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    B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

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    magnumcromagnon
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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Wed 22 Apr 2015, 21:36

    medo wrote:Will BRICS members place their modules on new Russian space station, or they will build additional space station?

    It seems like Russia will help create the Chinese space station in to the 'BRICS' space station, or an entirely different one. In the 2020's Russia will potentially participate in 2 or potentially 3 space stations: The original ISS, The BRICS space station, and The Chinese Space Station...lets hope for 3.

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  Werewolf on Wed 22 Apr 2015, 21:55

    magnumcromagnon wrote:
    medo wrote:Will BRICS members place their modules on new Russian space station, or they will build additional space station?

    It seems like Russia will help create the Chinese space station in to the 'BRICS' space station, or an entirely different one. In the 2020's Russia will potentially participate in 2 or potentially 3 space stations: The original ISS, The BRICS space station, and The Chinese Space Station...lets hope for 3.

    4 MIR's you mean. Cool

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  Hannibal Barca on Thu 23 Apr 2015, 14:43

    Has the U.S. Lost Its Role as Driver of Global Economy?‏

    This is an interesting article discussing the end of USA economic power as a procedure in process:




    By Mark Fleming-Williams

    Former U.S. Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers wrote on April 5 that this month may be remembered as the moment the United States lost its role as the underwriter of the global economic system. His comments refer to the circumstances surrounding China's launch of a new venture, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). Wary of China's growing ambitions and influence, the United States had advised its allies not to join the institution, but many signed up anyway. The debacle was undoubtedly embarrassing for Washington, but even so, Summers' prophecy is a bit premature at this stage.

    To understand why, one must first understand the basis of the United States' dominant economic position in the world. At the height of World War II, the heavily indebted United Kingdom signed the Lend-Lease deal, which handed over British naval bases to its American cousins in exchange for financial support. This act was akin to passing the military superpower baton, since it transferred control of the world's oceans to the United States. Then, three years later, in a slightly run-down hotel in New Hampshire, delegates from each of the major Allied nations spent three weeks at the Bretton Woods Conference, where they shaped the postwar economic order. What emerged from the summit was a monetary system that was based on the U.S. dollar and two new institutions: the International Monetary Fund, which would monitor trade flows, and the World Bank, which would help provide financing for developing nations. Both were to be headquartered in Washington, and the United States effectively inherited the global economy.

    The U.S.-centric system functioned well for the next 25 years. The United States had emerged from the war with the world's strongest economy and, under the Marshall Plan, pumped money into the reconstruction of Europe. But in 1971, as the United States was entangled in a costly war in Vietnam, then-President Richard Nixon discovered that under the Bretton Woods system, he could pay for the war by printing more money and exporting the resulting inflation to the rest of the world. France pushed back, and a new fiat currency system that released the dollar from its explicit anchoring role was born, though it nevertheless retained its place as the dominant global currency.

    For the United States, its position as the spider at the center of the web has turned out to be a mixed blessing. As the heir to what former French President Valery Giscard d'Estaing called the "exorbitant privilege" of controlling the world's reserve currency, the United States has become the number one consumer, running constant deficits and amassing ever-larger debt from its position as the global supplier of dollars.

    Thus, the United States and the rest of the world have been locked in a symbiotic embrace for several decades, even as America's underlying fiscal position continues to deteriorate. But looking at its fiscal position alone misses the bigger picture.

    Over the past few decades, the United States has retained its position at the head of the world's international monetary institutions. In 1966, a U.S. and Japanese regional version of the World Bank — the Asian Development Bank — was established and headquartered in Manila. That same year, Mao Zedong launched the Cultural Revolution, a political movement that paralyzed China and left it even less focused on international affairs than before. Despite the changes in China's global position that have since taken place, its presence in the institutions like the Asian Development Bank has not risen. (China only holds one-fifth of the combined U.S.-Japan voting share, and each of the bank's nine presidents has been Japanese.) Unsurprisingly, the bank has often been criticized for being too U.S.- and Japan-centric.
    China: The Next United States?

    China's arrival on the global scene could shake up the status quo. The growth model Beijing followed after undertaking economic reforms in 1978 was similar to those of postwar Japan and 21st-century Germany. By keeping internal costs low and running a large current account surplus, China has been able to accumulate a gigantic pool of savings (about $3.8 trillion). It is now in the middle of a great rebalancing, as the country tries to shift from a savings and investment model to one of consumption — in other words, to move toward becoming the next United States. From the perspective of America's allies, China is a giant country with a huge sum of money it might need help spending and is trying to become a vast new market of consumers. The similarities of its current position to the United States' own in 1944, when it too had a giant current account surplus, are clear. Whatever the reality of China's economic trajectory over the next decade, America's allies are orienting themselves around this idea.

    Meanwhile, China — with its vast financial resources and plenty of regional projects upon which to spend them — found the regional institution through which it could funnel this money to be sewn up by the United States and its allies. Since the U.S. Congress has now spent five years determining whether China's voting rights in the IMF should be expanded to reflect its new economic clout, it made more sense for China to simply create its own institution rather than try and gain influence in the pre-existing Asian Development Bank. Thus the AIIB was born.

    This new institution, though not key to the economic futures of, say, Australia and the United Kingdom (two U.S. allies who signed on to the AIIB as founding members), nevertheless provides countries an opportunity to build a relationship with tomorrow's market giant. Each country that joined the AIIB calculated that the fraction of favor gained in Beijing through their participation was just enough justification to risk Washington's disapproval. This is indeed a significant moment, and it has been painted by some in the media as a challenge to the entire Bretton Woods system and a threat to the status quo.

    But these events do not represent a tectonic shift on the order of 1944. For the Bretton Woods and Lend-Lease deals to take place, and for Britain to hand over the reins, two elements had to be in place: time and a major disruption. The size of the burgeoning superpower was not enough; the U.S. economy became the largest in the world in 1870, a full 74 years before the Bretton Woods conference, but British primacy continued. It took two world wars in which Britain faced an existential threat and Winston Churchill's declaration of total war in 1940 before the country's economic security reached a low enough ebb that Britain was willing to hand over its best cards in exchange for financial relief.

    By contrast, the size of China's economy only surpassed that of the United States' in 2014, and it took an accounting magic trick — purchasing power parity, the adjustment of figures to reflect different relative costs in two different countries — to do so. And in terms of currency, the Chinese yuan has made great strides in the past two years, streaking from the 14th- to the fifth-most used in international payments. But the yuan still only has about a 2.2 percent share of international payments; it has a long way to go before it begins to truly challenge the U.S. dollar's 44.6 percent share. Also, the Chinese currency is not fully convertible, which is a major requirement for any possible reserve currency. The final reason we have not yet seen a Bretton Woods moment between the United States and China is that we have not seen a Lend-Lease deal. The United States maintains its control of the world's sea-lanes and thus has the ultimate decision-making power over global trade. Without the onset of a massive disruption — you would know it if you saw it — this state of affairs is unlikely to change anytime soon.

    The vehicle that drives the rise and fall of empires rests on big wheels, and it takes a strong force applied over an extended period of time before an entire revolution can take place. The agreements struck during World War II marked the culmination of a long process in which the United States rose and Britain weakened. China has indeed undergone a remarkable transformation over the past three decades, but it is not yet in a position to effectively challenge the pillars upon which the United States' global hegemony rests.

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  ExBeobachter1987 on Sun 26 Apr 2015, 13:20

    magnumcromagnon wrote:In the 2020's Russia will potentially participate in 2 or potentially 3 space stations: The original ISS, The BRICS space station, and The Chinese Space Station...lets hope for 3.

    For what purpose? Manned spaceflight is not as useful as unmanned spaceflight.
    Roskosmos should invest more in launch systems and satellites rather than in space stations.

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Sun 26 Apr 2015, 16:14

    ExBeobachter1987 wrote:
    magnumcromagnon wrote:In the 2020's Russia will potentially participate in 2 or potentially 3 space stations: The original ISS, The BRICS space station, and The Chinese Space Station...lets hope for 3.

    For what purpose? Manned spaceflight is not as useful as unmanned spaceflight.
    Roskosmos should invest more in launch systems and satellites rather than in space stations.

    Actually multiple space station involvement is beneficial for Russia space industry, it basically opens a whole new markets for it's space industry which will lead to significant gains in revenue for Roscosmos.

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  medo on Sun 26 Apr 2015, 19:15

    ExBeobachter1987 wrote:
    magnumcromagnon wrote:In the 2020's Russia will potentially participate in 2 or potentially 3 space stations: The original ISS, The BRICS space station, and The Chinese Space Station...lets hope for 3.

    For what purpose? Manned spaceflight is not as useful as unmanned spaceflight.
    Roskosmos should invest more in launch systems and satellites rather than in space stations.

    Space stations are important step into building larger space ships for traveling to other planets.

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  ExBeobachter1987 on Sun 26 Apr 2015, 20:49

    magnumcromagnon wrote:Actually multiple space station involvement is beneficial for Russia space industry, it basically opens a whole new markets for it's space industry which will lead to significant gains in revenue for Roscosmos.

    The necessary investments would be higher than the revenues. At least until cheaper launch system are developed.

    medo wrote:Space stations are important step into building larger space ships for traveling to other planets.

    The only gain from an inter-planetary flight in this century is prestige.

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  Zivo on Sun 26 Apr 2015, 21:07

    medo wrote:
    ExBeobachter1987 wrote:
    magnumcromagnon wrote:In the 2020's Russia will potentially participate in 2 or potentially 3 space stations: The original ISS, The BRICS space station, and The Chinese Space Station...lets hope for 3.

    For what purpose? Manned spaceflight is not as useful as unmanned spaceflight.
    Roskosmos should invest more in launch systems and satellites rather than in space stations.

    Space stations are important step into building larger space ships for traveling to other planets.

    More relevant, long term zero or low gravity habitation research.

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  GarryB on Mon 27 Apr 2015, 09:25

    I saw a documentary in the late 1990s and it was an American documentary that showed the experiences of the first US astronauts who visited MIR.

    Before that the US experience in space was either going to the moon... which was all over in two weeks each time, or Sky Lab... which was no much better.

    The US astronaut said himself that after hearing from the Russians about the effects of long term space flights for 6 months or more that the human body is weakened and at the end of the mission you will need assistance to do anything on earth all of the Americans had already decided that it was because the Soviets were idiots and didn't know anything and the superior US nutrition and exercise regime will allow them to step out of the landed capsule themselves and show them Ruskies how it is really done. He did all his exercises developed by the Americans and ate American food products and he said when the capsule landed and he went to step out of his chair he found he could not raise his arm to undo his straps.

    If that had been a mission to Mars after a flight of 12-18 months that would have been lethal because there would be no one to help.

    the clock is ticking... planning trips to other planets and bases on the moon will spur further development in areas of technology and food and nutrition and other things that are not so important on earth because there is plenty of air and water and food. New recycling technology to reuse material we would throw away on earth is technology that will be increasingly critical to our survival.

    There is plenty of evidence on the planet earth and rather more evidence on all the planets in this solar system that impacts from space occur on a regular basis... the sooner we have people on more than just one rock in this universe the safer the human race will be.

    Sending a robot is nice, but if you really want to look for evidence of water, it is rather more effective to send a geologist... if you pick a place on earth to dig into the ground and don't find any dinosaurs you would know nothing of their existence...


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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  ExBeobachter1987 on Mon 27 Apr 2015, 15:04

    GarryB wrote:Sending a robot is nice, but if you really want to look for evidence of water, it is rather more effective to send a geologist...

    Or a better robot.

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  GarryB on Tue 28 Apr 2015, 03:39

    If an asteroid hits the earth and wipes out the human race all your little robots around the solar system wont have anyone to talk to but each other... and we will have learned nothing about how to efficiently use water and air and create food for ourselves in difficult environments...


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    “The West won the world not by the superiority of its ideas or values or religion […] but rather by its superiority in applying organized violence. Westerners often forget this fact; non-Westerners never do.”

    ― Samuel P. Huntington, The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  Kyo on Tue 12 May 2015, 01:07



    Forget B in BRICS at least for the next 4 years. Here was Mrs. Dilma Rousseff, Brazil's President on May 9th: at a wedding party of her physician. She outrightly snubbed the Victory Parade in Moscow, whereas all other BRICS Heads of State attended. Better BRICS incorporate Argentina as a new Member State.

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  George1 on Tue 12 May 2015, 01:16

    Russia Invites Greece to Be Sixth Member of BRICS New Development Bank

    Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras thanked Russian Deputy Finance Minister Sergei Storchak for the invitation and said Greece is interested in the offer. The bank is expected to be one of the largest financial institutions to fund various infrastructure projects in the BRICS countries and emerging economies.

    Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras on Monday held a telephone conversation with Russian Deputy Finance Minister Sergei Storchak.

    During the conversation, Storchak invited Greece to become the sixth member of the New Development Bank of BRICS countries, Greece's Syriza party reported on its website.

    Storchak is a representative of the BRICS Bank which is now being established.

    The newly appointed chief of the bank is Kundapur Vaman Kamath, the former Non-Executive Chairman of ICIC Bank, India’s second largest bank.

    "The Prime Minister thanked Storchak and said he was pleasantly surprised by the invitation for Greece to be the sixth member of the BRICS Development Bank. Tsipras said Greece is interested in the offer, and promised to thoroughly examine it. He will have a chance to discuss the invitation with the other BRICS leader during the 2015 International Economic Forum in St. Petersburg," the report read.

    On July 15, 2014, in Fortaleza, Brazil, the BRICS member countries signed an agreement to establish the $100 billion New Development Bank, formerly referred to as the BRICS bank, and a reserve currency pool set at $100 billion. Russia will contribute $18 billion to the pool, along with India and Brazil. China is expected to contribute the largest share of $41 billion, with South Africa chipping in the remaining $5 billion.

    The bank is expected to be one of the largest financial institutions to fund various infrastructure projects in the BRICS countries and emerging economies.

    The BRICS group of prominent emerging economies was established in 2010, when South Africa joined Brazil, Russia, India and China in what was previously known as the BRIC nations. The BRICS countries make up about 40 percent of the world's population and a combined economy of about $16 trillion.

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/business/20150511/1022006611.html#ixzz3ZsIEebJI

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  Kyo on Tue 12 May 2015, 16:33

    Thks George1

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  George1 on Tue 12 May 2015, 16:51

    Kyo wrote:Thks George1
    thumbsup

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  max steel on Tue 12 May 2015, 17:42

    Brazil is going nowhere from BRICS . Don't worry . Maybe she was busy and didn't get time for Victory Day Parade .

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  GarryB on Wed 13 May 2015, 03:32

    Brazil is going nowhere from BRICS . Don't worry . Maybe she was busy and didn't get time for Victory Day Parade .

    Most leaders are busy.... she should have made time...


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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  Viktor on Fri 29 May 2015, 00:41

    Nice thumbsup

    ​BRICS summit in Russia to launch New Development Bank & currency pool - Putin

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  George1 on Thu 02 Jul 2015, 13:26

    BRICS may become key element of global management system — Lavrov


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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  George1 on Sat 04 Jul 2015, 15:42

    BRICS Network University to Expand Access to Education


    _________________
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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  George1 on Mon 13 Jul 2015, 23:58

    Putin expects BRICS New Development Bank to launch projects in 2016

    Companies from BRICS member states "are ready to establish joint ventures, build up mutual investment and commodity flows," the Russian president said

    UFA, July 9. /TASS/. Russian President Vladimir Putin said on Thursday he expected that the New Development Bank, which the BRICS grouping of the world’s five major emerging economies (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) is establishing, will implement its first projects in 2016.

    "The new bank with a capital of $100 billion will carry out large-scale development projects in the countries of our association. We expect the first of them to be launched already next year," Putin said at an enlarged meeting of the BRICS leaders.

    Companies from BRICS member states "are ready to establish joint ventures, build up mutual investment and commodity flows," the Russian president said.

    The Russian president said the BRICS summit should "study in detail the actual issues of the BRICS activity in the economic sphere."

    Putin highlighted the indicators evidencing the economic might of the BRICS countries.

    Specifically, BRICS accounts for about 30% of global GDP, a third of the world’s industrial output and a half of food production.

    "This is a huge consumer market," the Russian president said.

    Close economic cooperation gives BRICS countries new opportunities. For example, their internal commodity trade, foreign investment and capital investment are growing. The launch of a pool of foreign exchange reserves is also one of BRICS’ achievements, Putin said.


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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  George1 on Tue 21 Jul 2015, 07:59

    BRICS New Development Bank headquarters officially opened in Shanghai


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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  Viktor on Thu 30 Jul 2015, 20:37

    Nice thumbsup

    Agreement on a pool of currencies of BRICS entered into force

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  Kyo on Fri 31 Jul 2015, 02:01

    One more blunder by Brazilian President, Mrs. Rousseff. Following the snubbing of Victory Day parade in Moscow on May 9th, now it is her next visit to Japan next December to stengthen relations. She already sent her Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mauro Vieira, to Tokyo to prepare her visit, which should touch upon matters related to the enlargement of the UNSC permanent members, with both Japan and Brazil as candidates. It is an open secret that China, also a member of BRICS, is against Japan's admission as a permanent member to the UNSC, especially now with the South China Sea imbroglio.

    Read more in Portuguese:
    http://br.sputniknews.com/brasil/20150729/1707133.html

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

    Post  wilhelm on Mon 10 Aug 2015, 10:34

    BRICS mutual trade up 70% in 6 yrs – South Africa president

    Trade between BRICS countries has increased 70 percent since the group was established in 2009, according to South African President Jacob Zuma. The economies of the five BRICS nations account for almost 30 percent of global GDP.
    “BRICS presents an aggregate GDP exceeding $32 trillion. This marks a 60-percent growth since the formation of the grouping," Zuma told reporters on Thursday in Cape Town.

    BRICS countries (Russia, Brazil, India, China and South Africa) produce a third of the world’s industrial products and half of all agricultural goods.

    They attracted 20.5 percent of total global direct investment in 2014, an increase of 3.5 percent over 5 years.

    "The share of BRICS capital investment on the global markets has also increased significantly from 9.7 percent to 14 percent since 2009," Zuma said.

    The group is ready to expand its economic cooperation with partners in key areas such as food production, power generation, the petro-chemical industry, mining, tourism, renewable and nuclear energy, trade, transportation, communications and training, according to the South African president.

    The seventh BRICS summit, held last month in Russian city Ufa, reaffirmed the importance of BRICS in the global arena, Jacob Zuma said. He added that the summit’s key achievement was the "entry into force of the New Development Bank (NDB) and the Contingent Reserve Arrangement.”


    The NDB opened for operations in Shanghai on July 21 with a view to deploying $50 billion in initial capital to fund infrastructure and sustainable development projects. The world’s major banks “see the BRICS bank as an important additional factor in global financial transactions,” said Zuma. The establishment of NDB’s African Regional Centre in Johannesburg is among the group’s plans for the near future, he added.

    https://www.rt.com/business/311830-brics-trade-increase-bank/

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    Re: B.R.I.C.S. Discussion

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