 777-200. Eventually, the airframer hopes to be able to offer a twinjet version of the Il-96, assuming Aviadvigatel can fulfill its desire to develop a 35-metric-ton-thrust (77,160 pounds) PD-35 turbofan. Preparatory work for this program is based on the core of the NK32-2 engine that powers Tupolev’s Tu-160 bomber.

    UAC is looking to exploit the more competitive pricing for Russian-made parts resulting from the falling value of the ruble currency since 2014. It also is committed to reducing maintenance requirements and costs.

    Initially, the new Il-96s are largely expected to go into military service, for which they could fill a variety of applications, including surveillance and long-range air tankering. The Russian government is expected to urge Russian airlines to also invest in the new model. Cuba’s Cubana de Aviacion is currently the only carrier operating the Il-96-300, and VASO has been making the 160-seater at a rate of barely one per year.

    New Regional Turboprop

    Meanwhile, the Russian government also has urged UAC and its subsidiaries Ilyushin and NAZ Sokol to resume production of the 64-seat Il-114 twin turboprop regional airliner. This week, Russian civil aviation authority Rosaviatsiya is staging a conference to determine levels of demand for the model.

    The State Scientific Research Institute of Civil Aviation estimates the size of the Russian market at 230 large turboprops through 2034, plus maybe another 70 aircraft for military use. According to UAC, this would be sufficient demand to merit the resumption of production.

    The final decision has yet to be taken, but it is expected that the Kremlin may go so far as to restrict domestic sales of foreign turboprops, such as the ATR72, in order to bolster demand for the aircraft, which until 2012 were built by the TAPO factory in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Another prospective competitor is the Chinese Comac Modern Arc family, about which there have even been discussions over possible Russian production.

    Currently there is only one Il-114 operating in Russia and this is used by avionics group Radar-MMS as a flying testbed. Uzbekistan Airways has seven of the type in its fleet, with these being the -100 version, featuring Pratt & Whitney Canada PW127H engines, as well as Rockwell Collins avionics and other Western equipment. The current standard Il-114 is powered by the Russian Klimov TV7-117SM turboprops, but UAC plans to adopt the new -117ST engines that have been developed for the Il-112V military transport.


    The initial plan is for UAC’s NAZ Sokol factory in Nizhny Novgorod to assemble the new Il-114s from kits provided by TAPO, and also to restore existing aircraft now in storage to operational standards. The first of the new batch is expected to be ready to enter service in the middle of 2018.

    The Russian government has committed to providing 27 billion rubles ($338 million) to support the program through the 2016-2022 timeframe. These funds would be available through federal funding to support engineering work and investment in manufacturing equipment. UAC has indicated that total investment in the production relaunch would be around $220 million.

    According to UAC, the Il-114 burns between 520 kg and 550 kg (1,146 pounds to 1,213 pounds) of fuel per hour, which it says makes it competitive with the ATR72 (the published figure for the ATR 72 in cruise is 584 kg, or 1,287 lbs). According to Talikov, Uzbekistan Airways uses its aircraft up to 1,800 flight hours per month.


    One factor behind the planned relaunch of the Il-114 is that licensed production of the 52-seat Antonov An-140 was recently discontinued. This followed the refusal of Ukrainian companies, including Antonov, to supply components and parts to their Russian partners.

    The Il-114 achieved type certification in 1997. UAC does intend to make changes to the position of wing consoles with a view to improving yaw and bank stability at slow speeds. This would allow the maximum 40-degree flap deflection (compared with 20 degrees for the existing aircraft), significantly reducing approach speeds and so requiring less landing distance. The new aircraft would also feature electrically-powered anti-icing systems and some improvements to the cockpit.

    More UAC Restructuring

    The relaunch of Il-114 production is part of wider strategic changes announced by UAC president Yuri Slyusar. As it grapples with the impact of Russia’s economic downturn, and the drop in value of the ruble on currency markets, the group is looking to “strengthen cooperation with other manufacturers, including foreign ones, to open UAC production facilities to the most capable partners. Through further outsourcing, the company says it expects to reduce the number of final assembly plants in the process.

    In other reforms, UAC is establishing five new divisions, responsible for “commercial, combat, transport, special purpose aviation, as well as for aircraft maintenance and support.” In addition to Ilyushin, the group combines design bureau brands such as Sukhoi, MiG and Tupolev. Its most advanced aircraft program is the PAK FA fifth generation T-50 fighter, for which two new prototypes are set to begin flight testing soon to evaluate combat mode performance and weaponry integration and use.

    Already in production is the Superjet SSJ100 narrowbody airliner. This program has benefitted from around $500 million in government funds released to the State Transport Leasing Company to support sales to operators such as Yamal Airlines, which is to get 25 aircraft, and Kazakhstan-based SCAT, which has 15 on order, plus 5 options.

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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  Austin on Mon Feb 22, 2016 7:10 pm

    TRIP REPORT: Flying Cubana’s Ilyushin IL-96

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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  Austin on Wed Feb 24, 2016 8:09 am

    PD-14 - the engine of progress



    October 30, 2015 began testing the new Russian aircraft engine PD-14 on IL-76LL flying laboratory. This is an event of exceptional importance. According to appreciate its value to help 10 interesting facts about the turbojet engines in general and on the TP-14 in particular.

    1. Achievement of humanity


    Turbojet (THD) - one of the major technical achievements of mankind, which can be put on a par with the invention of the wheel, sail, steam engine, the internal combustion engine, rocket engine and nuclear reactor. It is thanks to TRD our planet suddenly became small and cozy. Anyone can in a matter of hours comfortably and safely get to the most remote corner of it.

    According to statistics, only one flight of 8 million end accident with loss of life. Even if you do every day to sit on an occasional flight, you will need 21,000 years to die in a plane crash. According to statistics, walking many times more dangerous than flying. And all this is largely due to the incredible reliability of modern aircraft engines.

    2. The miracle of technology


    But THD - an extremely complex device. In the most difficult conditions of work of its turbine. Its most important element - the blade with which the kinetic energy of the gas stream is converted into mechanical energy of rotation. One paddle, and them in each step of aviation turbine, there are about 70, develops a power equal to the power of "Formula 1" car engine, and at the speed of about 12 thousand. RPM centrifugal force acting on it is equal to 18 tonnes, equivalent to load on the double-decker London bus suspension.



    But that's not all. Gas temperature, which is in contact with the blade, almost equal to half the temperature on the surface of the sun. This value is 200 ° C higher than the melting point of the metal from which the blade is made. Imagine this task required not to melt an ice cube in a furnace heated to 200 ° C. Designers manage to solve the problem of cooling the blade by internal air channels, and special coatings. It is not surprising that one blade is eight times more expensive than silver. To create just this little part that fits in your palm, you need to develop more than a dozen sophisticated technologies. And each of these technologies as a major guarded state secret.

    3. Technology Turbojet important atomic secrets

    In addition to domestic companies only US company (Pratt & Whitney, General Electric, Honeywell), England (Rolls-Royce) and France (Snecma) possess a full cycle of creation of modern turbojet technology. That is, countries that produce modern aircraft turbojet engine, smaller than the countries possessing nuclear weapons or launching satellites into space. Long-term efforts in China, for example, has so far not led to success in this area. The Chinese quickly copied and equipped with the Su-27 Russian fighter own systems, releasing it under the symbol J-11. However, the copy of his engine AL-31F they did not succeed, so China still has to buy this is no longer the most modern turbojet engines in Russia.

    4. PD-14 - the first domestic aircraft engine 5th generation


    Progress in the aircraft engine is characterized by several parameters, but it is considered one of the main gas temperature before the turbine. The transition to each new generation of turbojet, and account for a total of five, was characterized by an increase of the temperature of 100-200 degrees. Thus, the temperature of the gas from TRD 1st Generation, introduced in the late 1940s, no more than 1150 ° K, in the 2nd generation (1950-ies.), This figure rose to 1250 ° K, in the 3rd generation (1960.), this parameter rose to 1450 ° K for engines 4th generation (1970-1980.) the gas temperature reached to 1650 ° K. The blades of the turbine engine 5-th generation, the first examples of which emerged in the West in the mid-90s, working at a temperature of 1900 ° K. Currently, only 15% of the world engines in use are of the 5th generation.

    One blade of aviation turbine develops power, "Formula 1" equal to power a car engine

    Increasing the temperature of the gas, as well as the new design scheme, primarily dual-circuit, allow for 70 years of Turbojet made impressive progress. For example, the ratio of thrust to weight ratio has increased over this period by 5 times and to modern models came to 10. The degree of compression of the air in the compressor is increased by 10 times: from 5 to 50, the number of compressor stages decreased by half - from an average of 20 to 10. Specific fuel consumption of modern turbojet halved compared with the engines of the 1st generation. Every 15 years there is a doubling of passenger traffic in the world with almost constant total cost of fuel worldwide fleet of aircraft.



    At present, Russia produces only a civil aircraft engine 4th generation - the PS-90. If we compare it with the PD-14, then two engines similar weight (2950 kg in the basic version of the PS-90A and 2870 kg at the PD-14), the size (diameter of the fan in both 1.9 m), the compression ratio (35.5 and 41) and the take-off thrust (16 and 14 ton).

    In this high-pressure compressor PD-14 consists of 8 stages, while the PS-90 - 13 at a lower total degree of compression. Bypass ratio in PD-14 is twice as high (4.5 in PS-90 and 8.5 in PD-14) with the same fan diameter. As a result, the specific fuel consumption at cruise flight at 15% PD-14 will fall, according to preliminary estimates, compared with existing engines: up to 0,53-0,54 kg / (kg · h) vs. 0.595 kg / (kg · h ) of PS-90


    5. PD-14 - the first aircraft engine, created in Russia after the collapse of the USSR


    When Vladimir Putin congratulated Russian experts with the beginning of the test the PD-14, he said that the last time such an event took place 29 years ago in our country. Most likely, there was a mean 26 December 1986 when the first flight of the IL-76LL the program PS-90A test.

    The Soviet Union was a great aviation power. In the 1980s in the USSR worked eight most powerful aircraft engine design bureau. Often, firms compete with each other, as was the practice to give the same job two OKB. Alas, times have changed. After the collapse of the 1990s had to collect all the power industry to implement a project to create a modern engine. In fact, the formation of the 2008 UEC (United Engine Corporation), with many enterprises which actively cooperates VTB Bank, and was aimed at creating an organization capable of not only preserve the competence of the country in gas turbine manufacture, but also to compete with the leading companies of the world.

    The prime contractor of the project is a PD-14 OKB "Aircraft Engine" (Perm), which, by the way, to develop and PS-90. Mass production is organized at the Perm Engine Plant, but parts and accessories will be manufactured in the country. In cooperation involved Ufa Engine Industrial Association (UMPO), NPO "Saturn" (Rybinsk), NPTSG "Salute" (Moscow), "Metallist-Samara" and many others.

    6. PD-14 - motor for the main plane of the XXI century


    One of the most successful projects in the field of civil aviation of the USSR was a medium-range Tu-154. Released in 1026 piece quantities. He was for many years the basis of "Aeroflot" park. Alas, the time is coming, and the workaholic does not meet modern requirements either in economy or ecology (noise and emissions). The main weakness of the Tu-154 - engine 3rd generation D-30KU with high specific fuel consumption (0.69 kg / (kg · h).

    States producing modern turbojet aircraft, less than countries with nuclear weapons

    The newcomer to replace the Tu-154 medium-range Tu-204 engines with 4th generation PS-90 in the disintegration of the country and the free market could not compete with foreign manufacturers, even in the fight for domestic airlines. Meanwhile, the medium-range single-aisle aircraft segment, which is dominated by Boeing-737 and Airbus 320 (only in 2015 were delivered to airlines in the world 986 pcs.), - The mass, and the presence on it - a necessary condition for the preservation of the domestic civil aircraft. Thus, in the early 2000s, an urgent need to create a new generation competitive TRD has been identified for the medium-haul aircraft in the 130-170 seats. That plane should be MS-21 (the main plane of the XXI century), developed by the United Aircraft Corporation. The problem is incredibly difficult, as competition with Boeing and Airbus could not bear not only the Tu-204, but no other aircraft in the world. It is under the MS-21 and PD-14 is being developed. Success in this project will be akin to the economic miracle, but such initiatives - the only way for the Russian economy to get off the oil needle.

    7. The PD-14 - basic design for the engine family

    The letters "PD" stands for forward-looking engine, while the number of 14 - ton thrust in-confidence. PD-14 - is the base engine for the family of turbojet thrust from 8 to 18 ton. Business idea of ​​the project is that all these engines are based on the unified gas generator a high degree of perfection. The gasifier - TRD is the heart, which includes a high pressure compressor, combustor and turbine. It is these nodes manufacturing techniques, especially the so-called hot parts, are critical.

    The family of engines based on PD-14 will equip modern powerplants almost all Russian planes from PD-7 for short-haul "Sukhoi Superjet 100" to the PD-18, which can be installed on the flagship of the Russian aircraft - long-range Il-96. Planned to develop a helicopter engine PD-10 to replace the Ukrainian D-136 on the world's largest Mi-26 helicopter on the basis of PD-14 gas generator. The same engine can also be used on the Russian-Chinese heavy helicopters, of which the development has begun. On the basis of the gas generator PD-14 can be created, and so the necessary Russian gas compressor plants and gas turbine power plants with capacity from 8 to 16 MW.

    8. PD-14 - it's 16 critical technologies


    For the PD-14, under the leadership of the Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM), the head SRI industry and OKB "Aircraft Engine" was developed 16 critical technologies: monocrystalline blades of high pressure turbine promising cooling system for operation at the gas temperature to 2000 ° K, hollow wide-fan blade is made of titanium alloy, which made it possible to increase the efficiency of the fan stage by 5% compared to the PS-90, low-emission combustion chamber of the intermetallic alloy, sound-absorbing structures made of composite materials, ceramic coatings on the details of the hot part, the hollow blades of low pressure turbine and etc.

    PD-14 will continue to improve. At MAKS-2015 it was already possible to see created in CIAM prototype of wide blades of carbon fiber fan, the mass of which is 65% by weight of hollow titanium blades used today. The stand CIAM could see the prototype gear, which is supposed to equip the PD-18R modification. Reducer will reduce the fan speed, so that is not tied to the turbine turns, it will work in a more effective manner. It is expected to raise to 50 ° K and the temperature of the gas before the turbine. This will increase the PD-18R to 20 ton thrust and reduce specific fuel consumption by 5%.


    9. PD-14 - 20 is the new materials


    When you create a PD-14 developers from the outset staked on domestic materials. It was clear that Russian companies under any circumstances do not provide access to new materials of foreign production. Here the leading role played by the All-Russian Institute of Aviation Materials (VIAM), with the participation of which is for PD-14 developed about 20 new materials.

    But to create a material - is half the battle. Sometimes Russian metals superior to overseas, but for use in civil aircraft engine certification is required by international standards. Otherwise, the engine, no matter how he was good, was not allowed to fly outside of Russia. The rules here are very strict, since we are talking about people's safety. The same applies to the motor manufacturing process: industry enterprises required by the European Aviation Safety Agency certification standards (EASA). All this will make to strengthen the culture of production, and under the new technologies necessary to the industry upgrading. The very development of PD-14 took place on the new digital technology, allowing for 7-th instance of the engine has been assembled in Perm on the technology of serial production, while earlier experimental batch was produced in an amount of up to 35 copies.

    The development of modern engine takes 1.5-2 times longer than the development of the aircraft


    PD-14 is to get to the next level of the entire industry. But what to say, even a flying laboratory IL-76LL after several years of inactivity in need of retrofitting equipment. I found a job and stands for the unique CIAM, allowing on the ground to simulate flight conditions. In general, the PD-14 project will preserve Russia more than 10,000 highly skilled jobs.

    10. PD-14 - the first domestic engine, which directly competes with western analogue


    The development of modern engine takes 1.5-2 times longer than the development of the aircraft. From a situation where the engine does not have time to test the top of the aircraft, for which it is intended, aircraft manufacturers are facing, alas, regularly. That's MS-21 rolled out the first instance will take place at the beginning of 2016, and the test of PD-14 has only just begun. However, in the project from the outset envisaged alternative: MS-21, customers can choose between PD-14 and PW1400G company Pratt & Whitney. It is with the American engine of MS-21, and will take the first flight, and with it the PD-14 to compete for a place under the wing.

    In comparison with a competitor, PD-14 is slightly inferior to the economy, but it is lighter, has a significantly smaller diameter (1.9 m vs. 2.1), and therefore less resistance. And one more feature: Russian experts deliberately went for a simplification of the design. Baseline PD 14 uses a fan drive gear, and are not adjustable nozzle applies an external circuit, it has lower gas temperature before turbine, which simplifies achieving reliability and life. Therefore, the engine PD-14 is cheaper and, according to preliminary estimates, it will require less costly maintenance and repair. By the way, in a fall in oil prices is lower operating costs, and cost-effectiveness are not skhemoobrazuyuschim factor and the main competitive advantage of the aircraft engine. In general, direct operating costs MS-21 PD-14 may be 2.5% lower than with the American version of the engine.

    Today ordered MS-21 175, 35 of them - with the engine PD-14.

    Austin
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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  Austin on Sun Mar 06, 2016 1:35 pm

    From Russia (and Italy) with Amor: Interjet’s Experience with the Superjet SSJ 100 and Trip Report

    http://airwaysnews.com/blog/2016/03/04/onboard-interjet-ssj-100-mia-cun/

    TheArmenian
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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

    Post  TheArmenian on Sat Mar 19, 2016 5:43 pm

    Two Antonov planes made their first flights in Russia this month:

    10 march 2016: AN-148 produced by VASO in Voronezh made its first flight
    http://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/75139/

    19 March 2016: AN-140 produced by Aviacor in Samara made its first flight
    http://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/75499/

    Both planes are for the Russian Defense Ministry.

    Seems that Ukrainian components are getting through.
    Also note that VK-117 engines for Russian built Mi-8 family helicopters are still coming in from Motor-Sich Ukraine.

    Despite their big anti-Russia talk, the Ukrainians have figured out that their industry cannot survive without their single most important customer: Russia

    Perhaps the engines for the Russian frigates will come too.

    P.S. Russia is now sourcing all VK-2500 helicopter engines (Mi-28 and Ka-52) locally. Eventually (perhaps in a couple of years), all helicopter engines will be produced in Russia... and the Ukrainian engine manufacturing industry (Motor-Sich) will cease to exist.

    Also note that the Ukrainians need Russia to produce their new AN-178 plane (which is a cargo version of the AN-148). About 60-70% of that plane is made of Russian-made components and I don't see the Ukrainian being able to do their own import substitution.
    I guess the Ukrops and the Russians are discreetly collaborating in this field...for the time being.

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    Re: Russian Civil Aviation: News #2

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