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    Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

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    Austin
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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  Austin on Tue Jun 28, 2016 4:42 pm

    In Roskosmos plan to expand the constellation of remote sensing satellites with 8 to 23
    06.28.2016 12:29:57

    Moscow. June 28. Interfax-AVN - Within the framework of the Federal Space Program (FCP) 2016-2025 it is planned to increase the constellation of eight Earth remote sensing (ERS) satellites to 23, the Federal Space Agency said Tuesday. "

    "By 2025 it is planned to increase the constellation of eight satellites (in 2015) to 23 satellites orbital constellation means of remote sensing will greatly reduce the dependence of the Russian Federation on the use of foreign space data and simultaneously fulfill international obligations in the field of global hydro-meteorological observation." - Said in the text of the provisions of the French Communist Party 2016-2025, posted on the website of the state corporation.

    It says that the expansion of the constellation of remote sensing capability improves the reliability of short-term forecasts in the region and increase the frequency of the data on the state of the surrounding built-up areas, suburban areas and rural settlements, the construction of roads, the state of the surrounding forests.

    "In addition, space remote sensing systems are able to provide the creation of inventories of natural resources, the definition of places and scope of emergencies, monitoring ice conditions in the Arctic," - said in a press release.

    The text also says that the spacecraft hydrometeorological support "Meteor-M" planned installation target apparatus COSPAS-SARSAT.
    COSPAS-SARSAT - international satellite search and rescue system designed for distress and personal location beacons and beacons installed on board ships and aircraft in the event of emergencies.

    Ra mp le en
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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  GunshipDemocracy on Wed Jun 29, 2016 12:20 pm

    Roscosmos will develop sample of a reusable first stage booster


    MOSCOW, 29 Jun — RIA Novosti. Roscosmos is ready to proceed to the creation of the flight model, the return of the first stage of the carrier rocket, the Khrunichev center, assembled a team of specialists, writes the newspaper "Izvestia".
    According to the principal designer of the Roscosmos space missile system, Alexander Medvedev, the company has recreated the Department for reusable launch vehicles.
    "It happened just a month ago. To work there we invited people who were created in his time "Buran". The Department is headed by Paul A. the Lehov, one of the designers of the system "Energy-Buran", — leads edition of the words of principal designer.

    The center Khrunichev designs winged first stage that can return to the spaceport like a plane and land on the runway. Medvedev is convinced that Russia returned the first stage with wings coming out is the best option.
    As explained by the chief designer of the Russian space Agency for space rocket complexes, the work on the return of the first stage of the center is already about 20 years old, in 2001 was introduced the first prototype system "Baikal".
    The first stage of the rocket is the most expensive to produce: there are boosters that determine the media. The cost of the engines is can be up to $ 70 million.


    РИА Новости http://ria.ru/science/20160629/1454001287.html#ixzz4Cxiwup1Y





    Laser ignition of rocket engines was included in "100 best inventions of Russia"

    РИА Новости http://ria.ru/science/20160628/1453783262.html#ixzz4CxjLEHfP





    Austin wrote:In Roskosmos plan to expand the constellation of remote sensing satellites with 8 to 23



    so now Free Beacons can be better surveilled  Smile
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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  George1 on Sun Jul 03, 2016 11:17 am

    Russia’s Progress cargo spacecraft re-docked to ISS

    More:
    http://tass.ru/en/science/885907


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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  George1 on Tue Jul 05, 2016 1:07 pm

    Carrier rocket with new series manned spacecraft installed on launch pad

    The blastoff of the Soyuz-FG carrier rocket with the Soyuz MS transport manned spacecraft is scheduled for 04:36 am, Moscow time on July 7




    BAIKONUR, July 4. /TASS/. The Soyuz-FG carrier rocket with the Soyuz MS manned spacecraft, the first in a new series, is installed on the launch pad of the Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakhstan), the press service of the Russian State Space Corporation Roscosmos told TASS on Monday.

    "In accordance with the decision of the state commission, the Soyuz-FG carrier rocket with the Soyuz MS transport manned spacecraft has been rolled out from the assembly and testing facility to the launch pad," the Roscosmos source said.

    Read also
    Russia has no plans to deliver US astronauts to ISS after 2018 — official

    The state commission is planned to meet on July 6 to approve on the results of the training of cosmonauts and astronauts the main crew of the next mission to the International Space Station (ISS).

    The blastoff of the Soyuz-FG carrier rocket with the Soyuz MS transport manned spacecraft is scheduled for 04:36 am, Moscow time on July 7.

    The international ISS crew trio - Commander Anatoli Ivanishin of Russia’s Roscosmos and Flight Engineers - Japanese astronaut Takuya Onishi and NASA astronaut Kate Rubins - finished their last training operations at the Baikonur Cosmodrome and are now having a rest enjoying ahead of their planned liftoff on Thursday.

    Soyuz MS introduces a number of systems upgrades on the trusted Russian spacecraft, primarily focused on the vehicle’s navigation, control and communications system. The modified systems were tested in an operational environment aboard a pair of Progress cargo missions starting in December 2015 to fully check out all new components in space before committing to a crewed flight.

    The MS modification replaces the old Kvant radio system of Soyuz with a Unified Command and Telemetry System and the new communications system enables Soyuz to use the Luch data relay satellites to keep in contact with mission control for the majority of its treks around the planet.


    More:
    http://tass.ru/en/science/886239


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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  Vann7 on Thu Jul 07, 2016 8:27 am



    Very nice information about the last Soyuz launch..
    with all new instruments installed by Russia ,must see!!

    LIVE: Expedition 48 lifts off for Space Station




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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  George1 on Sun Jul 17, 2016 6:11 am

    Progress MS-03 cargo spacecraft launched from Baikonur site - Roscosmos

    More:
    http://tass.ru/en/science/888819


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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  Project Canada on Thu Jul 28, 2016 3:46 am


    Russian finance ministry eyeing 15% cuts in financing space programs — media

    According to Izvestia daily, the biggest cut - of 30% - will be in the Glonass program

    http://tass.ru/en/economy/891111

    Very disappointing times

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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  Vann7 on Thu Jul 28, 2016 5:14 am

    Project Canada wrote:

    Russian finance ministry eyeing 15% cuts in financing space programs — media

    According to Izvestia daily, the biggest cut - of 30% - will be in the Glonass program

    http://tass.ru/en/economy/891111

    Very disappointing times


    Indeed..  


    Is a Total Waste of talent , that a nation like Russia
    with all the scientific capabilities it have , is lead by Monkeys ,
    that continues destroying the future of Russia , by taking so lame decisions
    that will handle on a silver plate to the Americans , the domination of space .
    Allowing Russia to become even more Useless Nation in the world.

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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Thu Jul 28, 2016 5:30 am

    Project Canada wrote:

    Russian finance ministry eyeing 15% cuts in financing space programs — media

    According to Izvestia daily, the biggest cut - of 30% - will be in the Glonass program

    http://tass.ru/en/economy/891111

    Very disappointing times

    That's because Medvedev is a liberast, and the current agreement is that Siloviki runs the foreign policy (Putin) while the liberals run domestic economy (Medvedev)...with the collapse of relations with Western nations it basically means the liberals outlived their usefulness. Russia has already some of the lowest debt-GDP ratio, and lowest taxes among the top 10 economies in the world...it's time to kick the Medvedevs, Grefs, Potanins, Gaidars to the curb and bring in the economic Siloviki (Glazyev) to take their place.
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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  sepheronx on Thu Jul 28, 2016 6:21 am

    Looks like Russia is aiming at bringing the budget of Roscosmos to that of same levels of India's space agency.  It is understandable that if exchange rates were still the same as it was in 2014, then the budget would look much higher, but in reality, this is still not good imo as Russia has quite a bit to it in terms of its space industry.

    What this will do is a couple of things:
    1) Expansion of Glonass will fall.  It will end up being very limited outside of Russia, South Africa and Brazil.
    2) Force Roscosmos to look towards private investments and development, which could undermine future development through the government programs as the private ones may end up taking priority.
    3) Development of other systems may be pushed back a few years (so heavy rocket may be scrapped or pushed back 5+ years longer).
    4) Technological development will be curbed unless there is a push by the military.
    5) Layoffs and other purges in Roscosmos to save money.

    I imagine some people in Russia's government looks and says "Well, China and India are successful with such a small space budget", but what they do not realize is that costs for development in those countries are a lot less than in Russia due to human capital.

    In the end, Roscosmos may look into joint work with both China and India for co-operation between each others in order to cut costs overall and still get somewhat the results they want.  But I truly think Russia should fund it by far more than it is now.

    Only benefit is, after 2020 when the defense budget drops, I imagine they will try to play catch up by increasing budget of the space program again.  But this concept of austerity isn't going to do them much other than lose talent and degrade the corporations capabilities for these few years, just to save a few rubles.  It will end up biting them in the butt later.

    Good thing is, this isn't set in stone as per the article.  We will find out in September regarding it.  I imagine they have all agreed with this excluding possibly the president.  There will be counter arguments to this that may prevent these cuts from happening.

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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  Vann7 on Thu Jul 28, 2016 12:10 pm

    The american government , the Neocons have to be laughing real hard now
    and from their ass and in the floor .. at the huge mistakes Russia Government is doing.

    Russia government politics does more damage to Russia that any western Sanction
    could ever do. By slowing down significatively the development and progress of Russia.

    Russia is cutting his own Legs , in the only Business that Russia have that have earn
    respect in the world in the west. I can imagine NASA with the help of Ellon Musk
    and SpaceX stealing the Show away of Russia in the moon and mars for at least another
    decade and that we will see how Russia will be owned real bad in just 5 years more or less.
    And even its space program totally sanctioned , when no longer Americans have any need for it or any cooperation with Russia in space.  This means that Russia space program will have next to no client in the west ,for fear of retaliation by Americans. So is a chain reaction that will significantly reduce jobs in the space industry and significantly slow down Russia Technology and space industry.  All thanks to the Russia government total disconnection of the world and reality they live.

    Imho Russia should send all its Engineers to work for China , at least there ,they will not be
    wasted there ,because China will not cut its budget in space . and is the only nation that really
    not scared to shit to compete and defeat Americans in space. and have shown real ambitions
    in space.

    While Russia is planning to cut its budget even more , while at the same time
    funding more Soviet Veterans ,that not even live in Russia ,and spending more in
    useless Sports , NASA and China space program are increasing their budgets in space.  No
    NASA is even getting more money ,that the one originally Obama wanted.
    Unfortunately for us , Putin have gone full retard ,since the west gave sanctions on Russia ,
    Putin cuts the budget of Russia in the things he needs to invest more and over spending in the things Russia needs less or that are a total waste of money and  time.
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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  GarryB on Fri Jul 29, 2016 10:22 am

    It is not a boom time economically for Russia... it is actually normal for a fiscally responsible country to reduce spending on non essential things when money isn't there to spend.

    It just means when more money is available then budgets can increase.


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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  TheRealist on Fri Jul 29, 2016 1:47 pm

    A new eye in the sky.

    Russian Aviation

    Russia About to Drastically Boost Its Orbital Surveillance Capabilities

    A new type of advanced surveillance satellites will soon bolster the reconnaissance capabilities of the Russian Aerospace Forces.

    The mainstay of the new space surveillance system will be the new 14F156 Razdan satellites, which are expected to replace the existing 14F137 Persona craft.

    Several sources in Russian industrial and military circles have told the newspaper Kommersant that the Russian Aerospace Forces and the Progress State Research and Production Rocket Space Center are already discussing the specifics of engineering Razdan satellites.

    While little information regarding the new satellite’s capabilities and characteristics is currently available, the newspaper reports that Razdan is set to totally outclass its predecessors.

    The satellite will be able to maintain contact with Earth via a new high-speed secure radio channel, and will eventually be fitted with new telescopes with an objective lens diameter of 2 meters.

    The first Razdan satellite is expected to be launched from Plesetsk Cosmodrome in 2019, with the second and the third craft scheduled to join it in space in 2022 and 2024 respectively.

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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  George1 on Sat Aug 06, 2016 3:11 am

    Russia tests successfully its first atmospheric satellite

    More:
    http://tass.ru/en/science/891962


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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  PapaDragon on Sat Aug 06, 2016 3:28 am

    George1 wrote:Russia tests successfully its first atmospheric satellite

    More:
    http://tass.ru/en/science/891962

    It's called satellite but I thing this better qualifies for UAV tread.
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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  Big_Gazza on Mon Aug 22, 2016 11:05 am

    Interesting article on RT regarding the latest twist in the on-again-off-again SHLV saga....

    https://www.rt.com/news/356699-russia-heavy-rocket-moon/

    The Russian space agency is designing a new launch vehicle for future moon missions incorporating legacy technology from the Energia-Buran project instead of pushing for the extra-lift version of the Angara rocket, the chief of Energia Corporation said.
    Energia and Roscosmos are “working on a super heavy-lift launch vehicle (SHLLV) that would use an engine that we already have, the RD-171,” Vladimir Solntsev told Izvestia newspaper.

    The RD-171 is derived from the Energia-Buran, the short-lived soviet reusable manned spacecraft project similar to NASA’s Space Shuttle. The Energia launcher used four strap-on boosters each equipped with a four-chamber RD-170 engine for its first stage. The engine was later modified for the Zenit rocket family. Other variants with fewer chambers are currently used in Atlas V rockets and Russia’s newest Angara rockets.

    The proposed launcher would use other available technology, including the Briz-M third stage from the Angara A5.

    “This compilation would allow us to save time and money. We take what is already there, don’t pay extra costs and don’t get stretched into future decades. I’m certain that we can have a heavy-lift rocket this way in record time, about five to seven years,” Solntsev told the newspaper.

    The plan was confirmed by Roscosmos chief rocket designer Aleksandr Medvedev, Izvestia said.

    The development of a new rocket for extra-heavy payloads, which would be necessary for Russia’s planned manned moon missions, is step sideway from the previous plan, which was to have a variant of Angara do the job.

    Angara is the latest family of Russian rockets based on universal modules. The idea is to have streamlined production and assembly of basic building blocks and combine them for the necessary payload. The A5V variant is meant to become the launch vehicle for moon missions thanks to extra lift given by a hydrogen/oxygen third stage.

    The rocket would be able to put about 40-ton payload into low-Earth orbit, but it still would be a far cry from the 140 tons, which could be lifted by the Saturn V, the rocket used for the Apollo program. The proposed new SHLLV would initially have a LEO lift of 80 tons with a potential to increase the figure to 120 tons or even 160 tons, according to Solntsev.

    The replacement would have a profound impact on how Russia would conduct its planned moon missions, scheduled for the 2030s. With Angara A5V one manned landing would require four separate launches to deliver a manned capsule, a lander and two modules for propulsion, according to the current plans. The flight pattern would also require two rendezvous in Earth orbit and one lunar rendezvous before a landing can be conducted. The Apollo program used lunar rendezvous as well, but all the necessary modules were lifted in a single Saturn V launch.

    The timing requirement would require Russia’s new Vostochny Cosmodrome to have two operational launch pads by the time of the first moon mission. This is not part of the current development project.

    Unlike the Angara A5V, the proposed launch vehicle would not use hydrogen as propellant for any of its stage, the Energia head told the newspaper. Russian rocket designers have some experience with hydrogen engines – in fact the Energia rocket had four hydrogen engines at its core – but other propellants are more commonly used in Russia. Liquid hydrogen would also require investment into extra infrastructure at the launch facility, boosting the cost of the future missions
    .

    Very Happy

    Sounds to me like a clustered version of the proposed Fenix medium launcher, which itself sounds like an all-Russian replacement of the Ukropistani Zenit.  This approach would make a lot of sense - Angara based on clustered URM-1 modules based on single chamber RD-191, and its future bigger brother based on the 4-chamber RD-171 beast.  Same design methodology, so the Angara design, manufacturing and operating experience can be leveraged into an up-scaled SHLV.  As an advantage, the single stack is a useful medium lift launcher with ~17T to LEO capability, and that ain't nothing to sniff at...

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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  kvs on Wed Aug 24, 2016 4:13 am



    http://www.russianspaceweb.com/energia5k.html

    The above looks like the rocket in question.

    Zak claims it is supposed to have a liftoff mass of 2400 tons vs. 810 tons for the Angara 5V. The new design can
    deliver 80 tons while the Angara 5V can deliver about 40 tons. Something is off.
    The RD-171 has basically four times the thrust of the RD-191 used by the Angara modules. In this proposed
    rocket by Energiya the four boosters and first core stage all have RD-171 engines. Faster burn allows less fuel
    mass to be carried and increases the payload to total mass ratio. But supposedly we have a degradation of the
    ratio. I think Energiya can tune the size of the modules with RD-171 engines to achieve the same payload
    ratio as the Angara 5V.

    Zak always bitches about how new Russian rocket designs can never be delivered to the far eastern Vostochny
    cosmodrome because they are too wide for railway tunnels. I am quite sure I recall him claiming Angara stages
    were too big. Well, Energiya can shrink down the stage diameter to fit the tunnels and take advantage for the
    4X faster burn of the RD-171 to get a heavy launcher with a mass of 1600-1700 tons that can deliver 80 tons to
    orbit.

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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  Vann7 on Fri Aug 26, 2016 5:11 am

    kvs wrote:

    http://www.russianspaceweb.com/energia5k.html

    The above looks like the rocket in question.

    Zak claims it is supposed to have a liftoff mass of 2400 tons vs. 810 tons for the Angara 5V.   The new design can
    deliver 80 tons while the Angara 5V can deliver about 40 tons.  Something is off.
    The RD-171 has basically four times the thrust of the RD-191 used by the Angara modules.   In this proposed
    rocket by Energiya the four boosters and first core stage all have RD-171 engines.   Faster burn allows less fuel
    mass to be carried and increases the payload to total mass ratio.   But supposedly we have a degradation of the
    ratio.   I think Energiya can tune the size of the modules with RD-171 engines to achieve the same payload
    ratio as the Angara 5V.  

    Zak always bitches about how new Russian rocket designs can never be delivered to the far eastern Vostochny
    cosmodrome because they are too wide for railway tunnels.  I am quite sure I recall him claiming Angara stages
    were too big.   Well, Energiya can shrink down the stage diameter to fit the tunnels and take advantage for the
    4X faster burn of the RD-171 to get a heavy launcher with a mass of 1600-1700 tons that can deliver 80 tons to
    orbit.

    btw...

    In the future don't be surprised to hear more bitching from @Zak .

    He lives in United States ^^ ,behaves like a Liberal , demonizing Putin for all, and he shows all the symptoms of every other
    corrupted anti Russian NGO paid TROLL , to downgrade and downplay Russia space program. So for example If Russia do a mission to Moon or Mars.. he could be hired to debunk it.. and claim
    the travel was a hoax and never happened. or that the rocket "exploded" for malfunction
    and that Russia shows only  movie. Wink

    His website could become for example the portal of "space news" in case Russia try
    a manned landing in moon or mars.. So that if for example Russia spend billions dollars
    going to another planet. he could be useful for the west,to discredit Russia. This is not
    conspiracy .. already he is doing such things.. with the Exo MArs mission ,claimed the Russian rocket failed and exploded while Russia government deny it.
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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  Big_Gazza on Fri Aug 26, 2016 4:43 pm

    Vann7 wrote:

    btw...

    In the future don't be surprised to hear more bitching from @Zak .

    He lives in United States ^^ ,behaves like a Liberal , demonizing Putin for all, and he shows all the symptoms of every other
    corrupted anti Russian NGO paid TROLL , to downgrade and downplay Russia space program. So for example If Russia do a mission to Moon or Mars.. he could be hired to debunk it.. and claim
    the travel was a hoax and never happened. or that the rocket "exploded" for malfunction
    and that Russia shows only  movie. Wink

    His website could become for example the portal of "space news" in case Russia try
    a manned landing in moon or mars.. So that if for example Russia spend billions dollars
    going to another planet. he could be useful for the west,to discredit Russia. This is not
    conspiracy .. already he is doing such things.. with the Exo MArs mission ,claimed the Russian rocket failed and exploded while Russia government deny it.

    Agreed 100%. Zak is a 5th-columnist Atlanticist wanker of the 1st order... I like his site but I cannot stomach his politics. I cannot fathom how someone who calls himself Russian can possibly identify with the US neo-con ruling cabal and be prepared to disparage his own birth-nation in such a shameless way. I guess its true that money can always find traitorous mother-frackers who will sell out their own family for a fist-full of Judas coins...
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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Fri Aug 26, 2016 9:18 pm

    Russia first to test clean pulse-detonation rocket engine (VIDEO)
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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  sepheronx on Fri Aug 26, 2016 9:50 pm

    I read Russia is bringing back planes to launch rockets or devices into space. Using Il-76 as base.
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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  kvs on Sat Aug 27, 2016 2:11 am

    magnumcromagnon wrote:Russia first to test clean pulse-detonation rocket engine (VIDEO)

    This is the biggest news in rocketry since the USSR made oxidizer rich staged combustion rocket engines that the USA thought were
    impossible (no US alloy could handle the heat). That was an epic historic event and so this one.

    But of course all we will hear about is Putin, Putin, Putin, hackers, Putin, aggression, Putin, blah, blah.
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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  kvs on Sat Aug 27, 2016 2:13 am

    sepheronx wrote:I read Russia is bringing back planes to launch rockets or devices into space.  Using Il-76 as base.

    I just can't get excited over such systems. The payload is tiny and it is nothing like the Hotol concept.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HOTOL

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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  magnumcromagnon on Sat Aug 27, 2016 3:20 am

    kvs wrote:
    magnumcromagnon wrote:Russia first to test clean pulse-detonation rocket engine (VIDEO)

    This is the biggest news in rocketry since the USSR made oxidizer rich staged combustion rocket engines that the USA thought were
    impossible (no US alloy could handle the heat).   That was an epic historic event and so this one.

    But of course all we will hear about is Putin, Putin, Putin, hackers, Putin, aggression, Putin, blah, blah.



    ...Can you go in depth about the full potential of PDE's? I admit I'm not the most informed on this subject. BTW the 2020's will be a real watershed moment with 3-D printing, scramjet engines, PDE's, high-energy fuel, and laser-fusion superalloy aluminum and nickel powders!
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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

    Post  kvs on Sat Aug 27, 2016 3:57 am

    magnumcromagnon wrote:

    ...Can you go in depth about the full potential of PDE's? I admit I'm not the most informed on this subject. BTW the 2020's will be a real watershed moment with 3-D printing, scramjet engines, PDE's, high-energy fuel, and laser-fusion superalloy aluminum and nickel powders!

    Even though this prototype is a intended as a rocket engine, PDEs have the potential to make ground to space aircraft-style flight possible. The
    idea is to do fluid dynamic engineering instead of turbine engineering. The US tested a pulse detonation aircraft engine in 2008 but
    there is no hard distinction between aircraft and rocket modes aside from tuning the parameters for different levels of thrust. Controlling
    detonation via fluid flow is very tricky and ramjets or scramjets are much more primitive concepts but they work at speeds where the
    the PDEs don't. So PDEs cover the 0 to 5 Mach range and scramjets operate for over Mach 5.

    https://info.aiaa.org/tac/PEG/HSABPTC/Public%20Documents/Dora%20Musielak%20Publications/Fundamentals%20of%20PDE%20Propulsion_Musielak.pdf

    The above slides discuss the origin of the gain in thermodynamic efficiency. PDEs follow the Humphrey cycle where the pulse detonation front
    adds heat at constant volume. Turbojets follow the Brayton cycle and add heat at constant pressure and lose thermal efficiency as
    the combustion temperature is increased (see slides 16, 17 and 18).

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    Re: Russian Space Program: News & Discussion

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