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    Russian Radar systems

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    franco

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  franco on Sun Apr 29, 2018 1:19 am

    New Sky-U radar put on duty in Irkutsk oblast and an advanced Nebo-M radar system went on duty in Penza oblast. Range of detection of an aircraft flying at 30,000 meters is 600 km and one flying at 10,000 meters is 400 km.
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    George1

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  George1 on Wed Jun 27, 2018 12:19 am

    Russia’s advanced Protivnik-GE mobile 3D surveillance radar enters service in Volga area

    The Protivnik-GE radar is a highly mobile, jamming-proof decimetric surveillance radar with a track data processing capability

    SAMARA, June 27. /TASS/. Russia’s fifth-generation Protivnik-GE mobile 3D surveillance radar has entered service with air defense regiments headquartered in the Volga area region of Samara, a spokesperson for Russia’s Central Military District told TASS on Tuesday.

    "A fifth-generation multipurpose mobile radar, Protivnik-GE, has entered service with air defense units in the Samara region. This radar station is the first of its kind in the Volga area," the source said.

    The Protivnik-GE radar is a highly mobile, jamming-proof decimetric surveillance radar with a track data processing capability.

    Featuring digital phased array and digital space-time signal processing, the radar is designed to automatically or semi-automatically detect, position, and track strategic and tactical aircraft, cruise missiles, ballistic targets and small-size low-speed aerial vehicles. It can also classify targets, conduct friend-or-foe identification, locate active jammers, as well as to generate radar data for direction of fighter aircraft and designation data for surface-to-air missile systems when operating as part of automated Air Defence and Air Force command-and-control systems.


    More:
    http://tass.com/defense/1011051
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    miketheterrible

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  miketheterrible on Wed Sep 26, 2018 6:54 pm

    https://life.ru/t/%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BC%D0%B8%D1%8F/1155417/stiels_ia_tiebia_vizhu_kak_rabotaiut_kvantovyie_radary

    This goes into detail of overall Quantum Radar tech but does concentrate a bit on Russia's development.
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    George1

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  George1 on Tue Oct 09, 2018 4:38 am

    Upgraded radar stations assume combat duty in Volga area

    Modernized medium- and high-altitude radar stations have assumed combat duty in the Samara Region in the Volga area

    SAMARA, October 8. /TASS/. Modernized medium- and high-altitude radar stations have assumed combat duty in the Samara Region in the Volga area, the press office of the Central Military District reported on Monday.

    "Modernized Gamma-S1M and Nebo-UM radar stations have assumed combat duty in an air defense formation of the Central Military District in the Samara Region," the press office said.

    The radar systems are designed to detect, locate and track various air targets: from aircraft to cruise and other missiles, including small-size, hypersonic and ballistic weapons. The radar stations have a maximum operating range of up to 600 km.

    The radars’ equipment allows identifying an object’s state affiliation and transmitting data to a command post or air defense systems. Besides, the radar stations are capable of finding jamming sources and determining their location. Radar crews have undergone training to learn to operate new weapon systems.


    More:
    http://tass.com/defense/1024906
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    George1

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  George1 on Fri Oct 19, 2018 10:11 pm

    New radar of Central Military District’s air defence formation strengthens air control over Volga region

    The Nebo-U three-dimensional radar station entered the Central Military District’s air defence division in the Samara Region by the State Defence Order.

    The Nebo-U station is intended for detecting, coordinate measuring and tracking aircraft, cruise and guided missiles at distances of up to 600 kilometres. It provides direction finding of barrage jammers and air objects’ friend-or-foe identification.

    The new radar has increased the Central Military District’s operational capabilities to control the airspace of the Volga region.

    http://eng.mil.ru/en/news_page/country/more.htm?id=12200408@egNews
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    LMFS

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  LMFS on Fri Nov 23, 2018 11:33 pm

    New on radiophotonics:

    Experimental the locator elements radiophonic technologies
    22.11.2018

    At the scientific and technical Council of JSC "NPK "NIIDAR", which is part of JSC" RTI", announced the creation of the first experimental locator with elements of radio-photon technologies.

    At the scientific and technical Council in NIIDAR, which was attended by scientists and designers of OKB "Planeta", MEPhI, NTC "Module" and other enterprises, the first application in our country of new radio-photon technologies and components in the established experimental radar station was considered. This is the first sample of the existing experimental radar with the use of radio-photon technologies. Specialists successfully conducted field tests of its constituent parts and the whole sample for the detection and tracking of air targets. As part of the work on radio Photonics were created: ultra-wideband phased array antenna based on the elements of radio Photonics using optical data lines, multi-channel Converter input analog ultra-wideband microwave signal X-range in the optical form, optical diagram-forming device, optical ultra-wideband heterodyne.

    "We have confirmed the possibility of using radio-photon technologies in radar, using discrete elements. The experimental model we have created so far has a lot of shortcomings and limitations in application, but the positive result allows us to move to the next phase of development of radio-photon technologies, - said the General Director of JSC "RTI" Maxim Kuzyuk, - the next step we need to start the development and development of advanced technologies and, in particular, photonic integrated circuits, they can compete with radio-electronic products operating in different ranges of radio waves - in millimetre and centimetre, in those cases when it is required over a wide bandwidth and high resistance to external electromagnetic influences".

    During the Army-2018 forum, RTI Concern was identified as a technology competence center for the development of radio-photon technologies.

    https://www.aorti.ru/media/news/v-rti-sozdan-eksperimentalnyy-lokator-s-elementami-radiofotonnykh-tekhnologiy/

    Arrow

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  Arrow on Fri Nov 23, 2018 11:48 pm

    How does the photonic radar work?
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    dino00

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  dino00 on Sat Nov 24, 2018 12:39 am

    LMFS wrote:New on radiophotonics:

    Experimental the locator elements radiophonic technologies
    22.11.2018

    At the scientific and technical Council of JSC "NPK "NIIDAR", which is part of JSC" RTI", announced the creation of the first experimental locator with elements of radio-photon technologies.
    /

    Great thumbsup
    Lets hope the Money appears
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    GunshipDemocracy

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  GunshipDemocracy on Sat Nov 24, 2018 2:22 am

    Arrow wrote:How does the photonic radar work?

    in general wide band radar. Yes if we talk abut ROFAR - it uses non-opticalfrequncies in antennas. up to 100GHz bandwidth with AD converters and optical elements inside.

    It can see stealth and locate them + even see with great details (100GHz is ~3mm wave, check microwave scanners to see results accuracy), them in . Microwaves are attenuated by atmosphere but there are "windows" - optical one and radio one so waves with some frequencies are not attenuated much by atmosphere. And of course long range means you still have optical/radar horizon. Bit since fighters are loitering on some kilometers usually this could be fairly large.

    http://members.home.nl/7seas/radcalc.htm

    Check here fighter at 15,000m theoretically can see other fighter at 2,000m form ~700km


    Below one of explanations (check comments)

    https://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/96305/



    Briefly (general information from open sources) everything is simple: A continuous stabilized laser, amplitude modulators and narrow-band optical filters are used to convert the radar signal to the low frequency range. , microresonator or Bragg fiber gratings.

    A part of the laser beam is modulated in amplitude by the carrier microwave signal and also filtered to suppress the optical carrier and one of the sidebands.

    After that, the optical signals containing the received signal and the microwave carrier signal can be mixed on the photodetector and digitized by a slow electronic ADC.

    For modern optical elements, the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the converter can reach 60-70 dB or more for a microwave signal with a carrier of tens of gigahertz and a bandwidth of 100 MHz and above.

    The operation of a radio photon receiving channel with optical heterodyning can be used in the studied scheme for its use as a universal receiving channel providing a bandwidth of up to 100 MHz (signal duration up to 10 ns) with a carrier frequency of tens of GHz with a signal-to-noise ratio equal to 60 70 dB (10-11 effective bits of the digitized signal). The application of the optical carrier frequency suppression mode in the modulators of the receiving channel can also be promising. In this case, the signal-to-noise ratio rises several times, and also narrowband optical filters are not required in the circuit.

    Radiophotonics, which studies the interaction of optical and microwave signals, allows you to create electronic devices with parameters unattainable by traditional means.

    Photo of the stand units: optical receiver unit; optical transmitter unit with a delay line; coil with fiber optic cable (tripod with horn antenna not shown).

    +++
    The main advantages of radiophoton devices:

    Ultra low loss and dispersion of optical fiber (less than 0.2 dB / km at 1550 nm, optical carrier ~ 200 THz).

    Ultra-wideband (available optical fiber bandwidth is ~ 50 THz, the frequency band of modern photodiodes and modulators is up to 100 GHz and higher).

    Low level of phase noise (the process of direct optical detection using a photodiode is not susceptible to the phase of optical radiation (to the phase and phase noise of the optical carrier).

    High phase stability of optical fiber. Immunity to electromagnetic interference does not interfere.

    Galvanic isolation of photon circuits.

    Low weight and size of optical fiber.

    Mechanical flexibility of optical fiber (facilitates the design).

    Some problems of radio photon devices:

    Amplitude noise and attenuation introduced by modulation-demodulation of the optical signal (channel noise ratio is usually 10 ÷ 30 dB, attenuation to 30 dB, which forces the use of low-noise amplifiers at the input, and linear amplifiers at the output, with all their disadvantages).

    The limited dynamic range associated with the nonlinearity of optical modulators and direct current modulation of semiconductor lasers.
    +++



    Low level of phase noi
    07/27/1711:20:32
    The main question is - can the used frequency range negate the stealth technology? As far as I know, the radar of the mid-frequency range, built into the slats of the PAK-FA

    # 937464 ↑
    7 Vsemoguchij Vsemoguchij
    27.7.1711:21:17
    In general, YES!

    # 937465 ↑
    eleven Vsemoguchij Vsemoguchij
    27.7.1711:25:00
    - Radiophotonic radar will be able to see, far beyond the existing radar. And since it will irradiate the enemy in an unprecedentedly wide range of frequencies, we will know its position in space with the utmost precision, and after processing it will be almost a photographic image of it - radio vision. This is very important for determining the type: the aircraft’s computer can immediately and automatically establish that it is flying, for example, an F-18 with specific types of missile weapons.

    The enemy is irradiated in an unprecedentedly wide range of frequencies.

    Due to its ultra-wideband and enormous dynamic range of the receiver, the radiophoton radar will have greater potential for protection against interference. Also, due to the fact that all sixth generation fighter systems will be integrated in terms of functions, the photon radar will additionally perform electronic warfare (EW) tasks, transmit data and serve as a means of communication.

    From an interview with Advisor to the First Deputy Director General of KRET Vladimir Mikheev.

    - What will it look like?

    - The radio photon locator will not be a separate module in the nose of the aircraft, it will be a distributed system. Something similar can be observed today on the fifth-generation fighter T-50 (PAK FA), whose radar operates in different bands and in different directions. In fact, it is one locator, but it is spaced along the plane. It turns out about 3-4 different radars, which are comfortably placed throughout the fuselage and allow you to simultaneously observe the entire space around the aircraft.

    Edited: Vsemoguchij ~ 11: 25 07.27.17
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    magnumcromagnon

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Sat Nov 24, 2018 2:34 am

    GunshipDemocracy wrote:
    Arrow wrote:How does the photonic radar work?

    in general wide band radar. Yes if we talk abut ROFAR - it uses non-opticalfrequncies in antennas.  up to 100GHz bandwidth with AD converters and optical elements inside.

    It can see stealth and locate them + even see with great details (100GHz is ~3mm wave, check microwave scanners to see results accuracy),  them in .  Microwaves are attenuated by atmosphere but there are "windows" - optical one and radio one so waves with some frequencies are not attenuated much by atmosphere. And of course long range means you still have optical/radar  horizon. Bit since fighters are loitering on some kilometers usually this could be fairly large.

    http://members.home.nl/7seas/radcalc.htm

    Check here  fighter at 15,000m theoretically can see other fighter at 2,000m form ~700km


    Below one of explanations (check comments)

    https://sdelanounas.ru/blogs/96305/



    Briefly (general information from open sources) everything is simple: A continuous stabilized laser, amplitude modulators and narrow-band optical filters are used to convert the radar signal to the low frequency range. , microresonator or Bragg fiber gratings.

    A part of the laser beam is modulated in amplitude by the carrier microwave signal and also filtered to suppress the optical carrier and one of the sidebands.

    After that, the optical signals containing the received signal and the microwave carrier signal can be mixed on the photodetector and digitized by a slow electronic ADC.

    For modern optical elements, the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the converter can reach 60-70 dB or more for a microwave signal with a carrier of tens of gigahertz and a bandwidth of 100 MHz and above.

    The operation of a radio photon receiving channel with optical heterodyning can be used in the studied scheme for its use as a universal receiving channel providing a bandwidth of up to 100 MHz (signal duration up to 10 ns) with a carrier frequency of tens of GHz with a signal-to-noise ratio equal to 60 70 dB (10-11 effective bits of the digitized signal). The application of the optical carrier frequency suppression mode in the modulators of the receiving channel can also be promising. In this case, the signal-to-noise ratio rises several times, and also narrowband optical filters are not required in the circuit.

    Radiophotonics, which studies the interaction of optical and microwave signals, allows you to create electronic devices with parameters unattainable by traditional means.

    Photo of the stand units: optical receiver unit; optical transmitter unit with a delay line; coil with fiber optic cable (tripod with horn antenna not shown).

    +++
    The main advantages of radiophoton devices:

    Ultra low loss and dispersion of optical fiber (less than 0.2 dB / km at 1550 nm, optical carrier ~ 200 THz).

    Ultra-wideband (available optical fiber bandwidth is ~ 50 THz, the frequency band of modern photodiodes and modulators is up to 100 GHz and higher).

    Low level of phase noise (the process of direct optical detection using a photodiode is not susceptible to the phase of optical radiation (to the phase and phase noise of the optical carrier).

    High phase stability of optical fiber. Immunity to electromagnetic interference does not interfere.

    Galvanic isolation of photon circuits.

    Low weight and size of optical fiber.

    Mechanical flexibility of optical fiber (facilitates the design).

    Some problems of radio photon devices:

    Amplitude noise and attenuation introduced by modulation-demodulation of the optical signal (channel noise ratio is usually 10 ÷ 30 dB, attenuation to 30 dB, which forces the use of low-noise amplifiers at the input, and linear amplifiers at the output, with all their disadvantages).

    The limited dynamic range associated with the nonlinearity of optical modulators and direct current modulation of semiconductor lasers.
    +++    



    Low level of phase noi
    07/27/1711:20:32
    The main question is - can the used frequency range negate the stealth technology? As far as I know, the radar of the mid-frequency range, built into the slats of the PAK-FA

    # 937464 ↑
    7 Vsemoguchij Vsemoguchij
    27.7.1711:21:17
    In general, YES!      

    # 937465 ↑
    eleven Vsemoguchij Vsemoguchij
    27.7.1711:25:00
    - Radiophotonic radar will be able to see, far beyond the existing radar. And since it will irradiate the enemy in an unprecedentedly wide range of frequencies, we will know its position in space with the utmost precision, and after processing it will be almost a photographic image of it - radio vision. This is very important for determining the type: the aircraft’s computer can immediately and automatically establish that it is flying, for example, an F-18 with specific types of missile weapons.

    The enemy is irradiated in an unprecedentedly wide range of frequencies.

    Due to its ultra-wideband and enormous dynamic range of the receiver, the radiophoton radar will have greater potential for protection against interference. Also, due to the fact that all sixth generation fighter systems will be integrated in terms of functions, the photon radar will additionally perform electronic warfare (EW) tasks, transmit data and serve as a means of communication.

    From an interview with Advisor to the First Deputy Director General of KRET Vladimir Mikheev.

    - What will it look like?

    - The radio photon locator will not be a separate module in the nose of the aircraft, it will be a distributed system. Something similar can be observed today on the fifth-generation fighter T-50 (PAK FA), whose radar operates in different bands and in different directions. In fact, it is one locator, but it is spaced along the plane. It turns out about 3-4 different radars, which are comfortably placed throughout the fuselage and allow you to simultaneously observe the entire space around the aircraft.

    Edited: Vsemoguchij ~ 11: 25 07.27.17

    Nice post. BTW the greatest aspect about ROFAR is not the actual radar part, but the computing part as in Photonic computing. Photonic computing would literally benefit any area that benefits from '0-1 logic gate' computing (basically ever field imaginable, military and civilian).
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    LMFS

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  LMFS on Sat Nov 24, 2018 2:39 am

    What I don't yet understand is how the wideband antenna necessary for such a frequency range will look like...
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    GarryB

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  GarryB on Sat Nov 24, 2018 3:16 am

    How does the photonic radar work?

    It is electric I think...
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    GunshipDemocracy

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  GunshipDemocracy on Sat Nov 24, 2018 3:55 am

    LMFS wrote:What I don't yet understand is how the wideband antenna necessary for such a frequency range will look like...

    Never heard thet they can e different as "normal" AESA antennas. However they say : antennas can be distributed all over the plane. The secret must be in processing after AD converters. Light with its frequencies can have large bandwidth. Not sure how do they control phase shift tho. Never was radio expert Embarassed Embarassed Embarassed


    I'll try t find how much. They also say ROAFR is 3D radar and AESA 2D one. dunno dunno dunno dunno why too.


    here ESA link about same topic welcome welcome welcome

    https://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Engineering_Technology/Shaping_the_Future/Opto-microwave_based_Front-End_for_a_multi-beam_large_Direct_Radiating_Array_Antenna_OMFE/(print)



    BTW here is microwave scanner - millimeter waves so 100-300GHz. Look at face silhouette




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    LMFS

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  LMFS on Sat Nov 24, 2018 5:41 am

    The radiophotonic radar apparently works with optical instead of electrical signals for processing, taking advantage of low noise and wide band properties of optical devices. But it still operates with microwave radiation of the target. Conventional radars have one operational frequency from which they do not deviate heavily, but this ROFAR apparently will have wavelength differences of orders of magnitude between lower and higher frequencies. Do not now how an antenna can be built which emits and directs radiation efficiently in such a wide band...
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    magnumcromagnon

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Sat Nov 24, 2018 7:01 am

    GunshipDemocracy wrote:
    LMFS wrote:What I don't yet understand is how the wideband antenna necessary for such a frequency range will look like...

    Never heard thet they can e different as "normal" AESA antennas. However they say :  antennas can be distributed all over the plane.  The secret must be in processing after  AD converters.


    The secret is that the on board super computer that's processing the data is a Photonic Computer. The 'RO' part of ROFAR is the computer processing aspect, but it's still a AESA. The radiating elements are the same as a GaN AESA, the information being collected and processed is being handled by vastly superior computers than the previous generation. Lets just compare the difference between S-300V vs S-300V4, which the S-300V went from a rather modest 100km range to a much more robust 400km range, largely due to the advances of computer technology. ROFAR will allow a 20-story Early Warning radar building (like a Voronezh-DM) shrink to the size of a smart car sized 4-sided radar than can be towed by a Kamaz truck (similar to the one for Pantsir), because Photonic Computers will allow several dozen fold increases in computer processing power in it's early stages, and growth of several thousand fold in processing in it's later stages. Photonic computing also has a growth potential, when combined with a Qubit cpu, to potentially tens of millions increase in processing power (but that is way in to the future). The difference between electronic computers and photonic ones in processing power is comparable to the difference between electronic computers from the 1950/60's to the electronic computers of the 2010's.

    Because Photonic Computing allows growth of processing by a factor of several dozen (even in the initial stages) this allows the on board computer to be able to process the immense data load of several different wavelengths simultaneously, instead of a bunch weaker computers dedicated to one certain wave length. Mikheev (the Director of KRET) has suggested without going too deep in to detail, that a single AESA array backed by Photonic Computing, can switch from multiple wavelengths at anytime, which suggests that AESA radar backed by a photonic computer, could have a few rows of radar elements dedicated to emitting and collecting X-band signals, a few rows for L-band, S-band, Ku-band ect.
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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  Hole on Sat Nov 24, 2018 10:48 am

    This news would fit into this. Roselektronika (part of Rostec) created a mobile supercomputer with 2,2 PetaFLOPS and 2,2 Petabyte data storage which measures 1,9x1,35x1 metres and fits into a small container, according to Sputnik.
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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  LMFS on Sat Nov 24, 2018 2:18 pm

    Zhuk-AME FGA50 getting ready for tests:

    Phazotron-NIIR readies new AESA radar for Russian fighter trials

    https://www.janes.com/article/84713/phazotron-niir-readies-new-aesa-radar-for-russian-fighter-trials

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  Arrow on Sat Nov 24, 2018 2:57 pm

    Russia still has no AESA radars in service. And in the West, it's been standard for many years.
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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  GunshipDemocracy on Sat Nov 24, 2018 3:16 pm

    Arrow wrote:Russia still has no AESA radars in service. And in the West, it's been standard for many years.

    Not true, Su-57 is already in service. True that so far PESA were applied but after 25 years underfunding they had to get back to speed. Su-57 is best example of it. In the west there is no more advanced fighter at the moment.



    As for PESA Russians put PESA as first electronically scanned radar on MiG-31 in 1981, first in west was 20 years later.
    BTW how many in service fighters have AESA and since when?



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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  GunshipDemocracy on Sat Nov 24, 2018 3:20 pm

    magnumcromagnon wrote:
    The secret is that the on board super computer that's processing the data is a Photonic Computer. The 'RO' part of ROFAR is the computer processing aspect,

    well so far there are no light based microprocessors AFAIK all is elbrus based still ;-)


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    miketheterrible

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  miketheterrible on Sat Nov 24, 2018 3:24 pm

    Arrow wrote:Russia still has no AESA radars in service. And in the West, it's been standard for many years.

    Another lie.

    Pantsir S2 and SM use AESA modules. Radar on stereguishy and Gorshkov are AESA. Nebo SVU/M are AESA. l band modules on Su-35 are AESA, etc.

    NPO Istok who makes the GaAS modules made well over 20,000 since 2007. Su-57 has AESA and so far at least 6 flying models of N036 are in use/testing.

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  Arrow on Sat Nov 24, 2018 3:36 pm

    Irbis radar from Su-35S is PESA.
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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Sat Nov 24, 2018 5:44 pm

    Arrow wrote:Irbis radar from Su-35S is PESA.

    It's nose radar is PESA, but the leading edge of it's wings are L-band AESA's.

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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  hoom on Sun Nov 25, 2018 4:04 am

    Ka-27M has AESA.
    20380 hasn't got AESA though, only 20385/6 & 22800s from the 3rd hull will.
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    Re: Russian Radar systems

    Post  Hole on Sun Nov 25, 2018 11:24 am

    If your PESA (Irbis) is as good or even better then western AESA´s - why "waist" the money?

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