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    Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

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    Pinto

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  Pinto on Fri Jul 29, 2016 2:46 pm

    yeah looks like airbus will make entry into it now along with russia
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    George1

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  George1 on Thu Dec 29, 2016 12:34 am

    Russia Left Out From Major Indian Tender for EW Suites
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    GarryB

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  GarryB on Thu Dec 29, 2016 8:59 am

    Perhaps if they had done the same with the MRCA program MiG might not have wasted so much time and money on that either.

    Clearly they don't want a Russian option... which is fine.
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    George1

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  George1 on Sat Jan 28, 2017 2:17 am

    Indian Navy Pitches for Three More Multirole Fighter Squadrons

    Global military aviation majors to square off as India sets stiff parameters for the selection of 57 combat jets that are able to operate from aircraft carriers.

    New Delhi (Sputnik) – The Indian Navy has finally decided to rest speculation whether it will opt for a home-developed combat jet or import them for its aircraft carriers.

    It has sought information from global manufacturers for 57 multi role carrier-borne fighters. "Multi role fighters are intended as day and night capable, all-weather multi-role deck based combat aircraft which can be used for air defense, air-to-surface operations, buddy refueling, reconnaissance and EW missions from Indian Naval aircraft carriers," reads document issued for global suppliers.

    Apart from some basic guidelines for procurement, Indian Navy has sought answers on the configuration in 55 pages on a range of issues like electronic warfare capability, endurance and payload. Indian government is desirous of license production of the aircraft after acquiring Transfer of technology in the case.

    The Indian Navy has asked global manufacturers questions like whether the twin- seat variant retains all operational attributes of the single seat variant (radar, air to air refueling)?

    It also asked for the capability of long/ medium range Beyond Visual Range air to air missiles, short range anti-ship missiles, precision guided munitions and unguided munitions which will be integrated on the aircraft and likely to be offered to Indian Navy.

    Indian Navy also wants to know from the global manufacturers whether the aircraft has a swing-role capability for the simultaneous carriage of strike weapons and air-to-air missiles.

    "Does the aircraft have capability to operate from both STOBAR (Short Take-off But Arrested Recovery) and CATOBAR (Catapult Take-off But Arrested Recovery) aircraft carriers without any modification to the aircraft?" another question.

    Selected aircraft will operate from indigenously developed Vikrant aircraft carrier which will be conventional ski jump based STOBAR layout. Configuration for second aircraft carrier has not yet been finalized.

    Swedish Saab has claimed that its single engine Sea Gripen has capability to operate from both STOBAR/CATOBAR. Russian made MiG-29K also operates from STOBAR. Both these fighter will receive major competition from India's own LCA Navy MK2, as it may find favor from Indian government to promote Make in India component.

    Only last month, Indian Navy chief Admiral Sunil Lanma had rung the alarm when he said the indigenous LCA Navy MK-1Tejas was too heavy for aircraft carriers and not fit in current form.


    If the Indian Navy wants fighters for CATOBAR, Boeing's F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, Dassault's Rafale M and Lockheed Martin's F-35C will find place in this competition.

    However, the winner of the competition will have to invest 30 per cent of commercial value under offset contracts. Request for information indicates that delivery for the aircraft is expected only after 2021; by the time India's LCA NAVY MK-2 may prove to be a tough competitor for offerings by foreign firms.

    https://sputniknews.com/asia/201701271050062375-india-navy-fighter-squadrons/
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    d_taddei2

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    Post  d_taddei2 on Sat Feb 18, 2017 9:53 am

    What i find interesting is the mention of Mig-31, i suppose India did use to operate the Mig-25 and have had nothing like it to replace it, and considering the size of the country and borders Mig-31 is a good choice and might get them for a reasonable price considering that they will be secondhand (upgraded of course) and would help the Russia reduce the number of Mig-31 in storage. I really hope considering the size of the order and cost of western aircraft, that India will go for Russian aircraft, I can see Mig-31 and Mig-35 being the likely options. I can see India's Tejas plan that only 2-4 squadrons will end up being purchased and the rest of the their requirements Mig-35 or possibly Mig-29M2 will be purchased, both are better than Tejas. I will be furious if western option is taken.


    Russian military equipment exhibits drew significant attention from various delegations at the concluding Aero India 2017 exhibitions, while Russia and India further cemented military technical cooperation by agreeing on joint projects and discussing the supply of Russian equipment to India.

    https://sputniknews.com/military/201702181050810628-russia-india-military-technology-cooperation/




    Svyatoslavich

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  Svyatoslavich on Sat Feb 18, 2017 1:18 pm

    Since the early 90's the MiG-31 has been offered to export, especially for MiG-25 users (Algeria, Lybia, Syria, India), an export version was developed, but no one was interested. It is the best interceptor out there, but extremely specialized, and in the end would make sense only to India, with a really large territory. Now there are less and less MiG-31 in storage, as the Russian Air Force is upgrading all those in good shape to BM/BSM/DZM variant, soon there will probably be no MiG-31 capable of being in operational conditions in storage.
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    GarryB

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  GarryB on Sun Feb 19, 2017 7:38 am

    To be fair the Chinese did express interest in the MiG-31... but as they were only interested in buying two I suspect it was to examine them rather than put them into operational service...
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    George1

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  George1 on Mon Jun 26, 2017 11:46 pm

    Analysis of the participants in the Indian tender for the procurement of a deck fighter

    According to the Indian resource "LivefistDefence.com" in the note "Four Fighters Throw Hat Into Big Indian Navy Ring", four months after the Indian Navy announced its intention to purchase 57 multi-role fighters, the resource had a list of those companies that formally responded: Boeing with the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet, Dassault Aviation with Rafale-M, Saab with Gripen Maritime and Rosoboronexport/UAC with MiG-29K. It is noted that the company Lockheed-Martin, which for many years promoted to India fighter F-35B/C, decided not to participate in the competition. This is not surprising given that this industrial giant is considering any sales of the F-35 to India through an intergovernmental agreement, and not through participation in tenders.

    The resource considers all options submitted for tender:

    Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet: Super Hornet has a large application for participation in the Make-in-India program, which is more in line with the country's future Air Force requests for the purchase of a twin-engine aircraft that will follow the current tender for a single-engine fighter. As part of a major Washington program to promote a catapult fighter into India, Boeing's proposal has high chances. On the other hand, Boeing claims that it conducted experimental work on the take-off of the plane from the springboard, and that the Super Hornet can be used from the Vikramaditya aircraft carrier.

    Dassault Rafale-M: Rafale has advantages in the form of its type. It will be in service with at least two squadrons of the country's Air Force, with the possibility of further increase of this number. Unification gives Rafale an advantage. However, the price can become a brake.

    MiG-29K - as is already clear now, the MiG-29K has little chance of a new purchase by the Indian side. A worthy fighter on a proven platform, but which has several problems - not the last of them is that it does not fully comply with fleet requirements for the duration of the flight. Other problems are well known for aircraft, but the very fact that the Indian Navy invested a lot of time, energy and huge funds to find new fighters, says that the MiG-29K is almost dead.

    Saab Gripen Maritime - according to the statements of Saab, Gripen Maritime (previously known by the stylish name 'Sea Gripen') is ready on paper and has modifications for takeoff from the catapult and the springboard. The design work was completed in 2012, when Saab expected only financing from the interested buyer for the further development of the project. The single-engine scheme works against it - the Indian Navy will experience serious difficulties explaining plans to ship the LCA Navy fighter (and, possibly, the twin-engine Mk.2) to the scourge of another more effective single-engine fighter. However, the prospects for Saab to win the contract of the Indian Air Force for the purchase of a single-engine fighter can somewhat counterbalance the fact that the aircraft is not yet available and there is no experience of its operation.

    In the Indian arms procurement process very often grandmother in two said. As the sellers and the buyer know, the request for proposals stage is very painful and preliminary. The situation with the contract for a multi-functional fighter depends on many factors, including the Air Force's own plans, and it may take some time until the next stage comes. A big shake-up in Indian defense industrial policy and strategic partnership for today will definitely slow down the process. Nobody rolls his lip, but the race has already begun.

    http://bmpd.livejournal.com/2690420.html
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    Pinto

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  Pinto on Wed Jun 28, 2017 10:09 am

    This tender is farce. deal will be given to some 200 F 16 to be made in India. there is some talks about f 35 being offered post 2020 but india is way too engazed into final stages of sorting FGFA so this looks far fetched

    Russia will be given around 8-10 b 4 order for making su30 into super sukhois along with final deal for FGFA by year end
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    Godric

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  Godric on Wed Jun 28, 2017 7:42 pm

    the F-16s are becoming extremely dated ... any country buying F-15s, 16s and 18s are not planning a long term airforce ... reeks of buying airframes for the sake of it
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    George1

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  George1 on Wed Jun 28, 2017 10:43 pm

    The tender above is for naval fighter. The tender for IAF single engine aircraft is different
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    miketheterrible

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  miketheterrible on Thu Jun 29, 2017 12:39 am

    Pinto wrote:This tender is farce. deal will be given to some 200 F 16 to be made in India. there is some talks about f 35 being offered post 2020 but india is way too engazed into final stages of sorting FGFA so this looks far fetched

    Russia will be given around 8-10 b 4 order for making su30 into super sukhois along with final deal for FGFA by year end

    India is a cheap nation. They won't get FGFA since the US had them by the balls. I think Su-30 and upgrades are the last deals Russia is gonna get from India. Better Russia starts selling to China and Pakistan way more. To hell with India.
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    Pinto

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  Pinto on Thu Jun 29, 2017 3:49 pm

    miketheterrible wrote:
    Pinto wrote:This tender is farce. deal will be given to some 200 F 16 to be made in India. there is some talks about f 35 being offered post 2020 but india is way too engazed into final stages of sorting FGFA so this looks far fetched

    Russia will be given around 8-10 b 4 order for making su30 into super sukhois along with final deal for FGFA by year end

    India is a cheap nation. They won't get FGFA since the US had them by the balls. I think Su-30 and upgrades are the last deals Russia is gonna get from India. Better Russia starts selling to China and Pakistan way more. To hell with India.

    Russia is never going to leave India nor India will do such thing, FGFA is reality and its matter of few months before final deal is signed, since it's going to be mega deal of 25 b$ the Indian govt will obviously take time so that future issues don't crop up. There won't be any surprise if super sukhois deal worth 8-10b$ is signed before final FGFA deal and also 4 frigates for Indian Navy worth 3-4 b $. Russia has many aces up its sleeve to keep india engaged closely. Russians are not so naive diplomatically that they will so easily allow India to go to US for all defence needs

    Pakistan can never replace India as a defence partner for Russia neither money wise nor quantity wise. India- Russia ties are are here to stay whatever you say or think emotionally.

    India will always ally with US vis a vis china as china you might have seen is continuously turning very belligerent against India and is hurting India in many ways. India has never objected to Russia--china closer ties

    China is in final stages of developing its own FGFA. so no point of Russia selling them and take risk of reverse engineering as has happened many times in past
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    miketheterrible

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  miketheterrible on Mon Jul 10, 2017 12:41 am

    http://www.defense-aerospace.com/articles-view/release/3/185107/indian-navy-to-issue-tender-for-110-light-helicopters.html

    So Kamov 226T not good enough for Navy. Being built for Army and Airforce. So new tender for 110 helicopters for Navy.
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    JohninMK

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  JohninMK on Mon Jul 10, 2017 1:08 am

    miketheterrible wrote:http://www.defense-aerospace.com/articles-view/release/3/185107/indian-navy-to-issue-tender-for-110-light-helicopters.html

    So Kamov 226T not good enough for Navy.  Being built for Army and Airforce.  So new tender for 110 helicopters for Navy.
    Very few Navies will accept 'gear' that their Army or especially Air Force have accepted. They are the 'special service' so there clearly needs to be a special Ka-226IN with extra features, maybe water wings or something.
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    miketheterrible

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    So Kamov 226T not good enough for Navy. Being built for Army and Airforce. So new tender for 110 helicopters for Navy.

    Post  miketheterrible on Mon Jul 10, 2017 1:17 am

    JohninMK wrote:
    miketheterrible wrote:http://www.defense-aerospace.com/articles-view/release/3/185107/indian-navy-to-issue-tender-for-110-light-helicopters.html

    So Kamov 226T not good enough for Navy.  Being built for Army and Airforce.  So new tender for 110 helicopters for Navy.
    Very few Navies will accept 'gear' that their Army or especially Air Force have accepted. They are the 'special service' so there clearly needs to be a special Ka-226IN with extra features, maybe water wings or something.

    It is a courtesy for the US, nothing more. India is a vassal nation, not independent.
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    George1

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  George1 on Tue Aug 01, 2017 10:19 am

    On the aircraft carrier Vikramaditya were tested in the tender for the purchase of deck fighter aircraft

    Considering the purchase of 57 decked fighters, the Indian Navy recently invited foreign manufacturing firms to conduct tests to verify their compatibility with the aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya. The French Dassault Rafale, the Swedish Saab Sea Gripen, the Russian MiG-29K and the American McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet are contenders for the deal, which may amount to more than 12 billion US dollars. "Foreign manufacturers were asked to prove that their aircraft could work with our aircraft carrier of Russia's INS Vikramaditya," said a senior Indian naval officer.

    The tests were carried out at the base in Karvar.

    57 new fighters will be used on the aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya and the national aircraft carrier IAC (Indigenous Aircraft Carrier), which is being built at the state shipyard Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL) in Cochin, together with 45 MiG29K, which are already purchased in Russia.

    There are huge differences between Russian and Western aircraft carriers. While aircraft on American aircraft carriers are designed for basing horizontal take-off aircraft and steam catapults are used to lift them into air, and on Russian aircraft-carrying cruisers they rise in the air from the take-off ramp at INS Vicramaditya and on the INS Vikrant under construction. The need to buy new super-expensive fighters arose after Admiral Sunil Lamba, Chief of Staff of the Indian Navy, announced on Dec. 2, 2016 that the Naval Tejas (Naval LCA) version of the lightweight fighter of the national Indian development Tejas (LCA) does not meet the requirements of the Indian fleet and can not Be used with Indian aircraft carriers. The main reason for this was named "excessive weight" of Naval Tejas and insufficient thrust-to-weight ratio, as a result of which the fighter can not take off with a full supply of fuel and combat load from the aircraft carrier's ramp.

    "As for the deck aircraft, we have limited time in making them until the aircraft carrier is ready.We have the MiG 29K, which is used with Vikramaditya and should be used with the IAC (Indigenous Aircraft Carrier) Vikrant - Admiral Sunil Lamba said then.

    "We also hoped to use LCA (Light Combat Aircraft - Tejas) from these two aircraft carriers, unfortunately LCA is unable to meet the aircraft carrier requirements, so we need an alternative aircraft for use with these two aircraft carriers," Admiral Lamba said.

    According to the demand made by the Indian Navy, the assembly of fighters should be carried out at Indian industrial facilities within the framework of the "Make in India" concept. Tender requirements include technology transfer obligations for a possible subsequent license production of MRCBF in India. As for the schedule of deliveries, the first batch of fighter jets should be delivered to the customer three years after the signing of the contract, and all 57 fighters must be delivered to the Indian Navy within the next three years. The existing fleet of MiG-29K aircraft creates a number of problems for the Indian Navy. The main problems of the MiG-29K and MiG-29KUB aircraft purchased for the aircraft carrier fleet being created by India are related to the airplane glider, the RD-33MK engine and the electric remote control system (EDSU). Thus, the serviceability of the MiG-29K aircraft (one of the key indicators of the effectiveness of weapons), according to Indian experts, was from 15.93%, the serviceability of the MiG-29KUB - ranging from 21.30% to 47.14%. The Indian Navy has been operating these aircraft since September 2014. The service life of the aircraft is 6 thousand flight hours or 25 years (whichever comes first) and taking into account the problems faced by the MiG-29K/KUB, the operational life of the aircraft already in service will be reduced, according to an official report. Chief inspector and auditor of India on the state of the Armed Forces in the country.

    With two aircraft carriers and more than five squadrons of naval strike aircraft, the Indian navy would become a very strong force to be reckoned with.

    http://bmpd.livejournal.com/2762800.html
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    George1

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  George1 on Tue Oct 17, 2017 1:14 pm

    Russia’s state arms seller quits India’s tenders for over 20,000 automatic rifles — source

    The tender documentation is 99% specified for the outdated Kalashnikov automatic rifles produced in Bulgaria under the expired Soviet license, the source said

    MOSCOW, October 16. /TASS/. Russia’s state arms seller Rosoboronexport has decided against participating in the tenders of India’s Interior Ministry for the purchase of over 20,000 7.62x39 mm automatic rifles, a source in the system of military and technical cooperation told TASS on Monday.

    "The tender documentation is 99% specified by specialists of India’s Interior Ministry for the outdated Kalashnikov automatic rifles produced in Bulgaria under the expired Soviet license. The requirements of India’s Interior Ministry for the purchase of over 20,000 automatic rifles for the reserve of the national police and the border guard service do not allow Russian companies from the very outset to submit their commercial bids," the source said.

    According to the source, the Indian side has specified among the tender’s essential terms the availability of a metal magazine whereas Russia has long given up this option in favor of more reliable plastic items; appliances for the assembly and disassembly of the trigger and firing mechanism, although this mechanism’s design in new Russian assault rifles of the hundredth series has been improved and no longer requires such an accessory and also steel folding butts whereas modern butt-stocks are made of composite materials.

    A source in Rosoboronexport confirmed the state arms exporter’s withdrawal from the Indian Interior Ministry’s tenders for the purchase of automatic rifles, saying that Russia’s AK-103 submachine guns did not comply with the terms of the tenders. However, the source declined to comment on the Indian Interior Ministry’s current procurement policy, saying such statements would be incorrect.

    In turn, the Kalashnikov Group said it was greatly surprised that old metal magazines were important for the purchasers from the Indian Interior Ministry.

    "They are less reliable and subject to rust in a hot climate. The entire world has long been switching over to plastic magazines," the Kalashnikov Group press office reported, noting that the company planned to invite Indian journalists and experts in the arms sphere to Russia so that they could see with their own eyes modern and qualitative arms, which the Indian police and border guards could get, if the current tender terms "would be more beneficial for the producer of genuine Kalashnikov automatic rifles."

    "No doubt, the Indian side has the right to choose any arms for its law-enforcement, defense and security agencies. In turn, the Russian side has the full right not to act in the role of the tender’s marginal participant and so the refusal by Rosoboronexport to give up the tenders is a logical decision. But if the terms of the tenders are altered, we are ready to take part in them," the Kalashnikov Group press office said.


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    http://tass.com/defense/970967
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    George1

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  George1 on Mon Dec 04, 2017 9:18 pm

    Helicopter Ka-226T will take part in the tender for the supply of a ship's helicopter of the Indian Navy

    As Elizaveta Kuznetsova and Ivan Safronov write in the article "Helicopters of Russia are flying over the three seas," published by the Kommersant newspaper, Russian Helicopters intend to expand cooperation with India in the segment of light helicopters: the holding announced plans to participate in a new tender for supply Indian Navy 111 decked helicopters Ka-226T. "Helicopters of Russia" has already certified a ship helicopter, which, according to Kommersant, can be produced within the framework of the Russian-Indian joint venture for the Ministry of Defense of India. As the experts note, against the background of the market decline, Indian state orders become especially important for the holding.

    https://bmpd.livejournal.com/2986276.html
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    George1

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    Re: Russia in Indian Armed Forces Tenders:

    Post  George1 on Mon Apr 16, 2018 9:32 am

    Swedish MANPADS RBS-70 Mk2 does not meet the conditions of the tender in India



    The Russian portable anti-aircraft missile system "Igla-S" fully meets the requirements of the Ministry of Defense of India, has high tactical and technical characteristics and will, if adopted, significantly strengthen the air defense of units and divisions of the Indian army. Our MANPADS are well known in the Indian Armed Forces, which have a long experience of their successful operation. In the past, MANPADS Strela-2M and Igla were delivered to India. To ensure their storage, operation and maintenance, an appropriate infrastructure has been created there, the process of training and training of Indian soldiers has been established. There is experience of successful combat use. The new Igla-S MANPADS fits seamlessly into the already developed system and will not require radical changes in the structure of the air defense units in India, as well as additional financial costs.

    "Igla-S" has advantages in comparison with those participating in the tender conducted by foreign complexes of a similar class - MANPADS Mistral-2 (joint offer of the French MBDA and Israeli IAI) and MANPADS RBS-70 Mk2 (offer of the Swedish company SAAB). Moreover, the very fact of participation of the Swedish MANPADS in the tender in general raises many questions, since this complex does not meet a number of criteria set by the tender documentation.

    In particular, in the Appendix "A" of the tender proposal (Part 1. General information, Clause 11), the requirement for the homing head of the missile is indicated: it must be active or passive. However, the RBS-70 Mk2 has a command control system, the missile used in it is guided by the results of measuring the angle of misalignment of the line of sight and the trajectory of its flight. The farther the missile fires from the MANPADS and the more vigorously the target maneuvers, the greater the measurement error.

    The optimal conditions for the RBS-70 complex are when the air target moves in a straight line and at a constant speed. However, this is an ideal, not a real situation. After all, as soon as the pilot of the airplane records the combat work of the MANPADS, he immediately begins to implement the evasion maneuver. At the same time, the shooter of the Swedish MANPADS is forced to stay in place and continue to accompany the target in conditions when by the very fact of the launch he has already discovered his location and is likely to be retaliated with high probability. He can not hide. Such a stressful situation causes a significant psychophysiological burden on the operator, which can lead to errors and disruption of the process of aiming the missile at the target.

    In addition, the RBS-70 complex does not respond to such tender requirements (paragraph 17b), as it is possible to perform salvo firing from a launcher for several missiles (a similar regime in the Swedish MANPADS is not implemented in principle). RBS-70 also does not comply with point 3ai, which provides that the total weight of the missile and launch tube should not exceed 25 kg. This greatly complicates the operation of the Swedish MANPADS in such types of terrain as highlands, semi-deserts and deserts.

    It should be noted that both Mistral-2 and RBS-70 Mk2 are not portable complexes in the literal meaning of this term, they can not be put on the shoulder, aim and launch. This is actually a mobile air defense system - in contrast to the Russian Igla-S missile system, where only one shooter or a two-person calculation is required in the Dzhigit PU version.

    The tender provides for the delivery, along with the MANPADS, of target detection and automation equipment - on the basis of a small-scale short-range radar. These funds must also be portable. The Russian proposal is the only one that satisfies the conditions of the tender. The Israeli radar for Mistral-2 and the Swedish radar Giraffe require, due to their large mass, the mandatory use of vehicles, which excludes the possibility of their deployment and use in difficult terrain conditions, for example, in the mountains.

    Paragraph 16a of the solicitation documents states that "the trigger shall be easily installed on the launch pipe". In reality, the missile of the RBS-70 Mk2 complex is launched from a special tripod mount, three or four people are required to carry the necessary equipment together with the missile.

    Despite the apparent inconsistency of the RBS-70 with the listed requirements, SAAB was not only allowed to tender, but continues to participate in it, which calls into question the transparency and objectivity of tender procedures. In addition, as it became known, at the final stage of testing in May 2017, the Swedish complex, which previously had problems with ensuring electromagnetic compatibility, and modified at the request of the Indian side, failed to hit the air target Banshee.

    Ultimately, the question is as follows: what is more important for the Indian army is to adopt the Russian Igla-S missile system that is modern and fully compliant with the terms of the tender, which has been tested in real military conflicts of recent years, or is involved in a long-term, technically complex , a very expensive and unpredictable final result with SAAB.

    In the course of the Defexpo India - 2018 arms exhibition, which is now taking place in Chennai, the Swedish company SAAB has developed a large exposition.

    https://i-korotchenko.livejournal.com/1399529.html

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