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    nightcrawler
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    Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  nightcrawler on Sun Oct 31, 2010 12:41 am

    A Chinese scientific research center has built the fastest supercomputer ever made, replacing the United States as maker of the swiftest machine, and giving China bragging rights as a technology superpower.

    The Tianhe-1A computer in Tianjin, China, links thousands upon thousands of chips.
    The computer, known as Tianhe-1A, has 1.4 times the horsepower of the current top computer, which is at a national laboratory in Tennessee, as measured by the standard test used to gauge how well the systems handle mathematical calculations, said Jack Dongarra, a University of Tennessee computer scientist who maintains the official supercomputer rankings.

    Although the official list of the top 500 fastest machines, which comes out every six months, is not due to be completed by Mr. Dongarra until next week, he said the Chinese computer “blows away the existing No. 1 machine.” He added, “We don’t close the books until Nov. 1, but I would say it is unlikely we will see a system that is faster.”

    Officials from the Chinese research center, the National University of Defense Technology, are expected to reveal the computer’s performance on Thursday at a conference in Beijing. The center says it is “under the dual supervision of the Ministry of National Defense and the Ministry of Education.”

    The race to build the fastest supercomputer has become a source of national pride as these machines are valued for their ability to solve problems critical to national interests in areas like defense, energy, finance and science. Supercomputing technology also finds its way into mainstream business; oil and gas companies use it to find reservoirs and Wall Street traders use it for superquick automated trades. Procter & Gamble even uses supercomputers to make sure that Pringles go into cans without breaking.

    And typically, research centers with large supercomputers are magnets for top scientific talent, adding significance to the presence of the machines well beyond just cranking through calculations.

    Over the last decade, the Chinese have steadily inched up in the rankings of supercomputers. Tianhe-1A stands as the culmination of billions of dollars in investment and scientific development, as China has gone from a computing afterthought to a world technology superpower.

    “What is scary about this is that the U.S. dominance in high-performance computing is at risk,” said Wu-chun Feng, a supercomputing expert and professor at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. “One could argue that this hits the foundation of our economic future.”

    Modern supercomputers are built by combining thousands of small computer servers and using software to turn them into a single entity. In that sense, any organization with enough money and expertise can buy what amount to off-the-shelf components and create a fast machine.

    The Chinese system follows that model by linking thousands upon thousands of chips made by the American companies Intel and Nvidia. But the secret sauce behind the system — and the technological achievement — is the interconnect, or networking technology, developed by Chinese researchers that shuttles data back and forth across the smaller computers at breakneck rates, Mr. Dongarra said.

    “That technology was built by them,” Mr. Dongarra said. “They are taking supercomputing very seriously and making a deep commitment.”

    The Chinese interconnect can handle data at about twice the speed of a common interconnect called InfiniBand used in many supercomputers.

    For decades, the United States has developed most of the underlying technology that goes into the massive supercomputers and has built the largest, fastest machines at research laboratories and universities. Some of the top systems simulate the effects of nuclear weapons, while others predict the weather and aid in energy research.

    In 2002, the United States lost its crown as supercomputing kingpin for the first time in stunning fashion when Japan unveiled a machine with more horsepower than the top 20 American computers combined. The United States government responded in kind, forming groups to plot a comeback and pouring money into supercomputing projects. The United States regained its leadership status in 2004, and has kept it, until now.

    At the computing conference on Thursday in China, the researchers will discuss how they are using the new system for scientific research in fields like astrophysics and bio-molecular modeling. Tianhe-1A, which is housed in a building at the National Supercomputing Center in Tianjin, can perform mathematical operations about 29 million times faster than one of the earliest supercomputers, built in 1976.

    For the record, it performs 2.5 times 10 to the 15th power mathematical operations per second.

    Mr. Dongarra said a long-running Chinese project to build chips to rival those from Intel and others remained under way and looked promising. “It’s not quite there yet, but it will be in a year or two,” he said.

    He also said that in November, when the list comes out, he expected a second Chinese computer to be in the top five, culminating years of investment.

    “The Japanese came out of nowhere and really caught people off guard,” Mr. Feng said. “With China, you could see this one coming.”

    Steven J. Wallach, a well-known computer designer, played down the importance of taking the top spot on the supercomputer rankings.

    “It’s interesting, but it’s like getting to the four-minute mile,” Mr. Wallach said. “The world didn’t stop. This is just a snapshot in time.”

    The research labs often spend weeks tuning their systems to perform well on the standard horsepower test. But just because a system can hammer through trillions of calculations per second does not mean it will do well on the specialized jobs that researchers want to use it for, Mr. Wallach added.

    The United States has plans in place to make much faster machines out of proprietary components and to advance the software used by these systems so that they are easy for researchers to use. But those computers remain years away, and for now, China is king.

    “They want to show they are No. 1 in the world, no matter what it is,” Mr. Wallach said. “I don’t blame them.”
    http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/28/technology/28compute.html?_r=1&ref=china

    Vladimir79
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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  Vladimir79 on Sun Oct 31, 2010 12:56 am

    Lets see the list when it comes out. I understand they have to test and examine it.

    nightcrawler
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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  nightcrawler on Sun Oct 31, 2010 1:12 am

    Enough proof is been given to the world; no list coming forth & who needs it

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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  Vladimir79 on Sun Oct 31, 2010 1:46 am

    If it doesn't pass, then it is another propaganda. Wouldn't be the first time CCP tried it.

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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  GarryB on Sun Oct 31, 2010 2:31 am

    It is not very important which computer is fastest.

    Having the fastest means nothing, but having lots of fast machines will make a serious difference in your MIC.

    What is important is that China has recognised the usefulness of a super computer.

    Something the Soviet Union did not unfortunately.

    That is why most electronics in Russian stuff is made in foreign countries.

    Perhaps a goal for this new silicon valley concept in Russia should be to work on relatively cheap but fast computer designs.

    I remember a while back a Russian electronics company suggested using the processors currently used in 3D graphics cards that had built in physics chips as cheap CPUs. They are certainly fast enough and very cheap to buy and use in numbers.
    They are also designed to come on their own cards with their own cooling and memory so in a way they are already ready to be networked into one large machine. They are already programmed to operate as part of a distributed processing network because in most modern computers you can have two or three or more cards linked together using various methods.


    Having advanced computer power would drastically improve design work and reduce time required. Wind tunnels and real testing would still be useful, but for testing a lot of different ideas rapidly it is ideal. The more different ideas you can test the more features you might find that effect final performance.

    I hope Russia decides to join this race but keeps in mind that the focus should be on practical machines that can actually be made and used rather than one off machines that need specialist coding and software to run.


    Last edited by GarryB on Sun Jan 16, 2011 5:41 am; edited 1 time in total

    nightcrawler
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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  nightcrawler on Sun Oct 31, 2010 11:34 am

    I have seen enouggh of the NVIDIA & ATI Radeon graphic cards that were fabricated in China & this also applies to computer motherboards. Except the processor everything is Chinese. Is the same applies to Russia>>>>I dont think so.
    Russians are masters of making bulky things thats the common perception but when it comes to nano Japanese; Chinese are the leaders

    Vladimir79
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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  Vladimir79 on Mon Nov 01, 2010 2:05 am

    NVIDIA & ATI Radeon graphic cards are not Chinese... everything in that computer is made under Taiwan companies under US brands.

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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  GarryB on Mon Nov 01, 2010 3:02 am

    The Russians didn't make things small because they didn't have to... they had rockets that were powerful enough to lift the extra weight.

    The Chinese are not developing small electronics, they are merely making it in factories designed in foreign countries equipped with machine tools and robots designed and made in foreign countries.
    The only reason these factories are in China is because the labour is so cheap and there are no workers rights so you can screw the workers and not have to pay out large amounts for anyone getting killed or injured.
    This will change in time.

    In the mean time the Russian military officials have said they want to improve their technology base and they are prepared to pay money for it.

    The difference is that after the Russians set up factories to make small electronics they will also learn how to improve them and make stuff of their own design for their own needs.

    Except the processor everything is Chinese.

    The processor is the only hard bit to make.
    Russia can already make all the rest, the controller chips, memory cards, transistors and capacitors, power supplies etc etc.

    nightcrawler
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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  nightcrawler on Mon Nov 01, 2010 9:49 am

    I never sounded rude.
    China is making lots of improvement at nano-scale. If you look at the annual publishing rate of patents from Chinese in the respective field they are quiet heavy in nature!!
    However; I do know that patents also includes Condom making & not necessarily defence technology (analogy is Israel)

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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  Vladimir79 on Mon Nov 01, 2010 10:20 am

    Here is the Chinese patent process... government waives the filing fee, person files foreign patent and claims it their own. CCP official stamps patent and adds it to the list. Or, person thinks they have a great idea, any other patent office would not grant it, official stamps it anyway, add it to the list.

    Point of the story, Chinese patent quality is BAD!

    GarryB
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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  GarryB on Tue Nov 02, 2010 2:43 pm

    Old news now... but the right direction:

    Rosatom handed over to Sukhoi supercomputer developed in Russia
    30/03/2010

    MOSCOW, March 30 - RIA Novosti. State Corporation "Rosatom" passed on to JSC Company Sukhoi, the first compact super computer with a Russian software productivity of 1 teraflops (1 trillion of floating point operations per second), reports on Tuesday RIA Novosti correspondent with the ceremony of transfer of the sample.

    The supercomputer is designed by FGUP Russian Federal Nuclear Center VNIIEF, located in the city of Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region.

    This machine can simulate the gas-dynamic processes, investigate aerodynamics, as well as do other calculations. In 2011, it will be possible shortchanging models of hydrodynamics, turbulent mixing, and in 2012 it will be possible to calculate the model of acoustics and heat and mass transfer. Thanks to these ideas "Rosatom plans to build a database, which in turn, will allow aircraft builders from 2012 to begin an integrated simulation modeling.

    Creation of the first sample of compact supercomputer will enable the next phase to begin limited production of these computers.

    By the end of this year, VNIIEF plans to manufacture and pass on to users 14 super computers. Among users - the nuclear industry companies, Roscosmos, KAMAZ, as well as Aircraft Association "Saturn".

    According to Director General of Sarov nuclear center Valentine Kostyukova, hardware-software system (super-computers), national production will create a competitive product on the world market. " The cost of this super-computers 1,6 million rubles, and it replaces 50 conventional high-performance computers. In the future, mass production of these computers will reduce their cost by 20% in comparison with similar computer systems, supplied to Russia from abroad.

    In turn, the head of Rosatom, Sergei Kiriyenko noted that the state corporation, on the one hand, this is a commercial project, but on the other - it is a practical realization of development objectives in Russia supercomputer technologies.

    Kiriyenko also said that it was necessary to build up the system to work with supercomputers and the transfer of Sukhoi first super-computers, "this work started.
    http://www.rian.ru/science/20100330/217205521.html

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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  Pervius on Tue Apr 05, 2011 6:44 pm

    In the United States you can go to the SETI website and link your computer to their server and your computer starts crunching data and reporting back to the server the results.

    How many computers around the world are hooked to the internet with high speed cable internet with Microsoft Vista/Windows 7? Could the US have secretly put in programming code to have people's computers become part of a supercomputer? Why not?

    That's how I'd make the worlds fastest computer....plus pass the costs on to people around the world and they wouldn't even know it.

    Meanwhile Russia and China would have to pour large amounts of money building super computers where everyone knows where it is...and they'd have a huge powerbill running the thing. Bad economics.

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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  GarryB on Wed Apr 06, 2011 2:08 am

    I doubt the US could keep such a thing secret.

    Obviously they could keep it secret from their own citizens, but the Russian Intel would find out and that would make it very easy to deal with... set up computers and connect to the "supercomputer" and start uploading false information the computers have pretended to process.

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    Super-Calculators : Chine still the first

    Post  nemrod on Thu Nov 20, 2014 1:28 pm

    http://www.top500.org/list/2014/11/


    If indeed, the components are nvidia, and Intel, the first indigenous chinsese super computer with its shenwei processors is at 65 th. Russia 58.


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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  George1 on Wed May 06, 2015 10:45 am

    China Builds City's First All-Robot Factory Replacing Human Workers

    As part of a major push towards automation, the first robots-only factory is being built in China's Dongguan manufacturing hub, reducing human employees to a bare minimum.

    The factory, owned by Shenzhen Evenwin Precision Technology Co., hopes to reduce its workforce by 90%, to only 200 human workers, with the introduction of a 1,000-robot workforce to take the human's places, according to the company's chairman, Chen Xingqi, state-run Xinhua news agency reported.

    The province has plans to spend 943 billion yuan ($154 billion) in the region to replace workers with robots over the next three years, the South China Daily reported. In Dongguan alone, 505 factories have invested 4.2 billion yuan in robot workers since September, with an eye to replace 30,000 workers, according to the city's Economy and Information Technology Bureau.

    The push to automate is being subsidized by city governments who are handing out between 200 to 500 million yuan to both robot makers and to manufacturers who swap out human workers.

    Guangzhou, the provincial capital, has set a goal of automating 80% of its manufacturing production by 2020.

    Fewer, More Costly Workers Drive Shift to Automation

    The push for automated labor is being driven both by worker shortages, and by the rising price of labor. Not only are rising young middle-class Chinese increasingly rejecting factory jobs, but the working aged population (between 16-59) is shrinking, without any young immigrant population to replenish it.

    Province-wide, Guangdong's manufacturing industry currently finds itself about 600,00 to 800,000 workers short, according to the region's Department of Human Resources and Social Security.
    Globalization and Robotics – the New Era of Division of Labor

    "Workers quit every day," a mid-level manager at an electronics plant told ChinaFile. "Physically challenging jobs under harsh conditions or jobs requiring repetitive processes are much less attractive to young workers than the older generation."

    In a regional race-to-the-bottom, other Asian countries are also luring manufacturers with even lower wages, reports ChinaFile. The monthly 3,483 yuan an average Chinese worker earns drops to 911 yuan in Vietnam and 603 yuan in Cambodia, according to the International Labor Organization.

    Japan may come more readily to mind when thinking of advances in robotics, but for sheer numbers, China is now the undisputed leader, surpassing Japan as the world's biggest market for industrial robots in 2014, according to the International Federation of Robotics (IFR).

    China installed 32,000 manufacturing robots in 2013 alone — representing 20% of worldwide installations — bringing their operational total to over 200,000, according to the IFR. By 2017 China is expected to have more robots up and running in factories than any country in the world.

    China's robot to worker ratio of 30 per 10,000 employees, is, however, still much lower than other countries' — Japan has 323, Germany has 282, and the United States has 152 robots per 10,000 human workers.

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/science/20150506/1021755458.html#ixzz3ZLWXqSxK

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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  George1 on Wed Jul 08, 2015 5:13 pm

    China's Newest Secret Weapon: Bullet Trains



    China has conducted an unexpected military mobility exercise, boarding a People's Liberation Army brigade from the Lanzhou military region on a high-speed train and sending them 300 miles to the western province Xinjiang, home to an insurgency fought between the state and ethnic Uyghur Muslim militants.

    The high-speed line to Xianjiang is the newest of six in the country, having opened in 2014.

    The need to move its army fast stems from the geographical enormity of the country and China's relations with neighboring states, of which there are 14. Ongoing border disputes with India, potentially unstable Myanmar to the south, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan to the west, and the country's border with North Korea explain China's striving to evaluate its military's performance in rapid movement, with sights set on the army being able to respond to various types of crises.

    For a country with such a huge territory and the longest land border in the world, handling the problem by using civilian infrastructure may indeed be a clever solution.

    "This new mode of transportation is an improvement. With troops now able to step out of their barracks and onto the high-speed train, troop movement will be significantly faster," OE Watch, the Army's Foreign Military Studies Office newsletter, noted in June.

    To date, China has the largest high-speed rail network in the world with trains traveling faster than 120 miles per hour. By the 2020s, Beijing plans to more than double the number of its high-speed lines.

    The Lanzhou brigade's trip was the first time a military unit had ever traveled along the high-speed rail line to Xinjiang, the Week reported.

    An analysis of the trial run held on June 2 evaluated the train fully loaded with troops, with equipment placed on the luggage racks and in the spare room at both ends of each carriage.

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/military/20150708/1024342312.html#ixzz3fJSnM3x9


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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  George1 on Tue Jul 14, 2015 4:02 pm

    China Developing New High-Speed Super Computer


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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  George1 on Fri Jul 24, 2015 9:17 am

    Growing Influence: China Assembling World’s Largest Amphibious Aircraft

    China has announced that it is has begun assembling the Jiaolong (Water Dragon) AG600 – the world’s largest amphibious aircraft, according to the International Business Times.

    Currently, the first airframe is being built at a facility in Zhuhai in Guangdong province. The final assembly is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2015 with a first flight to take place around mid-2016.

    The aircraft is powered by four turboprop WJ-6 engines and has a range of 5,500 kilometers. It has a maximum take-off weight of 60 tons and can carry up to 50 people.

    The designers of the plane proclaim the AG-600 as the biggest amphibious aircraft surpassing Japan's ShinMaywa US-2 and the Russian-made Beriev Be-200.

    The AG600 is capable of landing and taking off on water (and land) making it useful to other countries with many islands, such as Malaysia and New Zealand, who have already expressed interest in the AG-600.

    Back in April, a defense analyst observed that amphibious planes like the AG600 would be perfect for resupplying the new artificial islands that the Chinese are building in the South China Sea. Analyst further added that these islands would be excellent bases of operations for the AG600 to engage in maritime patrols of claimed territories.

    However, a Chinese aviation official stressed that the plane is also envisioned for export abroad.

    “Since the first day of its development, the AG-600 has been designed for the global market. We are confident in its market prospects because the aircraft’s overall specifications, such as the maximum take-off weight and flight range, are better than other amphibious planes in the world,” said Qu Jingwen, general manager of the China Aviation Industry General Aircraft Company, reports the Diplomat.

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/military/20150723/1024961315.html#ixzz3gn55YQVt


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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  GarryB on Fri Jul 24, 2015 3:30 pm

    The aircraft is powered by four turboprop WJ-6 engines and has a range of 5,500 kilometers. It has a maximum take-off weight of 60 tons and can carry up to 50 people.

    The designers of the plane proclaim the AG-600 as the biggest amphibious aircraft surpassing Japan's ShinMaywa US-2 and the Russian-made Beriev Be-200.

    Except that the A-40 has a max TOW of 95 tons and is rather bigger than the Be-200.


    Of course the Spruce Goose was quite big too...


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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  George1 on Sat Jul 25, 2015 1:39 pm

    Made in China: Assembly of World's Biggest Radio Telescope Gets Underway


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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  Militarov on Wed Sep 16, 2015 9:52 pm

    "The People's Liberation Army may eventually equip its main battle tanks with electric reactive armor to prevent damage from anti-tank weapons, reports China's Global Times.

    Electric reactive armor is usually made of two electrical plates separated by an insulator to make a high-power capacitor. When a tank using the armor is hit by an incoming object such as a rocket or missile, it will discharge electricity from the capacitor to vaporize the object. The discharge is claimed to be powerful to turn the incoming object into plasma, said the report.

    From the Chinese perspective, the electric reactive armor is the best available defensive technology for tanks in the world and China is now capable of developing it, the report said."


    Source: http://www.wantchinatimes.com/news-subclass-cnt.aspx?id=20150916000089&cid=1101

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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  max steel on Sun Sep 27, 2015 9:07 pm

    China tells US tech companies to sign PRISM-like cyber-loyalty pact

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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  George1 on Sat Oct 17, 2015 5:37 pm

    The 500-meter Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) is being constructed in China’s Guizhou Province. It will be completed in 2016 and will become the world’s largest telescope, surpassing Puerto Rico's Arecibo Observatory which is “just” 300 meters in diameter.

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/videoclub/20151017/1028663936/chinese-telescope-video.html#ixzz3oq831MPr



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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  George1 on Wed Oct 28, 2015 3:49 pm

    China Willing to Continue Cooperation With Intel on Fastest Supercomputer

    Previously, media reported that the US government had blocked the transfer of US companies' technology to four Chinese technical centers associated with Tianhe-2 suspecting that the supercomputer, powered by Intel-produced microprocessor chips, was being used to simulate nuclear explosions.

    MOSCOW (Sputnik) — China is willing to continue its cooperation with the US Intel Corporation on the development of the Tianhe-2 (Milky Way-2) supercomputer but intends to create its own capabilities to produce all the necessary system components, Chinese Vice Minister of Science and Technology Cao Jianlin told Sputnik.

    "Of course, we would like to cooperate with Intel, but if they are not ready, we can handle the task we are facing by ourselves," Cao said.

    He added that China was developing its own microprocessor chips and other necessary equipment for the supercomputer.

    "Of course, now we can not provide the supercomputer with only China-produced equipment, however, we are working in this direction," the vice minister said.

    He pointed out that Russia and China faced a common challenge of needing high-tech import substitution and could support each other in this respect.

    According to the TOP500 project, which lists the 500 most powerful supercomputers ranked by their performance, Tianhe-2 developed by China’s National University of Defense Technology and located in National Supercomputer Center in Guangzhou is the fastest system in the world.

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/science/20151028/1029225469/china-intel-supercomputer.html#ixzz3psFUL7Iu


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    Re: Chinese Science and Technology

    Post  sepheronx on Wed Oct 28, 2015 4:46 pm

    Its good how he pointed out that they and Russia can work together. This could be a big help to MCST in providing the necessary computers and produce enough of them.

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