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    Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

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    kvs
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  kvs on Fri Sep 12, 2014 2:26 am

    sepheronx wrote:
    kvs wrote:
    sepheronx wrote:
    That aside, after looking at the only review of the Elbrus 4C through CNews.ru, I can safely say that the processor shows a lot of potential.  The fact that it came close to competing against a Core i3 and i5, with having little to no real CISC processor development experience before, besides working on the Elbrus E2K core, has shown Russia is more than capable of producing a chip that can easily compete with the big players.

    ...

    Baikal processors through Baikal electronics, subsidiary of T-Platforms may have a higher chance of being a direct competitor (and it will be good for MCST as they will have internal competition), due to the fact that T-Platforms (a major HPC making company) will be using these processors in the development of their cluster systems, which they seem to have a bigger access to the market than MCST as they have super computers built even in the USA.  So in this case, T-Platforms Baikal processors (whenever they will end up showing up for sale), could very well be the basic market consumer processor, especially since ARM processors are making a huge push into the consumer market (good for a RISC processor).

    The Elbrus CPU line is a competitor for Xeons and Opterons and should be deployed in Russia for scientific and engineering computing.  T-Platforms should adopt this CPU instead of relying on Intel or AMD parts.  Unfortunately, the Elbrus CPUs take a large performance hit when doing 64 bit floating point operations compared to 32 bit operations.   This is the price of having a low power design with fewer transistors.   MCST should release a variant that does not have this limitation and this does not require a ground-up redesign.  

    The Elbrus design has demonstrated that VLIW can work just fine and Russia has managed this feat.   Intel tried VLIW with the Itanium line but has failed.

    Exactly.  Problem with 64bit is that VLIW isn't native x86 thus it has to have a separate instruction for it.  And thus, that is where the performance hit is (theoretically) compared to lets say Intel or AMD's since both of those are CISC (I had it wrong the whole time, thought Elbrus was CISC and not VLIW).  That being said, I agree, they can indeed increase transistor counts significantly.  I guess we will not know fully until when Elbrus 8C is shown.  That said, am looking forward to see what it will be, as well, what the future holds after that.  I know they want to move as well onto APU's.  Now Baikal electronics is moving into RISC with its future ARM processor and any other processor afterwards.

    I forgot to clarify the point about software. For science and engineering what one needs is a good Fortran 90 compiler and there are not that many useful off the shelf software packages. There are more commercial packages for engineering, but even there it is typical to resort to custom code. So the CISC vs. VLIW architecture differences are not a problem. Also, these days you cannot get far without a large amount of CPUs operating in parallel via MPI and to a lesser extend OpenMP. Russia needs to develop good clusters based on the Elbrus.

    The Baikal CPU is based on the ARM architecture and is good for integer heavy business computing.

    It was good to hear that Mikron has started producing the Elbrus-2S in Russia and has upgraded their equipment to produce 65 nm parts. The fabrication equipment was rated for 90 nm production initially. So Russia is developing, slowly, a proper microelectronics industry.
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  sepheronx on Fri Sep 12, 2014 5:20 am

    kvs wrote:
    sepheronx wrote:
    kvs wrote:
    sepheronx wrote:
    That aside, after looking at the only review of the Elbrus 4C through CNews.ru, I can safely say that the processor shows a lot of potential.  The fact that it came close to competing against a Core i3 and i5, with having little to no real CISC processor development experience before, besides working on the Elbrus E2K core, has shown Russia is more than capable of producing a chip that can easily compete with the big players.

    ...

    Baikal processors through Baikal electronics, subsidiary of T-Platforms may have a higher chance of being a direct competitor (and it will be good for MCST as they will have internal competition), due to the fact that T-Platforms (a major HPC making company) will be using these processors in the development of their cluster systems, which they seem to have a bigger access to the market than MCST as they have super computers built even in the USA.  So in this case, T-Platforms Baikal processors (whenever they will end up showing up for sale), could very well be the basic market consumer processor, especially since ARM processors are making a huge push into the consumer market (good for a RISC processor).

    The Elbrus CPU line is a competitor for Xeons and Opterons and should be deployed in Russia for scientific and engineering computing.  T-Platforms should adopt this CPU instead of relying on Intel or AMD parts.  Unfortunately, the Elbrus CPUs take a large performance hit when doing 64 bit floating point operations compared to 32 bit operations.   This is the price of having a low power design with fewer transistors.   MCST should release a variant that does not have this limitation and this does not require a ground-up redesign.  

    The Elbrus design has demonstrated that VLIW can work just fine and Russia has managed this feat.   Intel tried VLIW with the Itanium line but has failed.

    Exactly.  Problem with 64bit is that VLIW isn't native x86 thus it has to have a separate instruction for it.  And thus, that is where the performance hit is (theoretically) compared to lets say Intel or AMD's since both of those are CISC (I had it wrong the whole time, thought Elbrus was CISC and not VLIW).  That being said, I agree, they can indeed increase transistor counts significantly.  I guess we will not know fully until when Elbrus 8C is shown.  That said, am looking forward to see what it will be, as well, what the future holds after that.  I know they want to move as well onto APU's.  Now Baikal electronics is moving into RISC with its future ARM processor and any other processor afterwards.

    I forgot to clarify the point about software.  For science and engineering what one needs is a good Fortran 90 compiler and there are not that many useful off the shelf software packages.    There are more commercial packages for engineering, but even there it is typical to resort to custom code.   So the CISC vs. VLIW architecture differences are not a problem.   Also, these days you cannot get far without a large amount of CPUs operating in parallel via MPI and to a lesser extend OpenMP.   Russia needs to develop good clusters based on the Elbrus.  

    The Baikal CPU is based on the ARM architecture and is good for integer heavy business computing.  

    It was good to hear that Mikron has started producing the Elbrus-2S in Russia and has upgraded their equipment to produce 65 nm parts.  The fabrication equipment was rated for 90 nm production initially.   So Russia is developing, slowly, a proper microelectronics industry.

    Agreed. Yes, the software end of things are what is holding it all back.

    That said though, I cannot wait to see Elbrus 8C. As it will be what they may use to make their cluster systems. A single blade can more than likely run two of these, add 64gb of DDR3 ECCM RAM, this processor can be quite the killer.
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  Mike E on Mon Sep 22, 2014 8:17 pm

    Deputy Prime Minister: Russia to Boost Space Microelectronics Production

    MOSCOW, September 22 (RIA Novosti) - Russia will boost its production of space microelectronics, Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin told Rossiya-24 television Monday.
    Western sanctions against Russia have two main objectives, Rogozin said. Firstly, to affect machine tools that are used to produce components needed by the country’s space industry, and secondly, to affect electronics.
    “Second objective is to harm electronics, microelectronics in particular, especially those that are capable of sustaining bombardment of heavy particles in space,” Rogozin said.
    The market for such components has been open until recently, explaining why Russia has been purchasing them from abroad instead of producing them.
    “This will be a challenging task, but it will be solved. I guarantee it will be solved, because today sanctions are a challenge to our national character,” Rogozin concluded.
    The European Union and the United States have imposed several rounds of anti-Russian economic sanctions over Moscow's alleged role in the Ukrainian conflict, targeting in particular Russia's defense industry.
    In response to the sanctions, Russia has taken measures aimed at replacing imports from Western countries with local alternatives.
    The Russian government is also working on an import substitution program to replace Western components used in the country's defense industry affected by the sanctions. The program is expected to be implemented in October.

    http://en.ria.ru/russia/20140922/193176603/Deputy-Prime-Minister-Russia-to-Boost-Space-Microelectronics.html
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  sepheronx on Mon Sep 22, 2014 10:26 pm

    Well, i know sputnik (developer of mini satellitrs, private company in Russia) partnered up with Microclet to produce new processors for space.
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  Mike E on Mon Sep 22, 2014 11:50 pm

    sepheronx wrote:Well, i know sputnik (developer of mini satellitrs, private company in Russia) partnered up with Microclet to produce new processors for space.
    Yep, that is just one example... Within the coming weeks, months, and even years, we should be seeing more of this. - Keep in mind that Russia is also going to buy microelectronics "for spacecraft" from China, so this isn't going to cover all of the market. Either way, at least with the added production of China, no delays should occur!

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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  sepheronx on Tue Sep 23, 2014 1:17 am

    Meh, i rather they make it themselves. They could try after all since it seems Russian tech companies are willing (mikran, elvees, mcst, etc).
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  Mike E on Tue Sep 23, 2014 1:24 am

    sepheronx wrote:Meh, i rather they make it themselves.  They could try after all since it seems Russian tech companies are willing (mikran, elvees, mcst, etc).
    Like I said, they will both make them and receive them. This prevents over-production and means that proven components will be used. It also allows the Russian manufactures to spend more time and money on other projects rather than forcing them to expand. It is a none-problem.

    That being said, I see where you're coming from... Maybe sometime in the near-future, production and the components will be "all-Russian".
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  sepheronx on Tue Sep 23, 2014 2:20 am

    Mike E wrote:
    sepheronx wrote:Meh, i rather they make it themselves.  They could try after all since it seems Russian tech companies are willing (mikran, elvees, mcst, etc).
    Like I said, they will both make them and receive them. This prevents over-production and means that proven components will be used. It also allows the Russian manufactures to spend more time and money on other projects rather than forcing them to expand. It is a none-problem.

    That being said, I see where you're coming from... Maybe sometime in the near-future, production and the components will be "all-Russian".

    Well, the number 1 big thing is keeping competition as you would say. So importing from China, S.Korea and Taiwan is fine by me as well. As long as they try to produce themselves as well.
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  kvs on Tue Sep 23, 2014 3:33 am

    The sanctions are a gift for Russia. They will dislodge the last of the Yeltsin era atrophy as Russia is forced to get its act together. There are many wankers in the west who really believe Russia has not capacity for technological development. Let them live in their bubble of delusion.
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  kvs on Wed Sep 24, 2014 3:16 am

    http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN-Design-completed-for-prototype-fast-reactor-0209147.html



    Russia has completed the design for the BRES-300 lead cooled fast neutron breeder reactor.    Russia is the world leader in
    such designs and has had lead-bismuth cooled reactors on its nuclear submarines.   But don't bother looking this up on wiki where some
    experimental design from Belgium that has not been built yet gets most of the attention.

    The advantage of using lead as a coolant is that it boils 1740 Celsius.   In other words, it is physically impossible to have a meltdown since the
    passive cooling will never let the fuel assembly get anywhere near this temperature.   Sodium coolant is OK, but it has a much lower boiling point.

    http://www.crines.titech.ac.jp/projects/gif/2_1_4.pdf

    Lead is transparent to neutrons so it is the ideal coolant for a fast breeder reactor.

    Owing to the low neutron moderation by heavy lead, it is possible
    to expand the fuel lattice without affecting the reactor neutronics,
    to increase the coolant flow section in fuel assemblies, and to
    raise the level of power removed by natural lead circulation. The
    lead circuit itself giving off its heat continuously to naturally
    circulating air and thereby to the atmosphere, will never be
    overheated by residual heat.
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Wed Sep 24, 2014 4:35 am

    kvs wrote:http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NN-Design-completed-for-prototype-fast-reactor-0209147.html



    Russia has completed the design for the BRES-300 lead cooled fast neutron breeder reactor.    Russia is the world leader in
    such designs and has had lead-bismuth cooled reactors on its nuclear submarines.   But don't bother looking this up on wiki where some
    experimental design from Belgium that has not been built yet gets most of the attention.

    The advantage of using lead as a coolant is that it boils 1740 Celsius.   In other words, it is physically impossible to have a meltdown since the
    passive cooling will never let the fuel assembly get anywhere near this temperature.   Sodium coolant is OK, but it has a much lower boiling point.

    http://www.crines.titech.ac.jp/projects/gif/2_1_4.pdf

    Lead is transparent to neutrons so it is the ideal coolant for a fast breeder reactor.

    Owing to the low neutron moderation by heavy lead, it is possible
    to expand the fuel lattice without affecting the reactor neutronics,
    to increase the coolant flow section in fuel assemblies, and to
    raise the level of power removed by natural lead circulation. The
    lead circuit itself giving off its heat continuously to naturally
    circulating air and thereby to the atmosphere, will never be
    overheated by residual heat.

    Is it true, spent rods and depleted uranium can be put in front of a reactor and become useful again? Maybe this will have it's uses if the START treaty falls apart. attack
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  kvs on Wed Sep 24, 2014 4:54 am

    magnumcromagnon wrote:
    Is it true, spent rods and depleted uranium can be put in front of a reactor and become useful again? Maybe this will have it's uses if the START treaty falls apart. attack

    That is the whole idea behind a breeder reactor. Spent fuel is reprocessed and placed together with fresh fuel rods. Over a period of time it is enriched by neutron absorption. For example "useless" Uranium 238 becomes Plutonium 239. This really is the modern equivalent of alchemy. But we are not going to be breeding gold from lead anytime soon Smile

    As noted in the PDF I linked, breeder reactors with closed fuel cycles get 100 times more energy out of a kilogram of Uranium ore than conventional single cycle reactors. There is also much less and much shorter lived waste from breeders. Breeder reactors can burn the so-called "waste" piling up in the obsolete reactors deployed around the world today.

    Breeder reactors give Russia nuclear energy independence due to its lack of large Uranium reserves Smile
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Wed Sep 24, 2014 5:42 am

    kvs wrote:
    magnumcromagnon wrote:
    Is it true, spent rods and depleted uranium can be put in front of a reactor and become useful again? Maybe this will have it's uses if the START treaty falls apart. attack

    That is the whole idea behind a breeder reactor.  Spent fuel is reprocessed and placed together with fresh fuel rods.   Over a period of time it is enriched by neutron absorption.   For example "useless" Uranium 238 becomes Plutonium 239.   This really is the modern equivalent of alchemy.   But we are not going to be breeding gold from lead anytime soon Smile

    As noted in the PDF I linked, breeder reactors with closed fuel cycles get 100 times more energy out of a kilogram of Uranium ore than conventional single cycle reactors.   There is also much less and much shorter lived waste from breeders.   Breeder reactors can burn the so-called "waste" piling up in the obsolete reactors deployed around the world today.  

    Breeder reactors give Russia nuclear energy independence due to its lack of large Uranium reserves Smile

    It's interesting that the new breeder reactors Russia is developing has many of the same advantages as LFTR reactors have (using spent rods as fuel, exponentially better fuel efficiency, exponentially smaller amounts of waste created), now it makes a lot of sense that the Russians chose this path over LFTR, as this path should still allow the capability to produce warheads if deemed necessary (for better or worse that is something that LFTR's are not capable of).

    BTW you mentioned about problems with Russia's uranium reserves, I believe I read somewhere that Russia still maintains an enriched uranium stockpile to produce 40,000 warheads rapidly. Whether that claim is accurate Russia is also a significant member of the Eurasian Customs Union, and so is Kazakhstan (also a CSTO member) the world leading uranium producing country (which produces nearly twice the amount of uranium ore as the second largest producer, Canada), who's President Nazarbayev was the guy who first proposed the Customs Union, so no worries of uranium shortage either way. russia
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  Mike E on Wed Sep 24, 2014 7:36 am

    magnumcromagnon wrote:
    kvs wrote:
    magnumcromagnon wrote:
    Is it true, spent rods and depleted uranium can be put in front of a reactor and become useful again? Maybe this will have it's uses if the START treaty falls apart. attack

    That is the whole idea behind a breeder reactor.  Spent fuel is reprocessed and placed together with fresh fuel rods.   Over a period of time it is enriched by neutron absorption.   For example "useless" Uranium 238 becomes Plutonium 239.   This really is the modern equivalent of alchemy.   But we are not going to be breeding gold from lead anytime soon Smile

    As noted in the PDF I linked, breeder reactors with closed fuel cycles get 100 times more energy out of a kilogram of Uranium ore than conventional single cycle reactors.   There is also much less and much shorter lived waste from breeders.   Breeder reactors can burn the so-called "waste" piling up in the obsolete reactors deployed around the world today.  

    Breeder reactors give Russia nuclear energy independence due to its lack of large Uranium reserves Smile

    It's interesting that the new breeder reactors Russia is developing has many of the same advantages as LFTR reactors have (using spent rods as fuel, exponentially better fuel efficiency, exponentially smaller amounts of waste created), now it makes a lot of sense that the Russians chose this path over LFTR, as this path should still allow the capability to produce warheads if deemed necessary (for better or worse that is something that LFTR's are not capable of).

    BTW you mentioned about problems with Russia's uranium reserves, I believe I read somewhere that Russia still maintains an enriched uranium stockpile to produce 40,000 warheads rapidly. Whether that claim is accurate Russia is also a significant member of the Eurasian Customs Union, and so is Kazakhstan (also a CSTO member) the world leading uranium producing country (which produces nearly twice the amount of uranium ore as the second largest producer, Canada), who's President Nazarbayev was the guy who first proposed the Customs Union, so no worries of uranium shortage either way. russia

    All of them? LFTR's still have big advantages over the lead-cooled designs... In fact, lead-cooling was hugely researched in the 50's by the West, but it was deemed to be of too much trouble to be of any real worth... It is an improvement over modern-day designs, but LFTR's? I don't see why Russia would care for that ability, as they already have the capability to produce thermonuclear devices by the truck load... - That is a somewhat well-known conspiracy theory here in MURICA', that we didn't go for LFTR's because they couldn't refine nuclear material into weapons-grade "yellow cake". If this is true or not I don't know... (LFTR's should be much safer and more efficient, never mind cleaner than lead-cooled designs. There are many other advantages as well.)
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Wed Sep 24, 2014 8:05 am

    Mike E wrote:
    magnumcromagnon wrote:
    kvs wrote:
    magnumcromagnon wrote:
    Is it true, spent rods and depleted uranium can be put in front of a reactor and become useful again? Maybe this will have it's uses if the START treaty falls apart. attack

    That is the whole idea behind a breeder reactor.  Spent fuel is reprocessed and placed together with fresh fuel rods.   Over a period of time it is enriched by neutron absorption.   For example "useless" Uranium 238 becomes Plutonium 239.   This really is the modern equivalent of alchemy.   But we are not going to be breeding gold from lead anytime soon Smile

    As noted in the PDF I linked, breeder reactors with closed fuel cycles get 100 times more energy out of a kilogram of Uranium ore than conventional single cycle reactors.   There is also much less and much shorter lived waste from breeders.   Breeder reactors can burn the so-called "waste" piling up in the obsolete reactors deployed around the world today.  

    Breeder reactors give Russia nuclear energy independence due to its lack of large Uranium reserves Smile

    It's interesting that the new breeder reactors Russia is developing has many of the same advantages as LFTR reactors have (using spent rods as fuel, exponentially better fuel efficiency, exponentially smaller amounts of waste created), now it makes a lot of sense that the Russians chose this path over LFTR, as this path should still allow the capability to produce warheads if deemed necessary (for better or worse that is something that LFTR's are not capable of).

    BTW you mentioned about problems with Russia's uranium reserves, I believe I read somewhere that Russia still maintains an enriched uranium stockpile to produce 40,000 warheads rapidly. Whether that claim is accurate Russia is also a significant member of the Eurasian Customs Union, and so is Kazakhstan (also a CSTO member) the world leading uranium producing country (which produces nearly twice the amount of uranium ore as the second largest producer, Canada), who's President Nazarbayev was the guy who first proposed the Customs Union, so no worries of uranium shortage either way. russia

    All of them? LFTR's still have big advantages over the lead-cooled designs... In fact, lead-cooling was hugely researched in the 50's by the West, but it was deemed to be of too much trouble to be of any real worth... It is an improvement over modern-day designs, but LFTR's? I don't see why Russia would care for that ability, as they already have the capability to produce thermonuclear devices by the truck load... - That is a somewhat well-known conspiracy theory here in MURICA', that we didn't go for LFTR's because they couldn't refine nuclear material into weapons-grade "yellow cake". If this is true or not I don't know... (LFTR's should be much safer and more efficient, never mind cleaner than lead-cooled designs. There are many other advantages as well.)

    The main case would be that they can take a bunch of waste material, and make it useful for rapid warhead making over night if the need arose. There's no guarantee that START will last forever.
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  GarryB on Thu Sep 25, 2014 10:37 am

    The Russians have made a lot of deals over the last two and a half decades with the US to dispose of nuclear material from withdrawn nuclear weapons where the material is sold to the US to create uranium for nuclear civilian power production.

    the US on the other hand has been stockpiling its old warheads.

    On the balance of things I would say the US has far more weapons grade material and much greater means to produce more right now.

    With the introduction of fast breeder reactors however Russia will suddenly get rather more electrical energy production capacity and an opportunity to no only make more fuel or weapons grade material for itself, but also rather more fuel for all the new nuclear power clients it is creating.

    A quick rummage through this website shows large numbers of new countries looking at nuclear energy and Russia is their source... having the ability to supply fuel and process it rapidly makes a lot of sense.

    As well as the capacity to make lots of little tactical nuclear warheads for all those thousands of land attack cruise missiles that could be entering service from 2015 onwards on all those new and upgraded ships and subs.


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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  navyfield on Thu Sep 25, 2014 4:54 pm

    this would be reasonable claim if russia had those ships ,but it doesnt nor it will have them in numbers for a loong time, but like you said their slow contruction time is not important Laughing ....
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  GarryB on Fri Sep 26, 2014 7:10 am

    this would be reasonable claim if russia had those ships ,but it doesnt nor it will have them in numbers for a loong time, but like you said their slow contruction time is not important


    Hahahahahaahahahahaahhahahhahhaahhhahahahhaahhahahha...

    So you comment is that my prediction that production and upgrade of ships and subs for the Russian Navy will start to increase after 2015 would be reasonable if the Russian Navy already had those ships.

    So production and upgrades wont increase numbers after 2015 because they have not been produced now in 2014 already.

    A whiny girl time traveller...


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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  higurashihougi on Fri Sep 26, 2014 1:52 pm

    I am sorry if any missed any of the previous posts in this thread. But I would like to know about Russia's achievement in the field of renewable energy, aside from nuclear reactor.

    And the field of environment, carbon output, and similar things, too.

    After all, oil and uranium do not have unlimited amount, and I don't think the thaw of Arctic ice is good for any country with coast, including Russia.
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  Mike E on Fri Sep 26, 2014 4:40 pm

    higurashihougi wrote:I am sorry if any missed any of the previous posts in this thread. But I would like to know about Russia's achievement in the field of renewable energy, aside from nuclear reactor.

    And the field of environment, carbon output, and similar things, too.

    After all, oil and uranium do not have unlimited amount, and I don't think the thaw of Arctic ice is good for any country with coast, including Russia.
    I know they have an accomplished hydro sector, but in all honesty that isn't my profession... - Your best bet would be to research on energy in Russia or something like that.

    Energy sources should also have that info...

    When it comes to NUCLEER', the "lack" (keep in mind that have large uranium reserves - said to last them a decade) of nuclear material is yet another that Thorium is the smarter option...
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    GarryB
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  GarryB on Sat Sep 27, 2014 9:44 am

    Breeder reactors create very little actual waste and can be used to turn spent fuel rods from conventional reactors back into unspent fuel rods that can be reused...

    Perhaps instead of looking at fantastic solutions like Thorium, you should perhaps read a bit more about Breeder reactors... the Russians have clearly made their choice.


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    Morpheus Eberhardt
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  Morpheus Eberhardt on Sat Oct 04, 2014 1:15 pm

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    KomissarBojanchev
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  KomissarBojanchev on Wed Oct 15, 2014 3:20 pm

    Bravo to russian scientists Very Happy !http://nextbigfuture.com/2014/09/ultrahard-fullerite-is-almost-twice-as.html

    Novel Carbon Materials in Troitsk, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), National University of Science and Technology (MISiS), and Moscow State Univ. (MSU) have developed a new method for the synthesis of an ultrahard material that exceeds diamond in hardness. An article recently published in the journal Carbon describes in detail a method that allows for the synthesis of ultrahard fullerite, a polymer composed of fullerenes, or spherical molecules made of carbon atoms.

    In their work, the scientists note that diamond hasn’t been the hardest material for some time now. Natural diamonds have a hardness of nearly 150 GPa, but ultrahard fullerite has surpassed diamond to become first on the list of hardest materials with values that range from 150 to 300 GPa.

    BTW hows the situation in russia with carbon nanotube production? I know China is starting large scale research and production of it while the US is planning to use it in the military. IMO it would be a huge leap forward for the russian R&D department to start this too, giving both industrial and military benefits.

    The future of materials isn't mining for more naturally occuring rare elements but but synthetic materials of low atomic number elements.
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    KomissarBojanchev
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  KomissarBojanchev on Wed Oct 15, 2014 3:22 pm

    GarryB wrote:Breeder reactors create very little actual waste and can be used to turn spent fuel rods from conventional reactors back into unspent fuel rods that can be reused...

    Perhaps instead of looking at fantastic solutions like Thorium, you should perhaps read a bit more about Breeder reactors... the Russians have clearly made their choice.
    What about a thorium-breeder combination? What a Face Sort of like a multifuel engine?
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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

    Post  kvs on Thu Oct 16, 2014 12:12 am

    KomissarBojanchev wrote:
    GarryB wrote:Breeder reactors create very little actual waste and can be used to turn spent fuel rods from conventional reactors back into unspent fuel rods that can be reused...

    Perhaps instead of looking at fantastic solutions like Thorium, you should perhaps read a bit more about Breeder reactors... the Russians have clearly made their choice.
    What about a thorium-breeder combination? What a Face  Sort of like a multifuel engine?

    Reactors using Thorium are breeder reactors. In the Thorium reactor process it is converted to Uranium 233, which is an unstable
    isotope and can sustain a reaction. The attraction of Thorium is that there is about three times more of it that can be mined compared
    to Uranium.

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    Re: Νew Technologies and Innovation Development in Russia

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