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    China Military and Foreign Policy

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    George1

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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  George1 on Thu Jun 25, 2015 8:42 am

    China Goes Global: Space, Sea, Polar Regions Added to Draft Security Law

    China will widen the latest draft of its controversial national security law to include assets and activities in space, the deep sea and Polar Regions, state media said on Wednesday.

    President Xi Jinping, who heads a newly established national security commission, has said China's security covers a wide array of areas, including politics, culture, the military, the economy, technology and the environment, Reuters reported.

    The legislation could be adopted as early as next week, despite complaints from foreign business groups and diplomats, who argue that the draft national security law is too broad and vague.

    For example, "harmful moral standards" would also be handled under the law, state media said after the draft was read in April by the National People's Congress (NPC) standing committee, a group of about 200 members led by the ruling Communist Party.

    "Some standing committee members, participants and departments suggested that in space, the deep sea, polar regions and other strategic new frontiers, China has real and potential major national interests and faces security threats and challenges," the official Xinhua news agency said.

    China would therefore "peacefully explore and exploit" space, international sea bed areas and polar regions, and strengthen the security of "activities, assets and other interests" there, Xinhua said.

    As for space, China maintains that it has peaceful intentions beyond Earth. Still, the US Defense Department has pointed to China's increasing space capabilities and accused Beijing of pursuing ways to prevent its foes from using space-based assets during a crisis.

    China is also aiming to ramp up activity in the Antarctic and Arctic, where it says its important research and energy interests lie.

    Provisions to tighten cyber security are also core to the pending law, and foreign technology firms are particularly concerned that language calling for the use of "secure and controllable" products could force them out of the market, Reuters reported.

    Legislators would also review a new draft cyber security law, Xinhua news agency said a separate report.

    The cyber security provision is among many similar Internet and technology security measures Beijing has pursued after former National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden revealed that US intelligence agencies planted code in American tech exports to spy on overseas targets.

    "The principle of Internet sovereignty is a major doctrine for safeguarding national sovereignty and interests," Xinhua said.

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/asia/20150625/1023813555.html#ixzz3e3NLiBpr


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    George1

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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  George1 on Tue Jun 30, 2015 12:20 am

    Djiboutian Army Displays New Chinese Tank Destroyer



    Amid rumors of the installment of a Chinese military base in the Horn of Africa country, the Djiboutian Armed Forces (FAD) unveiled a new Chinese tank destroyer during its Independence Day parade on June 27.

    China North Industries Corporation, or Norinco, specializes in the production of high-tech defense products, including precision strike systems and amphibious assault weapons and equipment. The company is ranked as one of the top 500 state-owned enterprises in China, and one of its assault tanks was displayed on Saturday during Djibouti’s Independence Day Parade.

    With similar fire-power to a tank, but slightly more affordable and easier to maintain, Norinco’s WMA301 Assault Tank destroyer consists of a 6x6 armored personnel carrier fitted with a 105 mm gun atop a three-person turret, IHS Jane reports. The assault tank will be a new addition to the FAD which does not currently have any tanks, but only armored vehicles that have fire-support capabilities.

    The WMA301 Assault Tank’s unveiling comes nearly two months after Djiboutian President Ismail Guelleh said his country was in talks with China over the installment of a military base in the small, but strategically important, African country.

    Due to its strategic position between Somalia and Yemen, the US already has its regional military based in Djibouti, from where it carries out covert and anti-terror operations across Africa. France and Japan also have military bases located there.

    "France’s presence is old, and the Americans found that the position of Djibouti could helped in the fight against terrorism in the region," Guelleh told AFP during an interview in May. "The Japanese want to protect themselves from privacy – and now the Chinese also want to protect their interests, and they are welcome."

    China’s Defense Ministry last week declined to confirm the reports, saying only that both countries have a friendly relationship and that both are interested in regional peace and security.

    Beijing’s strengthening relations with Djibouti over recent years, along with the FAD’s recent unveiling of the assault tank, are however likely to reignite concerns in Washington over China’s expanding "sphere of influence" in the region.

    In May, US Rep. Randy Forbes, the chairman of the seapower subcommittee of the House Armed Services Committee, warned that "China’s determination for permanent basis far outside their traditional area of influence should remind Washington that Beijing sees itself as a global power."

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/africa/20150630/1024008139.html#ixzz3eUZP0Kv0


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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  Mike E on Tue Jun 30, 2015 1:02 am

    I'll never understand why the media calls these vehicles "tank destroyers". Based on its' armament and everything else, it is a Fire Support Vehicle.
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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  GarryB on Wed Jul 01, 2015 5:20 am

    Technically it is a tank destroyer in that it has a tank gun... 105mm rather than an artillery gun/howitzer.

    Of course the division is blurred because the 105mm gun was also carried by the Abbot self propelled gun, which is a support vehicle.

    In the Soviet forces a 100mm rifled from T-54/55, or 115mm smoothbore or 125mm smoothbore was optimised for anti tank use, while 100mm rifled medium pressure BMP-3 gun and 120mm gun/mortar and 122mm guns are all artillery or direct fire support guns.


    In the context of its use you could say it was more a fire support vehicle... ie big gun on a mobile platform, as it would be in a more modern army because the 105 is largely obsolete as an anti tank gun, but then what sort of equipment does the potential enemy have?

    If it is M60s or T-55s and T-62 class vehicles then it certainly could be considered a tank destroyer... which by definition just means anti tank gun in a lightly armoured vehicle...


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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  George1 on Mon Aug 31, 2015 10:45 pm

    Victory Parade in Beijing Signals China's Rise as 'Great Military Power'

    The September 3rd military parade to celebrate Japan’s surrender in World War II will feature 12,000 troops and showcase Beijing’s military hardware, some of which will be unveiled for the first time.

    WASHINGTON (Sputnik) – A large-scale Chinese military parade this week to mark the 70th anniversary of victory in World War II signals a crucial return of the country as a global military power, retired US Ambassador Chas W. Freeman, co-chair of the US China Policy Foundation, told Sputnik on Monday.

    “Although billed as a celebration of victory in World War II, the Beijing parade really marks China's coming-out party as a great military power, a status it has not occupied for nearly two centuries,” Freeman said.

    “Much of the weaponry on display — all of it said to be in service in the People's Liberation Army — will be new, the product of a military modernization drive aimed at ensuring that China can never again be attacked with impunity or overrun by foreign invaders,” he said.

    China’s “century of powerlessness” from 1840 to 1948, culminating in the 20 million killed at the hands of Imperial Japanese Army invaders from 1937 to 1945, motivated the current national consensus to keep the country strong, united and secure, Freeman said.

    However, China’s leaders are not threatening neighbors or developing aggressive policies, Freeman emphasized.

    “The Chinese …make the point that only those with plans to attack them need fear the PLA [People’s Liberation Army],” he said. “Still, the more foreign forces attempt to retain their …ability to overwhelm Chinese defenses, the more China is driven to acquire the ability to take the military offensive.”

    The ironies of China staging this celebration of military victory in World War II abound, Freeman, who was former US President Richard Nixon’s translator on his visit to Beijing to meet Mao Zedong in 1972, noted.

    “Japan's inability to come to grips with its despicable behavior in China, Korea, and elsewhere in Asia in the first half of the 20th century has prevented the reconciliation and reduction of tensions that occurred in post-war Europe,” Freeman argued.

    The difficulty this continues to cause for Japan's relations with its neighbors has revived a strategic context of renewed Sino-Japanese rivalry, the expert stated.

    “The United States, once allied with a weakened China against a rising Japan, now finds itself allied with a weakened Japan that is increasingly at odds with a rising China,” he said. “The awkwardness of this alignment has precluded US participation in the celebrations in Beijing.”

    What might have been a celebration of past Sino-American cooperation has instead become a harbinger of Sino-Russian collaboration in countering US policies aimed at sustaining American global dominance, he pointed out.

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/politics/20150831/1026406985.html#ixzz3kQZJuymC


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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  George1 on Fri Nov 13, 2015 3:58 pm

    China, Thailand Decide to Conduct First Joint Aerial Drills in November

    The drills are expected to deepen military cooperation between the air forces of the two countries, as well as strengthen logistical communications and mutual trust within the two armies.

    BEIJING (Sputnik) — China and Thailand will conduct joint air force exercises for the first time in November, China’s Ministry of Defense said in a statement Wednesday.

    "The Air Forces of China and Thailand will hold first joint exercises Falcon Strike-2015 on November 12-30," the ministry stated on its website.

    The exercises will be held at the Korat Air Base in Thailand.

    The exercises are intended to deepen military cooperation between the air forces of the two countries, as well as strengthen logistical communications and mutual trust within the two armies, according to the Chinese Defense Ministry.

    The two countries agreed to strengthen military ties in September.

    Thai Minister of Defense Prawit Wongsuwon said on September 4 that his country attaches great importance to the bilateral comprehensive strategic partnership.

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/military/20151111/1029904204/china-thailand-drills.html#ixzz3rNqBq9Gl


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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  George1 on Wed Nov 25, 2015 11:18 pm

    Out of Africa: Will China's Military Displace the US on the Continent?

    China is apparently set to open its first military base in Africa. The move has already thrilled the US media, which was quick to suppose that it is aimed at “edging out Western influence in the region and securing access to the continent’s vast mineral resources for itself.”

    Beijing has signed a ten-year leasing agreement with Djibouti to build a logistical hub in the East African nation, located in the Horn of Africa, according to a report of the US political newspaper The Hill.


    “They are going to build a base in Djibouti, so that will be their first military location in Africa," it quotes US Army Gen. David Rodriguez, commander of US Africa Command, as recently telling defense reporters.

    The base, he further suggested, would serve as a logistics hub for China to be able to "extend their reach."

    “Setting up a military base in Africa makes perfect sense given China’s vast economic presence in the region,” the outlet further quotes J. Peter Pham, director of the Africa Center at the Atlantic Council, as saying. “The base would be cheaper than China’s current, temporary arrangements that allow for docking ships at Djibouti ports to conduct naval patrols.”

    “The base also gives China an airfield that could significantly improve its intelligence gathering capabilities over the Arabian Peninsula, Egypt, Eastern Libya and well into Central Africa.”

    However, the newspaper was quick to suggest that “the move into Africa represents a challenge to the dominance of the US, which has its own military base in Djibouti, at Camp Lemonnier, from which it conducts intelligence, counter-piracy and counterterrorism operations.”

    Sen. Chris Coons (D-Del.), a senior member of the Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on African Affairs, said that “the US has to be vigilant in the face of China’s growing ambitions,” the article notes.

    The idea is echoed by The National Interest magazine, which, in turn, supposed that “the Chinese public relations offensive combined with its new base means that Beijing is in Africa for the long haul. Going forward in the years to come, Beijing could edge out Western influence in the region and secure access to the continent’s vast mineral resources for itself.”

    The magazine explained that “China has somewhat of an advantage in competing for business in Africa because it does not have any intention or desire to impose its values on the locals or their governments.”

    “As such Chinese investments don’t come with any strings attached in terms of human rights or governance.”

    Djibouti is a small country in East Africa, across from Yemen and on the Gulf of Aden, with a population of a little over 872,000, according to the World Bank estimates. The vast majority of the population (94%) is Muslim; about 6 percent are Christian.

    Djibouti is strategically located near the world's busiest shipping lanes, controlling access to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.

    The country is a home to the US Camp Lemonnier base, which houses 4,500 American military personnel and is the only US military base in Africa.

    Camp Lemonnier, according to its website, is a “Navy-led establishment that supports and prepares ships, aircraft and other deployments for regional and combatant command requirements. It also enables US military operations in the surrounding Horn of Africa while fostering positive US-African Nation relations."

    It is also a major operational center for drone operations in Yemen and Somalia and one of America’s key intelligence-gathering posts on Islamic State and al-Qaeda, according to The Telegraph.

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/africa/20151125/1030744256/china-africa-military-base.html#ixzz3sXo2b0LW


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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  mrtravisgood on Thu Nov 26, 2015 2:10 am

    That is interesting. How will the Chinese or the whole nation of Africa begin to see that they have other countries bases in their little countries. France and the US have drone/Reaper unites in Chad, Ethiopia, and Niger. Bokka Haram boarders these areas and do raids. So what will China do when Bokka Harem or another terrorist group decides to set its sight on the new Chinese base?
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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  George1 on Sat Jan 02, 2016 3:06 am

    What are the Chances of China Deploying Troops to Syria?

    Last week, lawmakers adopted China's first-ever dedicated anti-terrorism law. The new law's most interesting provision, as far as foreign observers are concerned, is an article authorizing the Chinese military to take part in counter-terrorism missions abroad. Will China now join the Syrian, Russian and Iranian-led anti-terror campaign in Syria?

    On Thursday, commenting on China's new counterterrorism law, and specifically its provision allowing the People's Liberation Army to participate in anti-terrorism operations overseas, Defense Ministry spokesman Yang Yujin emphasized that China has a "proactive" attitude when it comes to international cooperation against terrorism.

    Speaking at a regular monthly briefing for reporters, cited by Reuters, Yang explained that in the event that Chinese forces were ever deployed abroad for the purposes of fighting terrorism, it would be in full respect of international norms, including countries' sovereignty.

    "Overseas anti-terrorism operations by the military and People's Armed Police must respect the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter, adhere to the norms of international relations and fully respect the sovereignty of the country concerned," the spokesman emphasized.

    "Going forward, whether or not to send the military and People's Armed Police overseas to fight terrorism, will be arranged in accordance with a unified national plan," he added, without elaborating.

    After the law was passed, speculation quickly emerged suggesting that China could deploy its armed forces to Syria to combat jihadist militants, including radicals from the al-Qaeda-backed East Turkestan Islamic Movement, which operates in the western Chinese province Xinjiang. It was earlier reported that militants from this organization had gone to Syria to fight alongside jihadists there, and that some have returned home to carry out attacks in western China. But is there any truth to the rumors? Will China join the anti-Daesh coalition fighting in Syria anytime soon? Not likely, according to Russian journalist Anton Mardasov.

    "It's worth recalling," Mardasov noted, in his article for independent Russian newspaper Svobodnaya Pressa, "that soon after Russia's intervention in the Syrian conflict, the media was filled with reports that a Chinese fleet led by the Liaoning aircraft carrier had passed through the Suez Canal to take part in the war in support of the Syrian government."

    However, the journalist continued, the rumors were soon quashed.

    In his own article on the matter of the phantom Chinese aircraft carrier for Russian military newspaper Voyenno-promyshlennyy Kuryer, Alexandr Khramchikhin, the deputy director of the Institute of Political and Military Analysis, explained that Beijing does not seem prepared to abandon its policy of maintaining good relations with those countries in the region which support the ouster of Syrian President Bashar Assad, including Turkey and Saudi Arabia.

    Meanwhile, some experts, Mardasov noted, believe that China's possible interest in destroying terrorists abroad stems from the fact that like Daesh in Iraq and Syria, the East Turkestan Islamic Movement threatens to separate Xinjiang from China, and to create an Islamic State on its own territory. In Syria, these experts have emphasized, ethnic Uighur jihadists, associated with the al-Nusra Front and Daesh, have their own bases and training centers.

    In October, Russian observers discovered photos showing Chinese military jeeps – presumably operated by the Syrian Army, suggesting that this was the first confirmation of the supply of Chinese military equipment to Syrian government forces. This, Russian military blog BMPD suggested, could be a sign that China has abandoned its earlier-stated position that it would not support any party to the conflict militarily.

    "In the war in Syria, a large variety of Chinese weapons has been used, including the HJ-8 MANPADS FN-5 anti-tank system, various types of small arms and light weapons. However, in most instances this was a case of weapons transferred to Syrian rebel groups from various Arab armies, or from the Islamists' seizure of Iraqi military supplies. Apparently, now China's position on the question of military and military-technical assistance to Syrian authorities has begun to undergo changes," BMPD wrote at the time.

    In an interview for a separate Svobodnaya Pressa piece, Alexei Maslov, the head of the School of Asian Studies at Moscow's Higher School of Economics, explained that after Russia's intervention in the Syrian crisis, Beijing actively pondered whether or not to join the Syrian-Russian anti-Daesh coalition. Ultimately, according to the analyst, the country's leadership decided that such a move would not serve the country's interests.

    "More than anything, [such a move would be problematic] from the point of view of the country's image. For many years, China has not taken part in conflicts abroad, fearing that this could lead to a negative reaction, both domestically and abroad," Maslov noted.

    Nonetheless, Alexandr Larin, senior research fellow at the Moscow-based Institute of Far Eastern Studies, told Mardasov that the new counter-terrorism law allowing the PLA to conduct anti-terrorism operations abroad will naturally stoke the rumor mill.

    "This could be one of the factors which has led some experts and media to get the impression that China may participate in the Syrian conflict. This idea is supported by the fact that on the side of the militants in Syria are a number of Islamist separatists from China's Xinjiang," the expert noted.

    However, Larin added that in his view, "Chinese intervention in the Syrian conflict seems very unlikely. Beijing maintains a policy of equidistance in relation to most countries in the world. Accordingly, it has a special line when it comes to the Syrian crisis. China adheres to three principles – a settlement by political means, the combined action of anti-terrorist forces, and humanitarian assistance. I should note that China is in a rather advantageous position, given that the fighting is being carried out by other countries."

    "On the whole," the analyst continued, "up to now I have not seen any serious signs that would indicate that Beijing is really going to take part in combat operations in the Middle East. It is clear that China has a profound interest in a stable situation in the region, particularly given it gets much of its oil from countries there (mainly from Iran), and makes serious investments there."

    "Moreover," Larin noted, "it is through the Middle East that the [southern route of the] 'New Silk Road' is to extend. This too forces Beijing to smooth out the situation. But the Chinese are unlikely to risk getting involved in the Syrian conflict – moreover via the sending of their troops there, which would mean joining a coalition and automatically receiving rivals and opponents from the other alliances. Thus everything up to now suggests that China will be unlikely to intervene directly in the Syrian war."

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/military/20160101/1032581067/china-troops-syria-analysis.html#ixzz3w34or4de


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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  max steel on Sat Jan 16, 2016 9:45 am

    One China, One Taiwan


    Nice unbiased article

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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  George1 on Sat Feb 06, 2016 7:48 pm

    China's First Overseas Base in Djibouti Will 'Help Fleet'

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/asia/20160206/1034344528/china-base-djibouti-fleet.html#ixzz3zPnZgYcY


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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  George1 on Sat Feb 06, 2016 7:54 pm

    First Chinese Train Arrives to Russia as Part of New Silk Road

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/business/20160206/1034346323/china-russia-new-silk-road.html#ixzz3zPpA0ceB


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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  max steel on Sun Feb 14, 2016 5:42 pm

    Short of options, Sri Lanka turns back to Beijing's embrace

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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  max steel on Sat Mar 05, 2016 7:17 pm

    Inside China’s Plan for a Military That Can Counter U.S. Muscle


    With a series of edicts, speeches and martial ceremonies, President Xi Jinping has over the past six months unveiled China’s biggest military overhaul since the aftermath of the Korean War.The plan seeks to transform the 2.3-million-member People’s Liberation Army, which features 21st-century hardware but an outdated, Soviet-inspired command structure, into a fighting force capable of winning a modern war.

    China is shifting from a “large country to a large and powerful one,” Xi explained in November. The restructuring will be a major focus of the country’s new defense budget, which will be announced Saturday as the annual National People’s Congress gets under way in Beijing.

    “A lot of countries do military reforms, but they are rarely as tectonic as what we are seeing in China,” said Dean Cheng, a senior research fellow at the Heritage Foundation in Washington who specializes in military capabilities. “Any single one of these elements constitutes a bureaucratic overhaul of the first order.”



    Here are the key elements of Xi’s plan:

    Fewer Singers, More Sailors

    The first piece of the overhaul — announced by Xi during a grand military parade through Tiananmen Square on Sept. 3 — calls for eliminating 300,000 PLA personnel by 2017. While Xi presented the cutbacks as proof of China’s commitment to peace, they’ll largely target non-combat personnel and should make the country’s forces more focused and efficient.



    Out are military cooks, hospital workers, journalists and some 10,000 members of the PLA’s famed troops of singers and dancers. Even so, China’s military will remain by far the world’s largest, with more than 600,000 more active service members than the U.S., according to estimates by the International Institute for Strategic Studies.

    The reorganization will also chip away at the army’s dominance as modern mechanized warfare requires far fewer conventional troops. China needs more pilots, sailors, commandos and drone operators to achieve ambitions of projecting force farther afield.

    Who’s the Boss?

    Advanced military actions such as intercepting rival aircraft, carrying out drone strikes and using special forces to extract hostages, demand the sort of close collaboration China’s army-centric military has lacked. Xi intends to fix that by reorganizing the armed forces into five branches under a joint-command structure modeled after that of the U.S.

    In addition to the existing army, PLA Air Force and PLA Navy, a new Rocket Force will be responsible for China’s nuclear arsenal and conventional missiles while a Strategic Support Force will oversee cyberwarfare and protect China’s financial system from attack.


    Redrawing the Map


    As part of the move toward a unified command, China consolidated its seven military regions into five “Theater Commands” or “Battle Zones,” with each service reporting to a single commander, a move first reported by Bloomberg News in September. How these zones will function remains unclear.




    “A lot of energy will be spent figuring out who commands who; who supports who; and most importantly who controls which budgets?” said Felix Chang, a senior fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute in Philadelphia.
    Many will be watching to see how far beyond China’s borders the new zones reach and how the revamped military map will shape PLA activities in regional hotspots such as the South China Sea.

    Consolidating Power



    Xi is also centralizing his authority by breaking up the military’s massive, back-office bureaucracy. Four existing general departments will be divided into 15 smaller units responsible for everything from training and logistics to punishing corrupt officers and ensuring soldiers get sufficient education in Marxist ideology. They’ll all report directly to the Central Military Commission, a Communist Party body led by Xi.

    “It may be that this is a means for Xi to increase his support within the PLA, as all these new general officer billets will be filled with his people,” said Cheng, of the Heritage Foundation.

    Success of the reform plan will depend heavily on Xi’s capacity to overcome entrenched interests in the PLA, which has long enjoyed a privileged status as the guarantor of Communist Party rule. In a sign of the army’s continued influence, all five of the commanders chosen for the new battle zones hail from the ground forces.

    One thing Xi has made clear: he has no plans to transfer control over the PLA to the government from the party, something foreign military experts say is needed to professionalize the services.
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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  George1 on Tue Mar 08, 2016 12:02 pm

    China’s Growing Overseas Presence Aims to Protect Beijing’s Interests

    China’s ascendance on the international arena comes out from the defense the country's interests abroad, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi said Tuesday.

    BEIJING (Sputnik) – China’s growing overseas presence is aimed at protecting the country's interests abroad, Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi said Tuesday.

    "Like many large countries, China expands its presence abroad," Wang stated at a briefing.

    Tens of thousands of Chinese companies are working abroad, while China's 2016 overseas investment exceeded $100 billion, that is why the protection of the country's interests "is a pressing issue for Chinese diplomacy" and the actions of Beijing "are focused on the protection of its interests," he stressed.

    China will not follow the expansion path as the world’s powerful countries traditionally did, the minister noted.

    The Asian nation provided the largest number of peacekeepers for worldwide programs, and the contribution to the UN budget for peacekeeping missions is also the highest, he stressed.

    Wang also voiced China’s intent to strengthen cooperation with other countries, including the collaboration in the legal and security areas.

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/asia/20160308/1035949849/china-abroad-influence-cooperation.html#ixzz42JAq7GMf


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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  max steel on Tue Apr 12, 2016 1:26 pm

    How China Is Building the Biggest Commercial-Military Empire in History




    In the 18th and 19th centuries, the sun famously never set on the British empire. A commanding navy enforced its will, yet all would have been lost if it were not for ports, roads, and railroads. The infrastructure that the British built everywhere they went embedded and enabled their power like bones and veins in a body.

    Great nations have done this since Rome paved 55,000 miles (89,000 km) of roads and aqueducts in Europe. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Russia and the United States established their own imprint, skewering and taming nearby territories with projects like the Trans-Siberian and the Trans-Continental railways.

    Now it’s the turn of the Chinese. Much has been made of Beijing’s “resource grab” in Africa and elsewhere, its construction of militarized artificial islands in the South China Sea and, most recently, its new strategy to project naval power broadly in the open seas.

    Yet these profiles of an allegedly grasping and treacherous China tend to consider its ambitions in disconnected pieces. What these pieces add up to is a whole latticework of infrastructure materializing around the world. Combined with the ambitious activities of Chinese companies, they are quickly growing into history’s most extensive global commercial empire.

    China views almost no place as uncontested. Chinese-financed and -built dams, roads, railroads, natural gas pipelines, ports, and airports are either in place or will be from Samoa to Rio de Janeiro, St. Petersburg to Jakarta, Mombasa to Vanuatu, and from the Arctic to Antarctica. Many are built in service of current and prospective mines, oilfields, and other businesses back to China, and at times to markets abroad.

    But while this grand picture suggests a deliberate plan devised in Beijing, it also reflects an unbridled commercial frenzy. Chinese companies are venturing out and doing deals lacking any particular order. Mostly, they’re interested in finding growth abroad that is proving difficult to manage at home. This, too, is typical for a fast-growing power.

    “This is very much in line with what we would expect from other great powers whose military posture follows its economic and diplomatic footprint,” Lyle Morris, a China specialist with Rand, told Quartz.

    Below are snapshots of components that are either already in place or on the way.


    The story starts with a reimagined Silk Road



    In September 2013, newly anointed Chinese leader Xi Jinping visited Kazakhstan’s capital, Astana. He was in town to seal the Chinese purchase of a $5 billion stake in Kashagan, one of the world’s largest oilfields. On that trip, he unveiled a plan ultimately dubbed “One Belt, One Road”—a land-and-sea version of the fabled East-West Silk Road trading route.

    The idea is audacious in scope.

    On land, Beijing has in mind a high-speed rail network (map 2). It will start in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan province, and connect with Laos and on into Cambodia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.

    Another overland network of roads, rail and energy pipelines will begin in Xi’an in central China and head west as far as Belgium (see dotted brown line above). As we’ve written previously, Beijing has already initiated an 8,011-mile cargo rail route between the Chinese city of Yiwu and Madrid, Spain. Finally, another 1,125-mile-long bullet train will start in Kashgar and punch south through Pakistan to the Arabian Sea port of Gwadur. The thinking behind this rail-driven plan isn’t new–as we have written previously, Beijing has been piecing it together for awhile.

    At sea, a companion 21st-century Maritime Silk Road (see dotted blue line in map 1) would connect the South China Sea, and the Indian and South Pacific oceans. China would begin to protect its own sea lanes as well. On May 26 it disclosed a strategy for expanding its navy into a fleet that not only hugs its own shores, but can wander the open ocean.

    China does not need to build all of these thousands of miles of railroads and other facilities. Much of the infrastructure already exists; where it does, the trick is to link it all together.

    Everywhere, new public works will be required. And to make its vision materialize, Beijing must be careful to be seen as generously sharing the big engineering and construction projects. Up to now, such contracts have been treated as rare, big profit opportunities for state-owned Chinese industrial units. These include the China Railway Group, whose already-inflated share prices have often gone up each time another piece of the overseas empire has fallen into place. If local infrastructure companies are excluded from the largesse, there will be push-back on almost every continent.

    In any case, not all this will necessarily happen. In a recent note to clients, China observer Jonathan Fenby of the research firm Trusted Sources suggested that it may all be too ambitious. China has had a history of announcing and then shelving projects, such as a $3.7 billion railway canceled by Mexico in February amid allegations of local nepotism. Meanwhile, Japan has begun to challenge Chinese plans. It has launched rival bids for billion-dollar high-speed rail and other projects in Indonesia, Thailand and elsewhere, with relatively low-interest loans and sometimes better technology (paywall).

    But Beijing seems to recognize its own limits. Rather, the world may help to build at least some of the infrastructure through another Chinese creation—the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, with its 57 founding members, modeled loosely on the World Bank. Projects backed by the bank are meant to be good for the country where they are built. But given China’s outsize influence in the institution, they are certain to include some that fit into its grand scheme of global infrastructure.

    extends into South America



    Xi has pledged $250 billion in investment in South America over the next 10 years. The centerpiece is a $10 billion, 3,300-mile, high-speed railroad (dotted red line above) that would start in Acu, near Rio de Janeiro, crossing the Amazon rainforest and the Andes Mountains, and terminate on the Peruvian coast. (NPR’s Tom Ashbrook conducted anexcellent hour-long program on the railroad.)

    On top of that, there’s an advanced proposal by Chinese billionaire Wang Jing to build a 170-mile-long, $50 billion canal through Nicaragua.

    and also across Africa

    In January, China agreed with the African Union to help build railroads (map 4), roads, and airports to link all 54 African countries. These plans are already under way, including a $13 billion, 875-mile-long coastal railroad in Nigeria; a $3.8 billion, 500-mile-long railroad connecting the Kenyan cities of Nairobi and Mombasa; a $4 billion, 460-mile railway linking the Ethiopian cities of Addis Ababa and Djibouti; and a $5.6 billion, 850-mile network of rail lines in Chad.

    Then there are China’s maritime ambitions. These envision modern ports in the Tanzanian capital, Dar es Salaam; the Mozambican capital, Maputo; Libreville, Gabon; the Ghanaian city of Tema; and the Senegalese capital, Dakar.

    All these land and marine projects align with existing Chinese natural-resource investments on the continent. For example, the China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) has large oil projects in Chadand Mozambique, and Chinese manufacturers are fast setting upEthiopian factories that rely on cheap local labor.

    The new Chinese empire is enveloping its neighbors

    In addition to its planned high-speed rail network into Malaysia and Singapore (map 2) and Laos (map 5) into southeast Asia (see map 5 for Laotian portion), China plans a canal across the Isthmus of Kra in Thailand, a deep-water container port and industrial park in Kuantan, Malaysia, and a $511-million expansionof Male airport in the Maldives.

    and nations further afield in the Pacific



    China wants to dominate not only the South and East China seas, but far into the Pacific (map 6). According to the Lowly Institute, transportation comprises by far the largest portion of $2.5 billion in Chinese assistance and commercial credit to South Sea nations. Among the projects are:

    Fiji: A $158 million hydroelectric plant and several sports complexes, including the 4,000-seat Vodafone stadium in Suva.

    Samoa: A $100 million hospital in Apia, a $40 million terminal and upgraded runway at Faleolo Airport, and a $140 million wharf at Vaiusu.

    Tonga: A $12 million government building to be called St. George Palace, and two small Chinese turboprop aircraft for domestic routes aboard Real Tonga airlines. The aircraft deal has been controversial because neither of the planes are certified for use in the West.

    Vanuatu: Two more turboprops, this time for Air Vanuatu, and $60 million to build a Port Vila campus of the University of the South Pacific and a Parliament House (both loans have been forgiven).

    Pakistan is pivotal to China’s Silk Road



    Why has China lavished $42 billion in infrastructure projects on Pakistan? The two have always been allies. But China has a particular goal: It wants to contain Uighur separatists who have been fomenting violence in the western province of Xinjiang. Some of these separatists have sanctuaries in Pakistan and Afghanistan, and Beijing has pushed hard for both countries to hand over Uighurs living there.



    But sending goods through Pakistan (map 7) also helps China avoid the Malacca Strait (map Cool. Much of Beijing’s oil and other natural resources passes through this narrow, 500-mile-long stretch of sea between Malaysia and Indonesia. China worries that, if its relations with Washington become truly hostile, the US could theoretically blockade the strait and starve the country of its lifeblood resources. That is in large part why Beijing is financing a deep Arabian Sea port at Gwadur, and the 1,125-mile-long super-highway, high-speed railway and oil-pipeline route to the Chinese city of Kashgar.

    as is Central Asia

    Central Asia has been an almost exclusively Russian playground for almost two centuries. It still is when it comes to pure muscle. But in matters of cash, China is fast moving in.

    The relationship revolves around oil and natural gas. Turkmenistansupplies more than half of China’s imported gas. It gets there throughthree, 1,150-mile-long pipelines; a fourth pipeline is soon to begin construction. China is the only foreign nation that Turkmenistan allows to drill for gas onshore, in particular from Galkynysh, the second-largest gasfield in the world. China’s $5 billion share of the Kashagan oilfield in Kazakhstan is one of its largest oil stakes anywhere. Xi also has signed $15 billion in gas and uranium deals inUzbekistan.

    and Russia



    Two years ago, Russia announced a pivot towards China. The centerpiece of the shift is two natural-gas pipelines (the larger of the two is the dotted red line in map 9) through which a fifth of China’s gas imports would flow. The deal had some snags, but they reportedly have been worked out, and construction is to begin soon. In addition, China is to build a $242 billion, 4,300-mile high-speed railway from Beijing to Moscow, a two-day trip compared with the current six-day Trans-Mongolian Express.

    China is speeding up how fast goods get to Europe



    The Maritime Silk Road (the solid blue line in map 10) will enter Europe through a $260 million Chinese-funded upgrade of the Greek port of Piraeus. From there, rail service will continue into the Balkans. Ships from China will also make port in Lisbon, Portugal, and Duisburg, Germany. To take the network into the heart of Europe, Beijing has agreed to finance a 250-mile bullet train, costing up to $3 billion, from Belgrade to Budapest. Separately, China’s new 8,011-mile cargo railroadfrom Yiwu to Madrid is taking away business from far more time-consuming truck shipping.

    and has piled into US real estate



    For now, the Chinese web of infrastructure does not extend to the US. Instead, what has been built elsewhere is serving as a jumping-off point to the gigantic US market. High-speed trains are only now starting to be planned in the US, and Chinese firms are front-runners to win contracts, including a $1 billion contest for the San Francisco-to-Los Angeles route, expected to be worth $68 billion. China’s CNR Corp. is already providing 284 passenger cars worth $566 million to the Boston subway system.

    Another big splash: the United States is China’s favored destination for real estate investment (see chart above). This has included commercial jewels such as New York’s Waldorf Astoria ($1.95 billion to Angbang Insurance) and the Chase Manhattan Plaza ($725 million to Fosun). But the bigger sums have been spent in all-cash deals by wealthy Chinesefor residential properties.

    Last but not least, China has polar ambitions

    Though the closest Chinese territory gets to the Arctic Circle is a thousand miles away, China nonetheless calls itself a “near-Arctic state.” Chinese oil company Cnooc has a majority share in Iceland’s Dreki oil and natural gas field, and Beijing established the Arctic Yellow River Station, a permanent research facility on Norway’s Spitsbergen Island. In Antarctica, China has four research stations, structures that allow nations to stake a claim to the continent. Plans for a fifth station at a place called Inexpressible Island are under way. It is positioning itself to move for the continent’s resources when a 1959 treaty guaranteeing its wilderness status expires in 2048.

    Some of the infrastructure China is creating around the world will align with Western economic interests. But to the extent that it does, that will be inadvertent. Some of the most modern transportation infrastructure going up not only in China, but around the developing world, is deliberately linked to China. It is meant to make the global economy a friendly place for Chinese commerce.

    That does not make China’s ambitions necessarily menacing or pernicious. But it does make them China-centric. It’s worth remembering that this way of doing economic development is not a Chinese invention. As Michael Pillsbury, author of “The Hundred Year Marathon,” tells Quartz, China’s ambitions are rooted in “a fierce sense of competitiveness which they claim they learned from the America of the 1800s.”
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    Inside China’s Plan for a Military That Can Counter U.S. Muscle

    Post  max steel on Sun May 22, 2016 1:33 am

    China proposes 'Underwater Great Wall' that could erode US, Russian submarine advantages



    Chinese version of amerikan SOSUS. Does Russia use such sonar network system ?

    The China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC) has proposed the construction of a network of ship and subsurface sensors that could significantly erode the undersea warfare advantage held by US and Russian submarines and contribute greatly to future Chinese ability to control the South China Sea (SCS).

    Details of the network of sensors, called the 'Underwater Great Wall Project', were revealed in a CSSC booth at a public exhibition in China in late 2015. A translated copy of the descriptions was obtained by IHS Jane's from a government official. The text was confirmed by a source from a second government on condition of anonymity.

    While some elements of this network have been known for some time, CSSC is now in effect proposing an improved Chinese version of the Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) that for a time gave the US a significant advantage in countering Soviet submarines during the Cold War. The system proposed by CSSC is likely being obtained by China's People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) but may also be offered for export.

    CSSC says that, among other things, its objective is to provide customers with "a package solution in terms of underwater environment monitoring and collection, real-time location, tracing of surface and underwater targets, warning of seaquakes, tsunamis, and other disasters as well as marine scientific research".

    The corporation says in the document that its "R&D and production bases in Beijing and Wuxi [have] the ability to support the whole industry chain covering fundamental research, key technology development, solution design, overall system integration, core equipment development, production, and operation service support".

    The shipbuilding conglomerate says it has 10 series of products on offer that include systems relating to marine observation, oceanographic instrumentation, underwater robotics, and ship support.

    Specific components of CSSC's surveillance system include surface ships, sonar systems, underwater security equipment, marine oil and gas exploration equipment, underwater unmanned equipment, and marine instrument electronic equipment.[/b]
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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  George1 on Mon Oct 03, 2016 2:35 am

    Chinese naval fleet call at Myanmar port to enhance strategic cooperative partnership

    YANGON, Sept. 30 (Xinhua) -- A Chinese naval fleet comprising Xiangtan and Zhoushan of the 23rd Escort Task Group called at the Myanmar International Terminals Thilawa (MITT) in Yangon's Thanlyin township Friday, following the completion of its escort mission in the Gulf of Aden.

    The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) Navy fleet's five-day visit to Myanmar aims to implement the important consensus reached by military leaders of both sides, that is to strengthen strategic communication, promote practical cooperation and enrich the China-Myanmar comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership.

    The call also aims to enhance exchange and cooperation and increase mutual understanding and traditional friendly ties between navies of the two countries.

    Welcoming the Chinese naval fleet at the Thilawa port terminal were Chinese Ambassador Hong Liang and Chief of Myanmar naval dockyard headquarters Admiral Myint Oo as well as other naval officials.

    Ambassador Hong Liang said at the deck reception that the PLA naval fleet's Myanmar visit will promote understanding of Myanmar people on China and enhance the comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership between the two countries and deepen military cooperation between the two armed forces.

    He added that during the four months' voyage of escorting Chinese and foreign vessels, the PLA navy fleet also protected those transporting humanitarian food aid, showing the PLA navy's contribution to a harmonious world and a harmonious ocean and playing a positive role in safeguarding world peace and stability.

    During its call in Myanmar, commander of the Chinese navy fleet will meet Myanmar military leaders.

    Besides carrying out cultural exchange and interaction with the Myanmar side such as visits, tours, football games with their counterparts, the Chinese naval vessels will be open to the public for show .

    The Chinese naval fleet's call at Myanmar port, which represent another voyage after a training flotilla's visit in May 2014, will be significantly important to the exchange of the two navies.

    http://english.chinamil.com.cn/view/2016-09/30/content_7285472.htm


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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  George1 on Mon Oct 17, 2016 2:11 am

    China, Cambodia vow to deepen bilateral military relations


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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  George1 on Sat Nov 19, 2016 2:16 pm

    Xi Jinping Heads to Latin America to 'Fill Vacuum Left By New US Politics'

    Read more: https://sputniknews.com/latam/201611171047560918-china-latin-america-us/


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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  George1 on Mon Dec 26, 2016 2:34 pm

    China re-established diplomatic ties with Sao Tome and Principe, an island state located along the equator off the coast of Africa that has recently broken off relations with Taiwan, which China considers a renegade province, the Chinese Foreign Ministry said Monday.

    Read more: https://sputniknews.com/asia/201612261048995368-china-diplomatic-relations-sao/


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    Re: China Military and Foreign Policy

    Post  George1 on Wed Jul 12, 2017 8:02 pm

    A group of Navy ships of the PLA went to Djibouti to build a fleet support base

    On July 11, 2017, the multipurpose assault group of the PLA Navy ships as part of the Mobile Landing Platform (MLP) 868 Donghaidao and the universal landing ship 071 Jinggangshan departed from the port of Zhangjiang, located in Guangdong Province, to create the logistics base of the PLA Navy in Djibouti.

    Before the departure, Commander of the Chinese Navy, Shen Jinlong, read out an order to establish a base in Djibouti. The decision to create a base of the Chinese Navy in Djibouti was adopted following friendly talks between the two sides in order to promote and protect the interests of the peoples of the two countries, Xinhua news agency reported.

    The base will provide support to the Chinese Navy during various missions in Africa and Western Asia, including maintenance tasks, peacekeeping operations and delivery of humanitarian aid.

    It is also alleged that the base will serve the interests of international cooperation, implementation of joint exercises, as well as ensuring the security of international strategic shipping lanes.


    As previously reported by a colleague of bmpd, the Chinese mobile landing platform Donghaidao was solemnly accepted into the Southern Fleet of the PLA Navy in July 2015. Thus, China became the second country in the world, after the USA, which possesses ships of this class. The speed of the adoption by the Chinese of the American idea attracts attention. In the US, the first ships of the type MLP were laid only in 2011 (they were rebuilt from tankers of the Alaska type), and put into operation in 2013.

    The construction of MLP quite clearly speaks about the goals that China sets itself by developing the naval forces. The American concept of MLP and Afloat Forward Staging Base (AFSB) is based on another concept - Seabasing, conducting expeditionary operations in remote areas without reliance on coastal infrastructure. The idea is that supplies at sea are transferred to MLP and AFSB from transport ships and then delivered to unequipped shore by MLP-based amphibious assault boats and AFSB-based heavy transport helicopters. In addition, AFSB can support the deployment of various forces that support the operation, for example, minesweepers, special forces units, etc.

    In 2015, the USA re-qualified MLP in Expeditionary Transfer Dock, Expeditionary Transfer Dock, and AFSB in Expeditionary Base Mobile Expeditionary Mobile Base. It is important to note that both types of ships are specially designed to provide large-scale amphibious operations operations in areas located at a great distance from the friendly coastal infrastructure. For operations of a small scale, for example, by special forces, there is enough transport capacity for landing ships, and for landing parties on the nearby islands, numerous and cheap landing craft and mobilized civilian small displacement vessels can be involved. Therefore, although the Chinese state media drew attention to the possible usefulness of MLP in ensuring the interests of the PRC in the South China Sea, in reality, these ships have more ambitious tasks. Especially if you consider that from 2013 China has successfully built artificial islands in the Spratly archipelago and will soon have the necessary infrastructure on the shore. It is no longer a matter of fighting for Taiwan or microscopic disputed islands, but about operations off the coasts of other continents.








    http://bmpd.livejournal.com/2724259.html


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