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    History of Soviet Space Program

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    George1
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    History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  George1 on Wed May 09, 2012 10:57 pm

    The LK (Lunniy Korabl—"lunar ship") was a Soviet lunar lander and counterpart of the American Lunar Module (LM). The LK was to have landed up to two cosmonauts on the Moon. It completed development and was test flown successfully in Earth orbit, but never reached the Moon because development of the N1 rocket, required to take it to the Moon, was unsuccessful.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LK_Lander



    Last edited by George1 on Tue Sep 20, 2016 9:26 am; edited 2 times in total

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  GarryB on Fri May 11, 2012 12:17 am

    Ironically the N1s rocket motors were revolutionary and when eventually perfected would have been excellent rocket motors.

    A variant of them is being looked at by the US for its new rocket to perform the role of the Saturn 5 in about 2020...

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  George1 on Thu Oct 04, 2012 2:38 pm

    Sputnik: the first artificial satellite of Earth

    The first artificial satellite of the Earth was launched from the Tura-Tam testing ground, later famous Baikonur space launch centre, on the 4th of October 1957. The Soviet space industry developed as a by-product of creating a nuclear missile shield and became one of the cornerstones of the USSR’s might during the Cold War period.


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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Vann7 on Thu Oct 02, 2014 8:04 am

    Is everyone aware that Russia in soviet times in the 80's sent a lander and orbiters to venus and still today is the only nation in the world that have landed in Venus surface and sent back pictures of it surface ? Smile




    Photo from the orbiter..



    Using computers to glue individual images of the hundreds Russia took of the the planet using real data
    from venus you get this..


    and this..





    I found amazing how similar other planets surface looks to some places in earth.. the sand and rocks are similar
    to volcanic zones in earth .. but the sky for sure very different.



    Last edited by Vann7 on Thu Oct 02, 2014 8:35 am; edited 6 times in total

    Mike E
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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Mike E on Thu Oct 02, 2014 8:16 am

    Yeah... They were the first to land, flyby, and orbit (Mariner 2 was a "flyby", but a very distant one.)! The CCCP also conducted many photo "missions" of Venus, while it was largely forgotten in the West (Must have to do with all their hard-work being put into the Apollo missions, wouldn't you say?). - Both India and Russia have plans to conduct missions at Venus, VOM and Venera-D.

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Vann7 on Thu Oct 02, 2014 8:25 am

    Mike E wrote:Yeah... They were the first to land, flyby, and orbit (Mariner 2 was a "flyby", but a very distant one.)! The CCCP also conducted many photo "missions" of Venus, while it was largely forgotten in the West (Must have to do with all their hard-work being put into the Apollo missions, wouldn't you say?). - Both India and Russia have plans to conduct missions at Venus, VOM and Venera-D.

    This is Big deal.. because in the west.. IS never mentioned at all any achievement by Russia on anything.. all magazines that i used to read about Science or even schools didn't teach anything about Soviets Space program..
    for almost everyone in the west before there was internet ,Americans were the only ones that could explore planets and go beyond the atmosphere.. The only things you learn in the west about space is what NASA have achieved..
    or at least what they claimed to achieve.. lol1

    check again my previous post will be updated. Smile

    A side note.. is quite depressing how bad looks other planets.. can't imagine anyone living in Venus ever..
    In Mars if humans go.. they will have to export everything including plants and animals and depend 100%
    on technology and to live there..   Perhaps it will be a better idea to just create a Space Station that rotates and generation gravity.. because living on other planets for more than a year ,doesn't look really fun  if you cannot go outside without a space suit and all you see is a dead planet .

    Information came from here..

    http://venera-d.cosmos.ru/index.php?id=688&L=2

    and here for original Soviet Venus images..
    http://mentallandscape.com/C_CatalogVenus.htm


    Last edited by Vann7 on Thu Oct 02, 2014 8:48 am; edited 2 times in total

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Werewolf on Thu Oct 02, 2014 8:40 am

    Vann7 wrote:
    Mike E wrote:Yeah... They were the first to land, flyby, and orbit (Mariner 2 was a "flyby", but a very distant one.)! The CCCP also conducted many photo "missions" of Venus, while it was largely forgotten in the West (Must have to do with all their hard-work being put into the Apollo missions, wouldn't you say?). - Both India and Russia have plans to conduct missions at Venus, VOM and Venera-D.

    This is Big deal.. because in the west.. I NEVER knew Russia explored anything.. all magazing or even schools didn't
    teach anything about Soviets Space program.. for west NASA is the only one that could explore planets and go beyond the atmosphere.. The only things you learn in the west about space is what NASA have achieved.. lol1

    check again my previous post will be updated. Smile

    Yep, had an argument with some a**hole, two days ago where he said russians are so crap they can't go any further than our moon...well posted him wenn Russia actually did missions that were out of reach for US for that year 1961, was quite early in the space race and already reached another planet.

    I personally would be interested in pictures from saturn titan and other moons and neptun how the conditions are there.

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  GarryB on Thu Oct 02, 2014 1:08 pm

    I found amazing how similar other planets surface looks to some places in earth.. the sand and rocks are similar
    to volcanic zones in earth .. but the sky for sure very different.

    There was a lot of speculation before the Soviets send probes to Venus that perhaps under all those clouds that Venus might be like a prehistoric Earth with dinosaurs and such like.

    When the first probe entered the atmosphere they quickly realised the environment was too harsh for humans to live... enormous pressure, enormous heat, and acidic "air".

    Amusingly enough we have since found life on the ocean floor near volcanic vents where the acid levels, temperature and pressure are very similar to that on Venus so sending life their might not be that impossible...

    I personally would be interested in pictures from saturn titan and other moons and neptun how the conditions are there.

    Cold. afro


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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Big_Gazza on Thu Oct 02, 2014 2:32 pm

    You can also add the first soft-landing on Mars to the list of Soviet space firsts - the landing of Mars-3 on 2nd Dec 1971. To put this in perspective, this was only 14 years after the launch of Sputnik! Shocked

    Unfortunately Mars-3 landed during a global dust-storm, and radio comms ceased only 14.5 seconds after a photographic scan was started, and the returned signal contained only noise with no recogniseable features cry

    Many possible causes for the failure have been debated, but what is interesting is that both of the redundant radio transmitters fell silent at exactly the same time, which suggests that either orbiters radio relay failed (both channel simultaneously?) or the orbiter dropped below the landers local horizon and the radio link was lost. The later is a distinct possibility as the Mars-3 orbiter suffered a fuel loss and had insufficient delta-V to enter is proper 25 hr orbit, instead ending up in an elliptical orbit of >12 days period. My theory is that the bad orbit messed up the comms window with the lander causing a loss of the 1st science uplink, and by the time the orbiter was next over the landers horizon (~13 days later) , the lander had long since depleted its batteries. Mars-3 landed and went about its science program, but sadly no-one was listening...

    Interestingly, the Mars-3 surface hardware appears to have been located by NASAs MRO orbiter, and while the resolution isn't quite high enough to show categorically that the objects are genuine, the tantalizing petal-like appearance of the lander candidate makes me think they have found it! The landscape appears to be mostly sand/dust with minimal exposed rock outcrops, so the odds of surviveability should have been very good.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_3#mediaviewer/File:PIA16920-MarsSoviet3Lander1971-PossibleDebrisField.jpg

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Big_Gazza on Thu Oct 02, 2014 3:00 pm

    GarryB wrote:Amusingly enough we have since found life on the ocean floor near volcanic vents where the acid levels, temperature and pressure are very similar to that on Venus so sending life their might not be that impossible...

    Venusian surface temperatures are around 450 deg C, or twice as hot as your oven can get, the atmospheric pressure is 89 bar (earth at sea level is ~1 bar) and the planet is utterly desiccated with virtually no water in the atmosphere. Venus is as dead as dead can be...

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  GarryB on Fri Oct 03, 2014 9:45 am

    Venusian surface temperatures are around 450 deg C, or twice as hot as your oven can get, the atmospheric pressure is 89 bar (earth at sea level is ~1 bar) and the planet is utterly desiccated with virtually no water in the atmosphere. Venus is as dead as dead can be...

    Imagine wiping away all the current human settlements on earth and looking at a forest covered Earth and planning where to drop a lander and digger... what are the odds of finding evidence of ancient human settlements/artifacts?

    Venus is what happens when there is too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the place starts heating up out of control... all the seas boil away and add to the thick atmosphere.

    the temperature near underwater volcanic vents can get beyond 400 degrees C and the pressure increases by one atmosphere with every fathom (ie each 13 feet of water equals all the air above us or 1 atmosphere)...

    The lack of water would be a problem but it is almost certain there was water there in the past, and possibly a geological record in the rock of the surface to explore... not the easiest dig site of course... Smile


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    USSR space program

    Post  Mike E on Fri Oct 03, 2014 4:04 pm

    GarryB wrote:
    Venusian surface temperatures are around 450 deg C, or twice as hot as your oven can get, the atmospheric pressure is 89 bar (earth at sea level is ~1 bar) and the planet is utterly desiccated with virtually no water in the atmosphere. Venus is as dead as dead can be...

    Imagine wiping away all the current human settlements on earth and looking at a forest covered Earth and planning where to drop a lander and digger... what are the odds of finding evidence of ancient human settlements/artifacts?

    Venus is what happens when there is too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the place starts heating up out of control... all the seas boil away and add to the thick atmosphere.

    the temperature near underwater volcanic vents can get beyond 400 degrees C and the pressure increases by one atmosphere with every fathom (ie each 13 feet of water equals all the air above us or 1 atmosphere)...

    The lack of water would be a problem but it is almost certain there was water there in the past, and possibly a geological record in the rock of the surface to explore... not the easiest dig site of course... Smile
    Still no way to explain its "location" in regards to the Sun. Atmosphere or not, Venus would be naturally too hot for sustained life. - Add that level of pressure, CO2, and volcanic activity and you get.... Venus!

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  George1 on Mon Dec 01, 2014 4:01 am

    Sergey Korolyov was the mastermind behind the soviet space program.




    The first human in space and to orbit the Earth, Yuri Gagarin.




    Cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov, the first person to perform an EVA (spacewalk), in 1965.




    Cosmonaut Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova was the first woman to fly in space, aboard Vostok 6 on 16 June 1963.




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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  George1 on Sun Feb 15, 2015 10:26 pm

    The Soyuz T-10-1(1983) was a leakage of fuel and the flames coming in the rocket launch pad.Two seconds before its explodes, the crew was actived the Launch Escape Tower System for eject.


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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  kvs on Mon Feb 16, 2015 12:31 am

    George1 wrote:Sergey Korolyov was the mastermind behind the soviet space program.




    If he had lived longer, the N1 would have been a success and the USSR would have had men on the Moon.

    Instead we had the degeneration of the N1 project into a petty ego battle by 2nd rate Sovok hacks. The
    N1 had massive resonance issues which were obvious from all of its failures. This plumber's nightmare should
    have never been built and Korolev would have made sure that something more sane was developed.

    Korolev's N1 would probably have been much closer to the Saturn V with fewer, larger engines and less plumbing
    to shake itself to pieces. The Americans were lucky they had Wernher von Braun.

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Werewolf on Mon Feb 16, 2015 12:37 am

    Manned Moon landing was merely a prestige rather than beneficial exploration and not truelly worth to do it after someone already did it, since no one remembers Alan Shepard (2nd man in space).

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  kvs on Mon Feb 16, 2015 6:16 am

    Werewolf wrote:Manned Moon landing was merely a prestige rather than beneficial exploration and not truelly worth to do it after someone already did it, since no one remembers Alan Shepard (2nd man in space).

    To some extent this is true. But it is also about technological capacity. The Energiya and Buran were capacity development in competition
    with the US.

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  George1 on Fri Mar 06, 2015 7:01 pm

    The Engines (of N1 rocket) that came in from the Cold. Interesting documentary




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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Rmf on Sun Mar 08, 2015 1:14 am

    there are still many nk-33 engines left in russia.
    they will be expanded in soyuz-2 light version without side boosters.
    launches will be very cheap.
    and that will be the end ,engine manufacturers have moved on...

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  George1 on Wed Mar 18, 2015 1:26 pm

    Cosmonaut Leonov Marks 50 Years Since Mankind's First Spacewalk



    Alexei Leonov was the first human to exit, float free and then reenter an orbiting spacecraft, during the Voskhod-2 spacecraft mission on March 18, 1965.

    KRASNOGORSK (Sputnik) — Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov will be in Krasnogorsk Wednesday to celebrate his spacewalk of 50 years ago, mankind's first.

    Leonov, who will turn 81 in May, was the first human to exit, float free and then reenter an orbiting spacecraft, during the Voskhod-2 spacecraft mission on March 18, 1965.

    "Seven emergency situations happened during the flight, which had never been described anywhere. The most serious of them […] when the navigation system failed," Leonov told journalists.

    The cosmonaut added that it took the rescuers three days to find the Voskhod-2 crew after their successful landing.

    The legendary space explorer attended the unveiling of Cosmonauts Alley in the city of Krasnogorsk near Moscow. A model of the Voskhod-2 is part of the new monument, installed at the site.

    The ceremony also featured a presentation of a new feature film about Leonov's historic spacewalk, set for theatrical release in 2016. The retired cosmonaut acted as a consultant on the project.

    Leonov is also set to unveil a memorial stone, celebrating his extraterrestrial exploits, at the Star City space training facility.

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/russia/20150318/1019662337.html#ixzz3Uju3hn8P

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  George1 on Tue Apr 12, 2016 12:46 pm

    Lavrov: Gagarin's Space Flight Marked New Era in Civilization History

    The first manned space flight marked a new era in the history of civilization, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said Tuesday.

    MOSCOW (Sputnik) — Russia is celebrating Cosmonautics Day on Tuesday to commemorate the first manned space flight on April 12, 1961, when a booster rocket took into orbit the Vostok spacecraft with the first cosmonaut on board – Soviet citizen Yuri Gagarin.

    "It is hard to overestimate the importance of [the first] man's exit into outer space – the flight of the Vostok [spacecraft] marked a new era in the history of civilization, confirmed outstanding contribution of our country to world progress. Gagarin's deed represents heroism and selflessness of the Russian people, their capabilities to be at their best in [solving] the most sophisticated and truly epochal problems," the Russian foreign minister told the RT broadcaster.

    On April 7, 2011, upon Russia's initiative, the UN General Assembly proclaimed April 12 the International Day of Human Space Flight on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the first space flight by Gagarin. The resolution was co-authored by over 60 UN member states.

    Since 2001, many countries around the world have been holding Yuri's Night sponsored by the Space Generation Advisory Council, an official adviser of the UN program on using space equipment. It focuses on two events: the first manned space flight (April 12, 1961, Soviet Union) and the first manned flight under the Space Shuttle program (April 12, 1981, United States).

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/science/20160412/1037865840/lavrov-gagarin-space-flight.html#ixzz45bl53Fcj


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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  starman on Tue Oct 11, 2016 4:37 pm

    Vann7 wrote:
    I found amazing how similar other planets surface looks to some places in earth.. the sand and rocks are similar
    to volcanic zones in earth .. but the sky for sure very different.

    Another similarity is rarity of extant impact craters. Unlike Mars and the moon etc, Venus has a dense atmosphere, capable of burning up even large objects.

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  starman on Tue Oct 11, 2016 4:40 pm

    GarryB wrote:There was a lot of speculation before the Soviets send probes to Venus that perhaps under all those clouds that Venus might be like a prehistoric Earth with dinosaurs and such like.

    Long before the Soviet probes, spectroscopic studies revealed the high CO2 amounts and negligible oxygen, so Venus was assumed to be lifeless.

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  starman on Tue Oct 11, 2016 4:47 pm

    GarryB wrote:
    The lack of water would be a problem but it is almost certain there was water there in the past, and possibly a geological record in the rock of the surface to explore...

    I dunnoo...I heard Venus experiences periodic, catastrophic vulcanism, essentially turning itself inside out.

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  GarryB on Thu Oct 13, 2016 12:07 pm

    At one point the earth had a molten surface too...


    At least once in its recent geological history the earth was an iceball where temperatures dropped out of control and the surface was covered in ice which reflected away heat and further cooled the planet in a runaway cycle... pretty much the opposite to Venus and its runaway heating problem.

    For quite some time the earth would have been uninhabitable by anything other than single cell organisms... but then some simple one cell organisms learned to create energy using the power of sunlight... photosynthesis... and the deadly byproduct of oxygen wiped out most of the existing population of the planet... those that survived lived in an oxygen rich environment... an energy rich environment...

    The first bacteria on venus could simply convert CO2 into O2... the opposite of the green house effect... get rid of all that CO2 and the clouds thin and IR radiation can escape into space... as the air cools liquid water will form seas and oceans and life becomes much more viable... it would certainly be hotter than earth but not necessarily a desert.

    Right now Antarctica is an ice cube but not that long ago Australia was attached to Antarctica and the water flowing around that large continent went around antarctica and up to near the equator.... both continents were tropical because the water was heated as it went past the equator and took that warmth south around the entire island.

    When Australia split the water could go around each continent so the water going around Australia remained warm while the water currents going around Antarctica stayed in southern latitudes and never got to the warm equatorial areas near Australia so the water going around antarctica cooled... as did the island continent of antarctia.

    What happened to Antarctica is what will happen to Europe if the gulf stream reverses and the warm water from the equator stops moving up past Europe to mix with Arctic water...


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