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    Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

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    Vladimir79
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    Russian AESA to be exhibited at MAKS-2009

    Post  Vladimir79 on Mon Aug 17, 2009 2:15 pm

    Long arm of the Fifth Generation
    17.08.2009

    Research Institute of Instrumentation Tihomirova AFAR created for advanced multi-fighters

    Visitors Aerospace Salon in Zhukovsky, which opens on 18 August, and professionals who visit the MAKS-2009, is awaiting a sensation. Meet with her, they will be able to stand on behalf of Tikhomirov Instrument Research Institute in the pavilion № F-1, which would take United Aircraft Corporation. Immediately between the "Sukhoi and MiG, near the training rooms of our famous aircraft. And highlight of the exhibition NIIP, which, of course, be sure to write the world's press, will sample the active nature phased array (AFAR) X-band, designed for advanced multifunctional fighter.

    The apparent sensation

    Why the emergence of the AFAR sensation? The answer to aviation experts - the obvious. Yet no country, no company, including the famous Northrop Grumman and Raytheon, which makes similar products for F-22A, F-16E / F Block 60 or F/A18E/F, on any show is not shown "live "AFAR. And in the Farnborough and Le Bourget, and Berlin, and in Dubai - anywhere they are the largest international airline lounges, stands for the most promoted foreign companies have always shown only models and models of this antenna. But never a valid sample. For many obvious reasons. Including fear of competitors.

    NIIP named Tihomirova decided to act up. Why? Not only in order to emphasize the high level of Russian design ideas, which, thank God, still preserved in some local defense enterprises, scientific research institutes and design bureaus, but also to show the following. With the unification of the elements of its design and the selected design solutions based on a sample to be presented at the MAKS-2009, believed the institute may be established AFAR to modernize various radar systems. Including the families of fighters Su-27 and Su-30, as well as for their brethren under the brand name MiG, for ground-based systems for military and civilian purposes.

    Specialists NIIP in a conversation with the author of these lines of stress that they have submitted in Zhukovskiy AFAR done that, fundamentally, to the domestic element base nanogeterostruktur based on GaAs technology and advanced antenna systems to electronically controlled beam (AU EUL). Tihomirovtsy more than 40 years of dealing with electronic scanning. The first in the world aircraft phased array (AFD), which they developed, have been installed in the system of armaments "Barrier" by far a fighter-interceptor MiG-31, adopting a more in 1981.

    But, of course, presented a sample far outpaced its progenitor on energy efficiency and the ability to manage a broad form of the beam, as well as the regimes of work. Before meeting with specialists NIIP I read in one of the special editions that AFAR - the basis of intelligence of current and future fighter aircraft, which allows to solve a complex variety of combat missions, the effective implementation of the various modes of air-to-air and air-to-surface missiles. And can provide significant advantages on such indicators as the radiated power, noise ratio, scanning sector range, etc.

    As explained to me to specialists, the quality BRLS with AFAR contribute not only to detect multiple air targets at maximum range (previously seen - earlier defeated), but that is particularly difficult to constantly maintain these goals, regardless of their maneuvers, maintenance up-down of our fighter aircraft, right-left or turn to various on-course, roll and pitch. And if the radar can continuously keep the goal in sight slot, "you think she's doomed.

    - If you talk about AFAR very simple - tell me the general director of NIIP Yuriy White - we have to understand that the traditional Locator - separate antenna, receiver, transmitter and receiver in AFAR with the transmitter and the antenna splits into smaller parts, into modules. And many of these modules represent AFAR. That is, each small yacheechka and their thousands, and contains a transmitter and receiver. In antenna "merges" all the high-frequency part locator. In addition, with AFAR radar capabilities to provide high reliability. Including the application of microwave radiation. Previously, if, for example, came out of the transmitter, the aircraft became blind. And it struck one or two cells, even a dozen, while the other thousands of works.

    Onboard Intelligence

    BRLS with AFAR - this is the basis of "intelligence" of modern fighter aircraft, which ensures compliance with all terms of the numerous and diverse challenges facing its pilot and weapons system. It is designed to help the pilot to solve many problems of air combat - from the conquest of the air and anti-missiles to defeat the enemy of small ground and surface targets. This assumes a dramatic increase in the level of automation control system arming (SUV). Maximum release of the pilot of the management functions with on-board systems, focusing his attention on solving tactical problems. This is important for multifunctional combat aircraft, especially for single

    - The promising fighter - said Yury Bely - is no longer just a locator in the usual sense, and an integrated electronic system, which includes radars in several wavelengths, as well as identification systems, EW and other necessary equipment. And all this is tied into a single ideology, a common vision, will provide, as is now fashionable to formulate a "synergistic effect of combat."

    Do tihomirovskoy AFAR there is one more feature, which is incidentally mentioned in the beginning of this material - the basic components to it - modules - are available on the automated line capable of mass production. Professionals know that to make any "glandule in single copy, including the international exhibition is called, the knee - not a problem. The Soviet Union was famous for its exhibition products, astonished the audience at the world fairs, but found them in stores or on the streets of Russian cities, it was impossible. And to ensure that this does not happen with AFAR, the state has provided a tremendous technological rearmament of enterprises of the Moscow - fryazinskogo "Istok", which now makes two-transmitter modules, of which, as a cell in the hive, and is going to AFAR. Build two production lines. One - the crystal output, which makes chips. Other - assembly, where these chips are collected in the chips, then they are integrated into the antenna elements. This specialized microchips ultrahigh frequency (UHF). Monolithic integrated circuits microwave - Microwave IIAs. World standard of specialized components. The more of these elements, the more powerful radar. A number of modules in the antenna can reach up to several thousand.

    NIIP director Yuriy White stressed that this is the most automated production in which almost excluded the human factor. The equipment is mainly foreign, including Japanese. The fact that our country is not made. And in general this technology, which today is used in creating our AFAR, formerly in Russia was not.

    Yuri Ivanovich did not tell me how much they produce locators.

    - Everything is done under specific orders - he explained. - But there is power "Istok", there is power NIIP, we are also engaged in production, is the power of our serial Ryazan instrument factory, which in the long run will collect BRLS with AFAR. We will now pass it the necessary documentation and technology. There, under the program builds a new production building with new equipment ...

    "In principle we are prepared to 50 aircraft a year to equip their radar", - assured the White Jury.

    Head NIIP noted that the term AFAR they are going to produce not only for the locators promising fighter, but also for other types of weapons. Steerable phased array antenna technology to produce grids should be unified. They can be used in all types of armed forces. Including in the perspective of anti-aircraft missile complexes large range, created in the Corporation PVO Almaz-Antey "(here the same principle:" First I saw - then won "), as well as MANPADS medium-range type" Book ". Maximum uniformity of time and give the maximum effect on the value. The more locators, so they are cheaper for the consumer. Americans than to win? They ran a similar technology in civil proceedings - in a system of communication and navigation system for the prevention of collisions on the roads and railways ...

    - Of course, our radar in the "Lada" is not set - looks Yury - import cars - well, they are closed to us by copyright. But metropoezd - please. At locomotives - as well. Trying to interest railroaders such prospects improve traffic safety and the passengers. While on the way to the many artificial bureaucratic hurdles.

    The future belongs to young

    I could not, of course, do not ask about who was involved in creating a new AFAR, and the relevance of this system is that young people who, as I told the general director of NIIP, came to the institute.

    - These guys, - said the White - have a direct bearing on the creation AFAR. I would say, decisive. The young radio engineer and designers, we have gained 4-5 years ago from the MAI, Baumanki, Ryazan Radioengineering, Taganrog University, technologists from Togliatti, a Ivanovskiy technology (we have extensive cooperation, trying to recruit the best, of course), job, gain experience in passive steerable phased array lattices and actively. In general, in our institute about 400 people who are below 30 years. A direct challenge AFAR were thirty to forty-man of this age. And when it was necessary to assemble the dish by a certain date, they even slept in the booth, as in wartime, working around the clock. Not got. Most importantly, because this new technology, new technique - it is their environment, and youth is very cool all this develops.

    And actually, I was the fellow journalists in the institute a year ago and then said: wherever you come in - all the young faces in the model stands, the assembly, the configuration of modules ... It gives hope that the institute has a future. But the director is still not satisfied - not even the youth, the elderly are much higher. Director of courage - in a crisis of our times - embarked on a construction of a hostel for young professionals. However, outraged by the fact that our "licensing" system construction terribly zabyurokrachena (the building can be constructed for the year to achieve a building permit - and little of two years). And with free financial problems. That would be where the state needs help! And then talk to all levels of the critical situation with the personnel shortage OPK and tangible things not seen. It is hoped that niipovtsy to cope with this challenge, how they coped so far with all its technical problems

    Yes, I almost forgot. At the air show MAKS-2009, at the stand of Tikhomirov Instrument Research Institute, will be shown more and AFAR L-band. Intended for installation in socks reject wing fighter. She also performed on the modern hybrid-integrated home technologies and provides electronic beam scanning in a wide sector of angles in azimuth and a broad band of frequencies. This locator as AFAR X-band, gathered in the NIIP, which was created for this unique laboratory-testing facilities, including those equipped with the latest modern technology anechoic chamber.

    Viktor Litovkin

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  Sukhoi37_Terminator on Fri Nov 06, 2009 1:41 pm

    Here is some information I found about the Tikhomirov NIIP L-Band Active Electronically Steered Array
    http://www.ausairpower.net/APA-2009-06.html






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    Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  ahmedfire on Sat Jan 08, 2011 9:26 pm

    i know that Pak fa and su35 is the russian aircrafts that will have AESA radars on it's board..

    did russia intend to put an AESA radar on mig 29(any wersion) board ???

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  Hoof on Sun Jan 09, 2011 12:18 am

    ahmedfire wrote:i know that Pak fa and su35 is the russian aircrafts that will have AESA radars on it's board..

    did russia intend to put an AESA radar on mig 29(any wersion) board ???

    Russia has been neglecting mig-29s for like 20 years.. now lots of them have major problems... even corrosion issues... I dont think they are going to upgrade mig-29s anymore, there is a lot more money allocated to su-27s and stuff...

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  GarryB on Sun Jan 09, 2011 2:45 am

    The AESA for the Mig-35 was the first publicly revealed Russian fighter AESA AFAIK.

    They certainly do seem to be neglecting the Mig, which has mostly been attributed to the high profile of Mig during the communist years... a bit like a company being popular under Stalin suddenly becoming unpopular under the next regime simply because it was so popular under the previous leadership.

    The Mig-29 itself can be readily upgraded to a standard that results in a useful enough fighter/bomber that is relatively cheap to operate.

    With the SMT upgrade its range and weapons options are comparable to western equivelents.

    Like the T-72 is has a comparatively negative image in the west because the western powers were able to train against East German Mig-29s and they found all its strengths and weaknesses.
    This is the period when the West changed from their dogfight doctrine to their focus on BVR with AMRAAMs because in close combat an aware Mig-29 is deadly.
    To date however most Mig-29s engaged by the west have been dumbed down monkey model A and B models (A being export to communist countries like East Germany and B being export to other countries dumbed down to almost Mig-23 level systems... in fact the IRST on the last model Mig-23ML was actually better than the IRST fitted to the B model Mig-29s).

    A product improved Mig-29 that is properly maintained and operated by a competent air force would hold quite a few shocks for the unsuspecting enemy.

    All the reports of aircraft numbers released and new purchases and upgrades don't mention Mig-29s, which in my opinion is a shame. Numbers are going to be a problem unless production really steps up so upgrading a few hundred Mig-29s would be a good thing for the Russian AF... not every sector requires T-50s... and more importantly putting T-50s in every sector will only further spur development and spending to counter it.

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  Hoof on Sun Jan 09, 2011 3:25 am

    GarryB wrote:
    A product improved Mig-29 that is properly maintained and operated by a competent air force would hold quite a few shocks for the unsuspecting enemy.

    All the reports of aircraft numbers released and new purchases and upgrades don't mention Mig-29s, which in my opinion is a shame. Numbers are going to be a problem unless production really steps up so upgrading a few hundred Mig-29s would be a good thing for the Russian AF... not every sector requires T-50s... and more importantly putting T-50s in every sector will only further spur development and spending to counter it.

    I'm not sayings mig-29s are bad... but they have been neglected compared to Su-27 type fighters...I think migs would be easier to maintain and somewhat more flexible compared to Sukhoi's, not to mention they are cheaper...

    Same thing goes one in afghanistan with USAF... they dont use F22s... and i dont think they use F15s... instead they use F16s... because they are better suited for that place and easy to maintain...

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  GarryB on Sun Jan 09, 2011 4:48 am

    Unfortunately all Russian aircraft were neglected, but early pre end of cold war Soviet aircraft were designed to operate with little maintainence requirements for the expected period of a war.

    Parts had a fixed life and were replaced without inspection and for safety those lifespans were conservative so the aircraft were fairly simple but expensive to maintain.

    The SMT introduced onboard checking systems and introduced inspections of certain parts so that parts were replaced when they needed replacing rather than when the chart said they needed it.
    Onboard diagnostic hardware and software further improved things and it has been stated that a Mig-29SMT is 40% cheaper to maintain and operate than an earlier model Mig-29.

    The main problem of course is that the Mig-29SMT is a multi role fighter bomber whereas the Mig-29 in Russian service is a point defence interceptor so most of the things added are not considered necessary.

    It is ironic that for a very long period the only Russian aircraft able to use the R-77 was the Mig-29S which actually made it on paper more capable than any in service Flankers through the 1990s.

    The fact that they didn't buy R-77 missiles because they were designed and made in the Ukraine negated that advantage. (Well the R-77 seekers of the time were made in the Ukraine at Artem... now they are made at AGAT.)

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  nightcrawler on Sun Jan 09, 2011 8:36 am

    In the recent defence purchases no one is planning to buy MiG-29; rather they prefer SU-27 & maybe 30s (~look at Malaysia/ Venezuela)....
    The best for Russians to do is to export MiG-29 engines which are extremely good for our JF-17 & engines are the only things we aren't good at. Suspect

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  Viktor on Sun Jan 09, 2011 5:57 pm

    Well India bought 45 MIG-29K, Burma bought 20 Mig-29M so something is happening althrow not on the Su-30 scale.

    Russian Navy is expected to buy 20+ Mig-29K, and Yemen and Sri Lanka is considering MIG-29M/35 too.

    Besides engines fo J-17 Russia also got modernization of India MIG-29 fleet worth 1 bin and is competing on its MRCA with MIG-35.


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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  GarryB on Mon Jan 10, 2011 1:52 am

    The only problem with the Mig-29 series is that the Su-27 is very similar but in many ways larger and able to carry more slightly further for a slightly higher cost.

    The Su-27 is the big brother that is often being sold for the same purchase price as the Mig-29.

    Being the underdog to Sukhoi for the last 20 years Mig has worked much harder on making their aircraft multirole and cheaper to operate, but because they only have prototypes while the competition has aircraft being made in Russia, China and India it becomes harder and harder to get your products taken seriously.

    Personally I think the Russian government should keep ordering Migs just to keep Sukhoi on their toes... there are lots of places the Russians will want to base aircraft where they don't want to start an arms race and basing Mig-29s near Finland or Georgia will stir up less trouble than basing Flankers with enormous flight ranges.
    The Mig-29 will do every bit as good a job as a Flanker with the right weapons and regular upgrades and updates that western aircraft get and Soviet aircraft used to get.
    As was found at Top Gun exercises sometimes a smaller fighter is a more tricky opponent in dogfighting combat simply because of the smaller visual signature.

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    Counter LPI......

    Post  ahmedfire on Fri Aug 26, 2011 4:52 am


    The Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) capability of the radar defeats conventional RWR/ESM systems,

    each LPI pulse has considerably less amount of energy and may not fit normal modulation patterns, the target will have a difficult time detecting the aircraft" F-22 as example with AN/APG-77 radar "

    I knew there are several steps for countering LPI,but for what level these steps had reached..?

    Can LPI- AESA be effectively jammed ?

    Open discussion. attack

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  GarryB on Fri Aug 26, 2011 7:55 am

    The low power and randomness of the pulse would make older ESM systems ignore it as noise, but more modern ESM suites could capture directional information about the emission and pass that on to other platforms that can also search for similar emissions they might have detected.

    A bit of maths and the records of all the aircraft in one flight or across several flights could put together the direction to and rough range for a radar operating in LPI mode.

    It makes things harder, but not impossible.

    Jamming would probably be a bit counter production... adopting stealth aircraft on the other hand would make the low power LPI pulses effectively useless against stealth aircraft because the reduced power will further diminish the range at which a stealth aircraft could be detected or tracked at, so a flight of mixed stealth and non stealth aircraft might lead the F-22 getting a false idea of the air situation.

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  medo on Fri Aug 26, 2011 4:39 pm

    I couldn't answer you exactly here, because I'm now behind the time. I'm now some years out of military and I never worked with digital PESA or AESA radar, only with analogue mechanical one generation from eighties. But I think some things are the same.

    You have to know, that radar signal, which go from emitter become weaker, before it reach target and than signal, which go back from target to receiver again become weaker. Ergo, if RWR detector is the same sensitive as is radar receiver, than could detect radar emissions in twice of radar range. It only depend in which frequencies it listen. The jammer is most effective, when its emitting in the same frequency is stronger, than signal, which radar send and come back from target. As I hear in past it was a big problem with OSA (SAM-8 ), that it was actually unjammable, because it have so high power radar, that jammers on planes could not overcome with noise the power of returning signal. But it need very skilled operators, who know to look in crude radar picture.

    AESA and PESA radars have lower power signals, so old RWR detectors could not register them and ignore hem as noise. But newer RWR detectors sensitivities could be suited for those radars. Jammers could easily overcome with power of noise the power of returning signal, but AESA and PESA radars could easier change frequencies with frequency hoping, so the jamming noise is not in the proper frequency as returning signal and radar then easily ignore jamming noise in wrong frequency and see target. But in peace time all radars work only in peace time frequency without hoping. But I think modern radars with modern digital computers could quite effectively do with jamming in constant frequency with coding signals.

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  Stealthflanker on Sat Sep 10, 2011 4:45 pm

    To be able to "detect" the "LPI" signal, some alogarithm has been developed , allowing extraction of signal parameters and demodulation of the signal , they're Wigner-Ville Distribution and Choi-Williams Distribution .

    As for the hardware , today's digital receiver has been developed hmm in a level that allow Direct sampling of the RF signal and convert it to digital output.. which later analyzed and de-modulated.

    There's a limit however in sampling rate that can be conducted ..but then i think it can be overcomed in the future .


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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  nightcrawler on Mon Oct 17, 2011 1:39 pm



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    Russian PESA and AESA radars: a little of history.

    Post  Giulio on Sat Nov 08, 2014 5:32 pm

    Hello.
    I'm sorry, but I do not have time to read all the forums.
    By dint of reading in the West about the supposed "backwardness" of Russia, I would like to hear some other bells.
    In short, could you explain briefly what a PESA radar and what an AESA radar are and, above all: is it true that the first AESA radar was on a Mig-31? Thanks for the replies.

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  sepheronx on Sat Nov 08, 2014 7:41 pm

    Giulio wrote:Hello.
    I'm sorry, but I do not have time to read all the forums.
    By dint of reading in the West about the supposed "backwardness" of Russia, I would like to hear some other bells.
    In short, could you explain briefly what a PESA radar and what an AESA radar are and, above all: is it true that the first AESA radar was on a Mig-31? Thanks for the replies.

    PESA

    AESA

    In short, PESA is a consentration of energy at a single point that produces a massive beam.  AESA is where you got multiple transmitters creating a beam.  Advantage of AESA is that it is harder to fight against in terms of electronic warfare and pick up its transmissions.  PESA is a lot simpler to make and cheaper too.  As well, what is not mentioned, is that PESA tends to be more accurate in its readings due to high amount of power concentrated at one point.  Problem is that it is easier to pick up its transmissions and easier to combat in EW. In modern times, most aircrafts are equipped with ECM/ECCM subsystems so that can counter this issue.

    MiG-31 radar is PESA radar.  Zaslon radar.

    Irbis-E radar is a hybrid radar (bit of both worlds).

    Phazotron has its Zhuk-A series of AESA radar and Tikhomirov NIIP has their Byelka radar which is AESA.  Zhuk-A has already been tested and flown in the MiG-29M2 for India and is being placed on Ka-52K helicopters.  Byelka is being made for PAK FA and has already been tested/flown.  Possibly can be used as well for current gen aircrafts as well.

    Ground based AESA radar systems are apparently different.  Russia has various ones, one being the NEBO SVU radar.

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  Svyatoslavich on Sun May 24, 2015 9:39 pm

    One of the critical technologies that Russia seems to be lagging behind the West is in AESA radars for fighters. Su-35S doesn't have it, and I recently read that the first batches of MiG-35 won't also. Anyone knows why? Are Russian AESA radars like the Zhuk-A fully developed and tested? Can they be mass-produced? If so, why are not fighters still equipped with it?

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Mon May 25, 2015 2:32 am

    Svyatoslavich wrote:One of the critical technologies that Russia seems to be lagging behind the West is in AESA radars for fighters. Su-35S doesn't have it, and I recently read that the first batches of MiG-35 won't also. Anyone knows why? Are Russian AESA radars like the Zhuk-A fully developed and tested? Can they be mass-produced? If so, why are not fighters still equipped with it?

    http://www.russiadefence.net/t2547p270-russian-radar-systems#92339

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  Werewolf on Mon May 25, 2015 2:36 am

    Currently russia is lagging behind in production numbers due the sell out and closure of MIC and lot of other sectors and companies under Yeltzin and russia is rebuilding it to necessary level.

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  sepheronx on Mon May 25, 2015 3:45 am

    Svyatoslavich wrote:One of the critical technologies that Russia seems to be lagging behind the West is in AESA radars for fighters. Su-35S doesn't have it, and I recently read that the first batches of MiG-35 won't also. Anyone knows why? Are Russian AESA radars like the Zhuk-A fully developed and tested? Can they be mass-produced? If so, why are not fighters still equipped with it?

    No, MiG-35 will definitely have AESA, even initial batches, because that is what the MiG-35's main feature is.  Outside of that, no sale as it is simply a MiG-29M/M2.

    AESA radar tech is what USA went with, while Russia went another route, PESA.  PESA and AESA both have their pros and cons.  Example is power output and how much raw power a radar can produce (PESA) vs AESA with its electronic warfare advantages.  Irbis-E on Su-35's are Hybrid radar where they take a bit of both worlds, but look at it in this perspective: Irbis-E is effectively the most powerful radar for a fighter jet.  It has detection/tracking ranges greater than any other jet.  They get that through its raw power.

    AESA is getting attention now since Russia produces GaN modules that are required in making AESA radar.  They have a few flying testbeds of course.  One with 600 or so T/R modules and another with over 1000 T/R modules.  The one tested on PAK FA has over 1500 T/R modules.  At the moment though, production is lower due to the fact that they are starting out production of it, and not many things in service use it.  Technically, the A-100's being built are going to be the first to fully use them.  N036 isn't quite finished yet as it still is being tested and what not, and I think they are looking for ways to improve Zhuk-A performance more.

    With what Magnum posted though, may give us the indication that they may hold off development a bit till they get the idea of using photons for AESA radar in order to improve its performance greatly, before introducing them.  But that is another 5 years away.  So initially, they may entertain Mikoyan with introduction of MiG-35's in service with the current Zhuk-AM radar and PAK FA's with their N036 till 2020 when Photon technology is introduced to it, and they can start improving the currently platforms with it and future AESA radar.

    But for time being, using PESA radar (Zaslon AM - MiG-31BM's, BARS - Su-30SM, V004 - Su-34) and Hybrid - (Irbis-E - Su-35) are more than enough as they provide performances that has no alternative to in terms of raw power.  They substitute its weak EW, ECM, ECCM capabilities with add on pods.  Su-35's even use AESA L-Band radar modules on the wings.

    Edit: I have also read that Zhuk radars are highly modular and it doesn't take much to upgrade Zhuk-M to Zhuk-A.  Dunno how true that is though.

    One radar that is rarely mentioned, and cannot find much information on it (quite secretive) is the V004 for the Su-34's. Apparently according to some, V004 with modern electronics has detection ranges of upwards to 200km and it has advanced ground mapping capabilities. Add in its heavy EW capabilities, the V004 radar is quite more powerful than most modern fighters radars these days. But cannot really find much on it.

    Svyatoslavich
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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  Svyatoslavich on Mon May 25, 2015 4:51 am

    sepheronx wrote:No, MiG-35 will definitely have AESA, even initial batches, because that is what the MiG-35's main feature is.  Outside of that, no sale as it is simply a MiG-29M/M2.
    Thanks for your complete explanation. Regarding MiG-35, I read it earlier in March that the first batch (30 planes) of the MiG-35 contract won't have AESA radar:
    http://tass.ru/armiya-i-opk/1775588

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  sepheronx on Mon May 25, 2015 4:55 am

    Svyatoslavich wrote:
    sepheronx wrote:No, MiG-35 will definitely have AESA, even initial batches, because that is what the MiG-35's main feature is.  Outside of that, no sale as it is simply a MiG-29M/M2.
    Thanks for your complete explanation. Regarding MiG-35, I read it earlier in March that the first batch (30 planes) of the MiG-35 contract won't have AESA radar:
    http://tass.ru/armiya-i-opk/1775588

    Probably an error or they are not buying MiG-35's but MiG-29M's.  There are of course other features that MiG-35's have over MiG-29M's but ultimately, that is what these would be.  Unless they are purchasing them with the ability of having them upgraded once the radars are available.

    Edit: So essentially they are purchasing what is considered MiG-35's but initial batch wont have AESA radar till the production of the airframes are proper then the AESAs production will start in being "proper". I see.

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  victor1985 on Mon May 25, 2015 7:18 am

    Sukhoi37_Terminator wrote:Here is some information I found about the Tikhomirov NIIP L-Band Active Electronically Steered Array
    http://www.ausairpower.net/APA-2009-06.html





    So...what are the main problems at making a L-band radar? It request bigger equipment? More power? Big antenna?

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    Re: Russian PESA and AESA radars: History

    Post  victor1985 on Mon May 25, 2015 7:44 am

    medo wrote:I couldn't answer you exactly here, because I'm now behind the time. I'm now some years out of military and I never worked with digital PESA or AESA radar, only with analogue mechanical one generation from eighties. But I think some things are the same.

    You have to know, that radar signal, which go from emitter become weaker, before it reach target and than signal, which go back from target to receiver again become weaker. Ergo, if RWR detector is the same sensitive as is radar receiver, than could detect radar emissions in twice of radar range. It only depend in which frequencies it listen. The jammer is most effective, when its emitting in the same frequency is stronger, than signal, which radar send and come back from target. As I hear in past it was a big problem with OSA (SAM-8 ), that it was actually unjammable, because it have so high power radar, that jammers on planes could not overcome with noise the power of returning signal. But it need very skilled operators, who know to look in crude radar picture.

    AESA and PESA radars have lower power signals, so old RWR detectors could not register them and ignore hem as noise. But newer RWR detectors sensitivities could be suited for those radars. Jammers could easily overcome with power of noise the power of returning signal, but AESA and PESA radars could easier change frequencies with frequency hoping, so the jamming noise is not in the proper frequency as returning signal and radar then easily ignore jamming noise in wrong frequency and see target. But in peace time all radars work only in peace time frequency without hoping. But I think modern radars with modern digital computers could quite effectively do with jamming in constant frequency with coding signals.
    Maibe if the radar would use short pulses of strong signal.....thus prevent energy loosing and test the jammer capability. Also if the signal become weaker whit yhw distance is true for jammers too....that could tell a strategy to make. When you are far away from jammers use much power when you are close use less. Also if the enemy dont know wich frecvency and power do you operate will try it all include the end and start wich can perform. In this you could see fast what enemy can. And is not only about power. Noise means must add same signals. That depend of the algorithm you use on on emitting signals. Jumping fast in signals to cover all the posibilityes has a limit. Thus for blocking a x ghz signal mean that they must fast changing frecvency. You could simply do the trick whit staying on same frecvency. Then a cpu will calculate the algorithm of noise. And use correct algorithm for you.

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