I think Russia, or Russia's allies does not need another anti tank hardwares, as the very efficients AT-3, AT-5, AT-13, AT-14, AT-15, and RPG-7, 29, 30, 32 are more than enough.
I was referring to its use in modern vehicles... keep in mind that in a modern IFV the Russians have generally insisted on fire power to allow an IFV to be able to defeat enemy IFVs with its main gun and to have some capacity to engage tanks as well even if as a purely defensive measure (ie it wont go looking for tanks but if one appears it needs some way of engaging it with some chance of success).
With their first IFV... the BMP known as BMP-1 now their anti tank capability came from the early Falanga ATGM which could not hit a target within about 400m while the guidance system gathered the missile into view after launch... this meant the main gun of the BMP-1 had to have the power to defeat MBTs AND enemy IFVs and in the HEAT version could actually kill an M60 tank at any range it could hit it.
When the BMP-2 was developed the new Konkurs and Fagot gathered their missiles much faster and could hit targets as close as 75m from the launcher so the main gun of the BMP-2 didn't need to be able to kill MBTs from the front... it just had to kill M113s from the front, which its 30mm cannon could do easily.
Experience with both vehicles made them realise that the HE fire power of a large calibre gun was useful in some situations but in others a small calibre auto cannon was better, so the BMP-3 took the step of having both a large calibre gun and an auto cannon with a 100mm rifled gun and a 30mm rifled cannon. the anti tank weapon was a laser guided missile fired through the 100mm gun.
Of course the new IFV will need rather more than a 30mm cannon to deal with enemy IFVs... some western models are heavier than Soviet medium tanks (T-34), so a 57mm gun makes a lot of sense as a standard anti IFV weapon, but no model of 57mm round whether it is APFSDS or laser guided HE shell will penetrate a MBT, so that is what I was talking about... a modern Russian Armata or Boomerang or Kurganets or Typhoon IFV armed with a 57mm gun will still need Kornet-EM or something to defend itself from enemy tanks.
I talked about the S-60, ZSU-23, and the KS-19 as very efficients hardwares as very, very efficients asymetric hardwares against the most modern US fighter-bombers.
With guided shells in the case of the larger calibres they would be very dangerous, but most can be evaded simply by flying very high.
Even the most efficient AA gun firing unguided shells will fire thousands of rounds for each target brought down, but with modern radar and fire control systems and guided shells they could be rather more effective... but in most cases the cost of developing heavy calibre guided shells means missiles start to look more attractive in terms of kill probability.
For example, they said that the A-10 is immunized against 23 mm. Is it true ? Is it only an hoax ? I don't know, if you have more infos please let us know.
Many components on the A-10 are designed to withstand 23mm cannon shell hits, but getting hit repeatedly will eventually bring the aircraft down and of course the tunguska fires heavier 30mm shells which do more damage.
Hits by 57mm or 100mm or 130mm guns would be devastating.
If the A-10 is immunized against 23 mm caliber -?- if it is true, however, against 30, 45, and 57 mm he has none chances. In fact, as I understood the very cheap S-60, and KS-19, DSHK, ZSU, and NSV are very usefull asymetric hardwares.
The problem for the AA is that a low flying A-10 is a very elusive target that would be very hard to hit... especially with the larger calibre weapons... remember these guns were originally envisioned to be used against enemy bomber streams that flew in fixed formations with very little manouvering going on and they still fired thousands of rounds per hit.
I remember reading somewhere that the 57mm anti aircraft round would only need one round to take down most aircraft or 1-2 rounds to take down a British Canberra sized aircraft(medium bomber), pretty scary when these S-60 were grouped together spitting 100's or even 1,000's of them into the air.
Keep in mind that without the radar guidance the 57mm gun was not very effective against air targets in the ZSU-57-2 and was rapidly replaced by smaller calibre guns firing at a much higher rate of fire to compensate for the ability of the target to manouver. The next change was to step up in calibre with an even higher rate of fire to extend effective range.
With modern electronics you might be able to revisit the 57mm gun as an anti aircraft weapon with guided shells compensating for low rate of fire and low ready to use ammo supply.
Once a standard shell is fired any deviation by the target in speed or altitude or heading means it will likely miss... with precise heading, speed and altitude data you can estimate what manouvers the target could perform and send a few extra shells in those directions too and bracket the target with shells from several guns so that the rounds explode near the target nearly simultaneously to increase the chance of a hit or at least damage.
With high rate of fire guns you can do that with a burst because some rounds will go where you aim and the other rounds will go nearby to places the target might be if it manouvers.
Obviously the best solution is a guided shell that can compensate after being fired for any manouvers the target makes till impact.
Obviously if the guided shells are very expensive it makes sense to just use missiles, but guided shells are becoming widespread and make more sense in larger calibre shells because there is more room.
guided 23mm shells would be ineffective against heavy targets, but heavy rounds have previously been ineffective because the guns firing them haven't been able to put up enough rounds to bracket the target and get hits.
guided 57mm rounds change this, but you still need detection and tracking systems to find and follow the targets.
You don't need guided shell 57mm guns to make A-10s dead... it makes rather more sense to use Pantsir-S1 as it can kill A-10s at 40km in the newer versions... well outside the range any A-10 can target them from.