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    History of Soviet Space Program

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    George1

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    History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  George1 on Wed May 09, 2012 10:57 pm

    The LK (Lunniy Korabl—"lunar ship") was a Soviet lunar lander and counterpart of the American Lunar Module (LM). The LK was to have landed up to two cosmonauts on the Moon. It completed development and was test flown successfully in Earth orbit, but never reached the Moon because development of the N1 rocket, required to take it to the Moon, was unsuccessful.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LK_Lander



    Last edited by George1 on Tue Sep 20, 2016 9:26 am; edited 2 times in total
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    GarryB

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  GarryB on Fri May 11, 2012 12:17 am

    Ironically the N1s rocket motors were revolutionary and when eventually perfected would have been excellent rocket motors.

    A variant of them is being looked at by the US for its new rocket to perform the role of the Saturn 5 in about 2020...
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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  George1 on Thu Oct 04, 2012 2:38 pm

    Sputnik: the first artificial satellite of Earth

    The first artificial satellite of the Earth was launched from the Tura-Tam testing ground, later famous Baikonur space launch centre, on the 4th of October 1957. The Soviet space industry developed as a by-product of creating a nuclear missile shield and became one of the cornerstones of the USSR’s might during the Cold War period.


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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Vann7 on Thu Oct 02, 2014 8:04 am

    Is everyone aware that Russia in soviet times in the 80's sent a lander and orbiters to venus and still today is the only nation in the world that have landed in Venus surface and sent back pictures of it surface ? Smile




    Photo from the orbiter..



    Using computers to glue individual images of the hundreds Russia took of the the planet using real data
    from venus you get this..


    and this..





    I found amazing how similar other planets surface looks to some places in earth.. the sand and rocks are similar
    to volcanic zones in earth .. but the sky for sure very different.



    Last edited by Vann7 on Thu Oct 02, 2014 8:35 am; edited 6 times in total
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    Mike E

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Mike E on Thu Oct 02, 2014 8:16 am

    Yeah... They were the first to land, flyby, and orbit (Mariner 2 was a "flyby", but a very distant one.)! The CCCP also conducted many photo "missions" of Venus, while it was largely forgotten in the West (Must have to do with all their hard-work being put into the Apollo missions, wouldn't you say?). - Both India and Russia have plans to conduct missions at Venus, VOM and Venera-D.

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Vann7 on Thu Oct 02, 2014 8:25 am

    Mike E wrote:Yeah... They were the first to land, flyby, and orbit (Mariner 2 was a "flyby", but a very distant one.)! The CCCP also conducted many photo "missions" of Venus, while it was largely forgotten in the West (Must have to do with all their hard-work being put into the Apollo missions, wouldn't you say?). - Both India and Russia have plans to conduct missions at Venus, VOM and Venera-D.

    This is Big deal.. because in the west.. IS never mentioned at all any achievement by Russia on anything.. all magazines that i used to read about Science or even schools didn't teach anything about Soviets Space program..
    for almost everyone in the west before there was internet ,Americans were the only ones that could explore planets and go beyond the atmosphere.. The only things you learn in the west about space is what NASA have achieved..
    or at least what they claimed to achieve.. lol1

    check again my previous post will be updated. Smile

    A side note.. is quite depressing how bad looks other planets.. can't imagine anyone living in Venus ever..
    In Mars if humans go.. they will have to export everything including plants and animals and depend 100%
    on technology and to live there..   Perhaps it will be a better idea to just create a Space Station that rotates and generation gravity.. because living on other planets for more than a year ,doesn't look really fun  if you cannot go outside without a space suit and all you see is a dead planet .

    Information came from here..

    http://venera-d.cosmos.ru/index.php?id=688&L=2

    and here for original Soviet Venus images..
    http://mentallandscape.com/C_CatalogVenus.htm


    Last edited by Vann7 on Thu Oct 02, 2014 8:48 am; edited 2 times in total
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    Werewolf

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Werewolf on Thu Oct 02, 2014 8:40 am

    Vann7 wrote:
    Mike E wrote:Yeah... They were the first to land, flyby, and orbit (Mariner 2 was a "flyby", but a very distant one.)! The CCCP also conducted many photo "missions" of Venus, while it was largely forgotten in the West (Must have to do with all their hard-work being put into the Apollo missions, wouldn't you say?). - Both India and Russia have plans to conduct missions at Venus, VOM and Venera-D.

    This is Big deal.. because in the west.. I NEVER knew Russia explored anything.. all magazing or even schools didn't
    teach anything about Soviets Space program.. for west NASA is the only one that could explore planets and go beyond the atmosphere.. The only things you learn in the west about space is what NASA have achieved.. lol1

    check again my previous post will be updated. Smile

    Yep, had an argument with some a**hole, two days ago where he said russians are so crap they can't go any further than our moon...well posted him wenn Russia actually did missions that were out of reach for US for that year 1961, was quite early in the space race and already reached another planet.

    I personally would be interested in pictures from saturn titan and other moons and neptun how the conditions are there.
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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  GarryB on Thu Oct 02, 2014 1:08 pm

    I found amazing how similar other planets surface looks to some places in earth.. the sand and rocks are similar
    to volcanic zones in earth .. but the sky for sure very different.

    There was a lot of speculation before the Soviets send probes to Venus that perhaps under all those clouds that Venus might be like a prehistoric Earth with dinosaurs and such like.

    When the first probe entered the atmosphere they quickly realised the environment was too harsh for humans to live... enormous pressure, enormous heat, and acidic "air".

    Amusingly enough we have since found life on the ocean floor near volcanic vents where the acid levels, temperature and pressure are very similar to that on Venus so sending life their might not be that impossible...

    I personally would be interested in pictures from saturn titan and other moons and neptun how the conditions are there.

    Cold. afro


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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Big_Gazza on Thu Oct 02, 2014 2:32 pm

    You can also add the first soft-landing on Mars to the list of Soviet space firsts - the landing of Mars-3 on 2nd Dec 1971. To put this in perspective, this was only 14 years after the launch of Sputnik! Shocked

    Unfortunately Mars-3 landed during a global dust-storm, and radio comms ceased only 14.5 seconds after a photographic scan was started, and the returned signal contained only noise with no recogniseable features cry

    Many possible causes for the failure have been debated, but what is interesting is that both of the redundant radio transmitters fell silent at exactly the same time, which suggests that either orbiters radio relay failed (both channel simultaneously?) or the orbiter dropped below the landers local horizon and the radio link was lost. The later is a distinct possibility as the Mars-3 orbiter suffered a fuel loss and had insufficient delta-V to enter is proper 25 hr orbit, instead ending up in an elliptical orbit of >12 days period. My theory is that the bad orbit messed up the comms window with the lander causing a loss of the 1st science uplink, and by the time the orbiter was next over the landers horizon (~13 days later) , the lander had long since depleted its batteries. Mars-3 landed and went about its science program, but sadly no-one was listening...

    Interestingly, the Mars-3 surface hardware appears to have been located by NASAs MRO orbiter, and while the resolution isn't quite high enough to show categorically that the objects are genuine, the tantalizing petal-like appearance of the lander candidate makes me think they have found it! The landscape appears to be mostly sand/dust with minimal exposed rock outcrops, so the odds of surviveability should have been very good.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mars_3#mediaviewer/File:PIA16920-MarsSoviet3Lander1971-PossibleDebrisField.jpg
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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Big_Gazza on Thu Oct 02, 2014 3:00 pm

    GarryB wrote:Amusingly enough we have since found life on the ocean floor near volcanic vents where the acid levels, temperature and pressure are very similar to that on Venus so sending life their might not be that impossible...

    Venusian surface temperatures are around 450 deg C, or twice as hot as your oven can get, the atmospheric pressure is 89 bar (earth at sea level is ~1 bar) and the planet is utterly desiccated with virtually no water in the atmosphere. Venus is as dead as dead can be...
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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  GarryB on Fri Oct 03, 2014 9:45 am

    Venusian surface temperatures are around 450 deg C, or twice as hot as your oven can get, the atmospheric pressure is 89 bar (earth at sea level is ~1 bar) and the planet is utterly desiccated with virtually no water in the atmosphere. Venus is as dead as dead can be...

    Imagine wiping away all the current human settlements on earth and looking at a forest covered Earth and planning where to drop a lander and digger... what are the odds of finding evidence of ancient human settlements/artifacts?

    Venus is what happens when there is too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the place starts heating up out of control... all the seas boil away and add to the thick atmosphere.

    the temperature near underwater volcanic vents can get beyond 400 degrees C and the pressure increases by one atmosphere with every fathom (ie each 13 feet of water equals all the air above us or 1 atmosphere)...

    The lack of water would be a problem but it is almost certain there was water there in the past, and possibly a geological record in the rock of the surface to explore... not the easiest dig site of course... Smile


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    USSR space program

    Post  Mike E on Fri Oct 03, 2014 4:04 pm

    GarryB wrote:
    Venusian surface temperatures are around 450 deg C, or twice as hot as your oven can get, the atmospheric pressure is 89 bar (earth at sea level is ~1 bar) and the planet is utterly desiccated with virtually no water in the atmosphere. Venus is as dead as dead can be...

    Imagine wiping away all the current human settlements on earth and looking at a forest covered Earth and planning where to drop a lander and digger... what are the odds of finding evidence of ancient human settlements/artifacts?

    Venus is what happens when there is too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the place starts heating up out of control... all the seas boil away and add to the thick atmosphere.

    the temperature near underwater volcanic vents can get beyond 400 degrees C and the pressure increases by one atmosphere with every fathom (ie each 13 feet of water equals all the air above us or 1 atmosphere)...

    The lack of water would be a problem but it is almost certain there was water there in the past, and possibly a geological record in the rock of the surface to explore... not the easiest dig site of course... Smile
    Still no way to explain its "location" in regards to the Sun. Atmosphere or not, Venus would be naturally too hot for sustained life. - Add that level of pressure, CO2, and volcanic activity and you get.... Venus!
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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  George1 on Mon Dec 01, 2014 4:01 am

    Sergey Korolyov was the mastermind behind the soviet space program.




    The first human in space and to orbit the Earth, Yuri Gagarin.




    Cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov, the first person to perform an EVA (spacewalk), in 1965.




    Cosmonaut Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova was the first woman to fly in space, aboard Vostok 6 on 16 June 1963.



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    George1

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  George1 on Sun Feb 15, 2015 10:26 pm

    The Soyuz T-10-1(1983) was a leakage of fuel and the flames coming in the rocket launch pad.Two seconds before its explodes, the crew was actived the Launch Escape Tower System for eject.

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  kvs on Mon Feb 16, 2015 12:31 am

    George1 wrote:Sergey Korolyov was the mastermind behind the soviet space program.




    If he had lived longer, the N1 would have been a success and the USSR would have had men on the Moon.

    Instead we had the degeneration of the N1 project into a petty ego battle by 2nd rate Sovok hacks. The
    N1 had massive resonance issues which were obvious from all of its failures. This plumber's nightmare should
    have never been built and Korolev would have made sure that something more sane was developed.

    Korolev's N1 would probably have been much closer to the Saturn V with fewer, larger engines and less plumbing
    to shake itself to pieces. The Americans were lucky they had Wernher von Braun.
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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Werewolf on Mon Feb 16, 2015 12:37 am

    Manned Moon landing was merely a prestige rather than beneficial exploration and not truelly worth to do it after someone already did it, since no one remembers Alan Shepard (2nd man in space).
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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  kvs on Mon Feb 16, 2015 6:16 am

    Werewolf wrote:Manned Moon landing was merely a prestige rather than beneficial exploration and not truelly worth to do it after someone already did it, since no one remembers Alan Shepard (2nd man in space).

    To some extent this is true. But it is also about technological capacity. The Energiya and Buran were capacity development in competition
    with the US.
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    George1

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    Soviet/Russian Mars spacecrafts failures:

    Post  George1 on Thu Feb 26, 2015 9:30 am

    Mars has been a house of horrors for the Russian and Soviet space programs for the past 50 years.

    Not one of 19 Soviet and Russian missions sent to the Red Planet has been fully successful. Probes have been lost in launch accidents, blown up in Earth orbit, failed en route, and mysteriously fallen silent just as they were about to fulfill their missions. By contrast, NASA has flown 13 wholly successful missions to Mars in 18 attempts, going five for six on landing.

    The table below shows all the Soviet and Russian missions launched to Mars since 1960. Seventeen of the 18 missions were launched by the Soviet Union. The lone Russian mission was Mars 96, which never made it out of Earth orbit.

    Spacecraft Year Mission(s) Results
    1. Mars 1960A 1960 Flyby Launch failure
    2. Mars 1960B 1960 Flyby Launch failure
    3. Sputnik 22 1962 Flyby Launch failure; spacecraft exploded in Earth orbit
    4. Mars 1 1962 Flyby Some data collected, but lost contact before reaching Mars, flyby at approx. 193,000 km
    5. Sputnik 24 1962 Lander Launch failure; spacecraft failed to leave Earth's orbit
    6. Zond 2 1964 Flyby Communication lost three months before reaching Mars
    7. Mars 1969A 1969 Orbiter Launch failure
    8. Mars 1969B 1969 Orbiter Launch failure
    9. Cosmos 419 1971 Orbiter Launch failure
    10. Mars 2 1971 Orbiter, Lander, Rover Orbiter successful; lander crashed on surface of Mars
    11. Mars 3 1971 Orbiter, Lander, Rover Orbiter successful; soft landing on surface but ceased transmission within 20 seconds
    12. Mars 4 1973 Orbiter Failed to enter Mars orbit, made a close flyby
    13. Mars 5 1973 Orbiter Partial success. Entered orbit and returned data, but failed within 9 days
    14. Mars 6 1973 Lander Partial success. Data returned during descent but not after landing on Mars
    15. Mars 7 1973 Lander Landing probe separated prematurely; entered heliocentric orbit
    16. Phobos 1 1988 Orbiter, Phobos Landers Contact lost on way to Mars, landers not deployed
    17. Phobos 2 1988 Orbiter, Phobos Landers Partial success: entered orbit and returned some data. Contact lost just before deployment of landers
    18.  Mars 96 1996 Orbiter, Lander, Penetrator Launch failure; spacecraft failed to leave Earth’s orbit
    19.  Phobos-Grunt 2011 Orbiter,Phobos sample Launch failure; spacecraft failed to leave Earth’s orbit

    Nine of the 19 missions failed due to problems with their launchers, an unusually high number given Soviet expertise with that technology. But, even when spacecraft made it out of Earth orbit, they were prone to numerous failures that resulted in only a handful of partially successful missions.

    The peak of the Soviet Mars effort came with seven launches during the 1971 and 1973 launch windows. Of the four orbiters that made it to Mars, three returned useful data. None of the four landing attempts were successful. Mars 3 came the closest to success, falling silent a mere 20 seconds after touching down on the surface.

    After 1973, the Soviets put Mars exploration on hold and turned their attention to other targets. The nation completed an ongoing robotic exploration of the Moon, which ended with a sample return by Luna 24 in 1976. The Soviets also continued a highly successful series of missions to Venus and sent two probes to Halley’s Comet.

    In 1988, the Soviets were ready to try their luck at Mars again, launching the twin Phobos 1 and 2 missions to the Red Planet. The main goal was the close study of the planet’s enigmatic moon, where the spacecraft would deploy stationary landers and hoppers on the surface.

    Hopes were high–and were quickly dashed. Phobos 1 was lost during the cruise phase when a single character error in uploaded computer code commanded the spacecraft to shut down its attitude control thrusters. The spacecraft lost its lock on the Sun, and thus its ability to orient its solar panels properly. Phobos 1’s batteries depleted and the spacecraft died before controllers realized the error.

    The failure showed a lack of sophistication in the spacecraft’s control system. Phobos 1 lacked the fail-safes that are built into a comparable American spacecraft, which would have sent a query back to ground control asking, “Do you want to shut down the attitude control system?” The controller would have immediately realized the error and initiated corrective measures to prevent it.
    One might think, given their long record of failure at Mars and a dearth of recent planetary exploration missions to build upon, that they would launch a relatively small satellite with a fairly simple mission. Wrong.

    Like several other missions before it, Phobos 2 came tantalizingly close to success. It arrived safely in Martian orbit and eased ever closer to Phobos. However, just before the critical phase of the mission, during which it would have approached within 50 meters of moon and dropped the landers, the spacecraft suddenly went silent. The precise reason was unclear, but engineers later concluded that a computer failure was likely to blame.

    Less than three years after Phobos 2 failed in March 1989, the Soviet Union collapsed. The Russians corrected the flaws in the Phobos spacecraft design for a new mission called Mars 96. The mission never had a chance; the failure of its Proton rocket’s fourth stage on November 16, 1996, doomed the spacecraft to a fiery re-entry over Bolivia.

    Russia’s Mars aspirations were then put on hold again as the Russian space program struggled for survival amid the economic chaos of the 1990s.

    Fobos-Grunt or Phobos-Grunt was the last attempted Russian sample return mission to Phobos, one of the moons of Mars. Fobos-Grunt also carried the Chinese Mars orbiter Yinghuo-1 and the tiny Living Interplanetary Flight Experiment funded by the Planetary Society.

    It was launched on 9 November 2011 at 02:16 local time (8 November 2011, 20:16 UTC) from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, but subsequent rocket burns intended to set the craft on a course for Mars failed, leaving it stranded in low Earth orbit. Efforts to reactivate the craft were unsuccessful, and it fell back to Earth in an uncontrolled re-entry on 15 January 2012, reportedly over the Pacific Ocean west of Chile.
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    So i wonder why USSR/Russia has that extent of failure regarding spacecraft missions to Mars comparing with USA/NASA missions?

    Why on the contrary missions to Venus had the opposite results with the most missions to be successful? (even Venus environment and atmosphere conditions are much more harsh than that of Mars)


    Last edited by George1 on Fri Feb 27, 2015 4:40 pm; edited 1 time in total
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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  GarryB on Fri Feb 27, 2015 5:18 am

    Perhaps their success rate will dramatically improve when they are no longer using western designed and made computer chips...

    Of course having said that focus is often directed by politics and propaganda... it was the Soviets that revealed the very first pictures of the far side of the moon... a side humanity had never seen before... they landed the first rovers on the moon, they put the first man made object in orbit of the moon...

    And as you mention their success rate with Venus is excellent... as excellent as NASAs success rate with Mars is.

    Perhaps now they are not communist they will have better success on the Red Planet...


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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  victor1985 on Fri Feb 27, 2015 12:39 pm

    Maibe the tjing is on venus wasnt suppose to land and on mars was suppose to. Seems mars dont like strangers and want efforts to approach. Venus...... eh venus is a more exotic and simply destionation. And more atractive.
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    George1

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  George1 on Fri Feb 27, 2015 1:53 pm

    victor1985 wrote:Maibe the tjing is on venus wasnt suppose to land and on mars was suppose to.

    No, there were landers too and successful
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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  kvs on Mon Mar 02, 2015 5:54 am

    The programmers responsible for the Phobos Grunt fiasco should be considered serious statistical outliers.
    They missed way too many obvious design features. So something smells really bad. The statistics
    of the Soviet Mars mission failures are also peculiar. It's unphysical for failures to be clustered around
    research subjects. This indicates either a work culture problem amongst the Mars spacecraft designers
    or sabotage. The number of launcher failures points to the latter since launchers are independent of the
    spacecraft.

    Sabotage does not get the attention it deserves. The recent spectacular Proton launcher failure was due
    to outright sabotage where a critical sensor was hammered into place upside down. If the average
    aerospace worker was acting like some village idiot, then Russia would simply have no space program.
    So this is not a sample of "typical Russian work ethics".

    The Bulava SLBM problems went away when the Americans camped nearby as part of the 1990s
    Yeltsin agreements to oversee arms control and to "secure" technology from leaking to rogue states were
    finally told to take a hike. The weakest link is always made out of human flesh. Factory workers are
    not confined to barb wire enclosed Siberian compounds or kept on a 24/7 surveillance leash from their
    toilet to the shop floor. There is lots of room for US alphabet agencies to meddle. There is also clearly
    lots of will in Washington to engage in such meddling.
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    George1

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  George1 on Fri Mar 06, 2015 7:01 pm

    The Engines (of N1 rocket) that came in from the Cold. Interesting documentary



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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  Rmf on Sun Mar 08, 2015 1:14 am

    there are still many nk-33 engines left in russia.
    they will be expanded in soyuz-2 light version without side boosters.
    launches will be very cheap.
    and that will be the end ,engine manufacturers have moved on...
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    George1

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    Re: History of Soviet Space Program

    Post  George1 on Tue Mar 17, 2015 5:10 am

    Bloggers are looking for lost space probe on Mars

    The study of Soviet space probes that landed on Mars in the early 1970s could be useful in setting up bases on the Red Planet, scientists say.

    A group of scientists and space enthusiasts from Russia is trying to figure out where the remnants of Soviet spacecraft Mars-6 are. They’ve already managed, thanks to the help of NASA satellites, to unearth where Mars-3 is.

    This probe was the first spacecraft to successfully accomplish a landing on the Red Planet. The group is also going to search for the first Soviet mission on Mars, the Mars-2 probe, which was launched in May 1971. The spacecraft crashed during landing, but it became the first artificial object to land on Mars. According to scientists, studying these spacecrafts will help humankind in its conquest of the planet.


    Space archaeology

    A few years ago space enthusiast Vitaly Egorov was surprised to learn that the location of the Soviet probes Mars-6 and Mars-2 still remains a mystery. Nobody had ever seen the Mars-3 spacecraft either. The latter had been the protagonist of a phenomenal achievement, the first successful landing of a spacecraft on Mars in December 1971.

    The spacecraft ceased to transmit data just 14.5 seconds after landing. Although it only managed to transmit a panorama of the surrounding surface, it demonstrated that a successful landing on Mars was possible. “Over 40 years ago Mars-3 accomplished a landing almost in the same sequence as the American spacecraft Curiosity in 2012,” says Egorov.

    Egorov began his search for the lost Soviet spacecrafts with the aid of pictures taken by the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) scientific satellite. The latter is equipped with a high resolution HiRise camera.

    “We accept image suggestions from anyone in the world at our website,” Alfred S. McEwen, director of the Planetary Image Research Laboratory of the University of Arizona and manager of the MRO HiRise scientific team, told RBTH.

    Egorov assembled group of bloggers, space enthusiasts and scientists that discovered an object similar to a Soviet space probe in the shots taken by the MRO. He contacted Alexander Bazilevsky, a professor at the Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry.

    Thanks to his support, in March 2013 NASA organized another photo session with the MRO. In the pictures they could clearly identify an overturned axis with soft landing engines, the cone brake, the parachute and the landing module, which measured 1.5 meters. There were no doubts that it was the Mars-3 space probe.


    'The atmosphere on Mars is variable'


    Now the group set up by Egorov is trying to find out where Mars-6 is. The spacecraft entered the atmosphere of Mars in 1974. Immediately after landing it ceased all transmissions. According to one version, the breakdown was caused by a Martian storm that caught the probe while its soft landing engines were being started.

    “According to the telemetry data, the spacecraft opened its parachute,” Egorov says. “We have been trying to find it, but so far to no avail. In the pictures that we have, we have noticed some dots that might have been produced by a descending module, but so far we have not gathered enough supporting evidence. We are waiting for new pictures of the area where the spacecraft presumably landed.”

    According to McEwen, the study of the photographs taken by Mars-3 and Mars-6 helps scientists to understand the reasons for the troubles experienced by Soviet hardware.

    “Any new high-resolution image may tell us something new and important about Mars,” says McEwen.

    “An image of the old Soviet landing hardware can also provide information to the engineers about what did and did not work correctly.”

    “From the pictures we can even determine the extent to which these Soviet spacecrafts have been covered by sand or dust,” Bazilevsky told RBTH. “This is one of the ways we have to study the atmosphere of the Red Planet, which is important for the construction of a future station on Mars. That planet’s atmosphere is so variable with periodic storms and strong winds, unlike the Moon where the traces of lunar spacecraft can remain intact for thousands of years.”

    - http://rbth.co.uk/science_and_tech/2015/03/16/bloggers_are_looking_for_lost_space_probe_on_mars_44525.html)

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