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    A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

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    George1
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    A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  George1 on Tue Jan 03, 2012 11:30 pm

    The A-135 or ABM-3 anti-ballistic missile system is a Russian military complex deployed around Moscow to counter enemy missiles targeting the city or its surrounding areas. It became operational during 1995. It is a successor to the previous A-35, and compliant with the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty from which the US unilaterally withdrew in 2002.

    The A-135 system attained "alert" (operational) status on February 17, 1995. It is currently operational although its SH-11 component is deactivated (as of February 2007). A newer missile is expected to replace it.

    The system appears to be operated by the 9th Division of Defence against Missile Attack of the 3rd Missile-Space Defence Army of the Russian Space Forces.


    http://www.missilethreat.com/missiledefensesystems/id.22/system_detail.asp

    The Gazelle (SH-08/ABM-3), also known by its Russian designation, 53T6, is a short-range, high-acceleration interceptor missile designed and manufactured by the Soviet Union.(1) At present, 68 Gazelle interceptors are deployed around Moscow as part of System A-135.

    By 1988, a total of 68 Gazelle interceptors had been deployed in underground silos around Moscow.

    State acceptance tests of System A-135 were completed by the end of 1989. That same year, the Soviets decided to modernize the system even further to improve its combat performance. Thus, work continued on the new system during its period of experimental use, which lasted until the middle of 1994. At that point, the Gazelles were placed on full combat alert.

    As the endoatmospheric tier of System A-135, the Gazelle missiles were designed to intercept ballistic missiles within the Earth’s atmosphere in their final or terminal descent phase. In the event of an attack on Moscow, the Gazelle was responsible for destroying any warheads that managed to evade the long-range exoatmospheric Gorgon interceptors. It served as a last line of defense against nuclear annihilation.

    To accomplish this task, the Soviets designed the Gazelle as a high-acceleration weapon, capable of operating at speeds of over Mach 10 and able to withstand G-loads several times greater than those of convention surface-to-air missiles. The Soviets used high-strength, low-weight aluminum and titanium alloys and a special heat barrier to allow the missile to withstand the intense thermal build-up caused by its high acceleration. The Gazelle was equipped with solid-fueled boosters, giving it a range of approximately 80 kilometers. Each missile was initially armed with a 10-kiloton nuclear warhead.

    The Gazelles were located in special hardened silos developed by the General Machine-Building Design Bureau, which also designed most of the Soviet Union’s intercontinental ballistic missile silos. The silos were equipped with fast-opening covers that permitted rapid missile launches. A total of 68 Gazelles are currently deployed around Moscow in four underground launch sites containing 17 missiles each.

    In early 1998, Russia announced that, in the interest of safety, it had removed the original nuclear warheads from the short-range Gazelle interceptors. On April 21, Col. Gen. Alexander Yesin, Deputy Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation, stated that System A-135’s interceptors had been newly equipped with conventional high explosive warheads. It is unclear, however, whether all of the Gazelle interceptors currently carry conventional warheads, or if some are still armed with nuclear warheads.

    In 1999, the Russians flight-tested a Gazelle at the Sary-Shagan proving ground in Kazakhstan. It was the first test of a System A-135 interceptor missile since 1993. According to Commander General Vladimir Yakovlev, head of the Strategic Rocket Forces, the Gazelle test confirmed the combat readiness of System A-135. Many in the international community, however, saw this test merely as a warning to the U.S. not to go ahead with its own missile defense expansions.

    In recent years, many in the U.S. and elsewhere have pointed out that, while the Gorgon and Gazelle interceptors might be effective against a single warhead attack, they would be quickly overwhelmed in the event of a multi-warhead strike. Others have claimed that the interceptor missiles would have a difficult time istinguishing between warheads and other objects, a factor that severely limits the effectiveness of System A-135 in the present age of sophisticated decoys and countermeasures.

    In 2002, Anatoliy Sokolov, former commander of Russia’s missile and space defense army, confirmed U.S. suspicions that the Gorgon and Gazelle interceptors had become obsolete: “It makes no sense to maintain a dying system, as the existing antimissile defense is unable to provide efficient protection of the area, let alone the entire country.”(

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  GarryB on Wed Jan 04, 2012 4:22 am

    “It makes no sense to maintain a dying system, as the existing antimissile defense is unable to provide efficient protection of the area, let alone the entire country.”(

    To be fair it was never intended to protect the entire country, and to make it effective to protect the area as was its original role you just have to fit the nuke warheads again.

    The point is that development work on the S-500 should lead to warhead technologies that should make the Moscow ABM missiles effective again without nuke warheads.

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  Arrow on Fri Feb 17, 2012 11:37 am

    53T6 use nuclear warhead or conventional HE warhead like S-300WM ? Same reports suggest that now 53T6 use 150 kg conventional warhead.

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  Viktor on Fri Feb 17, 2012 4:09 pm

    Well system has being modernized. I dont know what sort of goodies they included but Gazelle interceptor has being repeatetly tested on that Kazahstan test site.

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  GarryB on Sat Feb 18, 2012 1:47 am

    Should keep in mind that the purpose of the system was never to "Save" Moscow.

    Its purpose was to defeat the initial attacks so that orders could be distributed to the various strategic systems to ensure the source of the attack could be determined and the volley of missiles used to reply could be sent... and of course create more time to enable the elite to get to their shelters...

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  Arrow on Tue Feb 21, 2012 6:13 pm

    Russia whenever nonnuclear intercept ICBM warhead ? The USA first nonnuclear intercept RV from Minuteman in 10 June 1984. HOE system.

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  GarryB on Tue Feb 21, 2012 11:59 pm

    The system is tested most years, and AFAIK they haven't had nuclear warheads fitted for a while, so for a successful test they would need to have had an intercept.

    BTW to send unmanned cargo vessels to their space stations for the last 40-50 years they have needed to be able to intercept targets in space travelling rather faster than any ICBM warhead.

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  SOC on Fri Mar 02, 2012 4:56 am

    Has Russia made any mention of testing a new OTH system? Think along the lines of the old Duga-3 STEEL YARD BMEW radar.

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  GarryB on Fri Mar 02, 2012 6:56 am

    You mean other than their new Voronezh-class radars they are using to replace the old Daryal and Dnepr class radars?

    Or do you mean something else?

    The focus Putin mentioned in his many recent "going forward" speeches mentions air defence as a priority right after strategic defence, so I am guessing the Aerospace Defence Forces might have quite a budget... but then they do have to defend the worlds largest country.

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  SOC on Fri Mar 02, 2012 7:42 am

    Something new, an OTH-B along the lines of the old Duga-3 STEEL YARD. They've got a prototype near Nizhny Novgorod, suggesting that it's an NNIRT product.

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  SOC on Fri Jul 06, 2012 1:19 am

    I think I figured it out. The object near Nizhny Novgorod should be an Object 5452 radar, built by the same people behind the Voronezh series. One of their annual reports mentions its export potential, so it might not be anything the Russians are going to use. With a bunch of Voronezh radars and a crapload of BIG BIRD E radars operating with the S-400s all over the place soon it's not like they'll need it anyway.

    You can see it here, second and third images from the bottom:

    http://dedugan530.livejournal.com/227953.html

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  George1 on Mon Sep 17, 2012 4:05 pm

    Russia Revamps Missile Defenses Around Moscow

    Russia will reactivate mothballed ballistic missile silos around Moscow as part of deep modernization of a missile defense network protecting the Russian capital, former chief of the Russian Strategic Missile Forces, Col. Gen. (Ret) Viktor Yesin said on Monday.

    The A-135 (NATO: ABM-3) anti-ballistic missile network is deployed around Moscow to counter enemy missiles targeting the city or its surrounding areas. It became operational in 1995 and consists of the Don-2N battle management radar and two types of ABM missiles.

    “The A-135 system is being thoroughly modernized,” Yesin told RIA Novosti. “The missiles and other elements, including detection and tracking components, are being upgraded.”

    Two launch sites with long-range 51T6 (NATO: SH-11 'Gorgon') exo-atmospheric interceptor missiles were deactivated in 2007 as the missiles became obsolete. They will be equipped with new long-range missiles and reactivated during the modernization.

    “There are no plans to build new launch sites as the mothballed ones will be reactivated,” the general said.

    The A-135 system is compliant with the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty from which the United States unilaterally withdrew in 2002.

    http://en.rian.ru/mlitary_news/20120917/176013705.html

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  TheRealist on Tue Sep 18, 2012 4:16 am

    Does this mean new interceptors besides the S-500?

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  GarryB on Wed Sep 19, 2012 5:14 am

    By the look of that article upgrades to existing missiles and perhaps new missiles derived from them.


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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  SOC on Wed Sep 19, 2012 11:22 pm

    Sounds like either a replacement for the 51T6, or (and this wouldn't suprise me at all) they'll use those two facilities as Moscow-area garrisons for the S-500. Either way you get a new missile beyond the 51T6/53T6.

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  George1 on Tue Oct 16, 2012 4:01 pm

    Russia Tests Short-Range Interceptor Missile

    Russia's Aerospace Defense Force successfully tested a short-range anti-missile defense system on Tuesday, a Defense Ministry spokesman told RIA Novosti.

    "The Aerospace Forces and defense industry successfully tested a Russian short-range interceptor missile at Sary-Shagan range at 12.01 p.m. on Tuesday, October 16," Col. Alexei Zolotukhin said.

    The launch was carried out to confirm the effectiveness of interceptor missiles, deployed as part of the Russian A-135 (ABM-3) anti-ballistic missile network, and their performance specifications, he said.

    "The anti-missile system test was successful and it succeeded in destroying a test target in the time set," Aerospace Forces Deputy Commander Lt. Gen. Valery Bratishenko said.

    The Defense Ministry has not disclosed the type of missile involved in the testing.

    The A-135 ABM network is deployed around Moscow to counter enemy missiles targeting the city or its surrounding areas. It became operational in 1995 and consists of the Don-2N battle management radar and two types of ABM missiles.

    The short-range 53T6 (SH-08 'Gazelle') endoatmospheric interceptor missiles are deployed at five launch sites with 12 or 16 missiles each. These are tested roughly annually at the Sary Shagan test site.

    The previous test of a 53T6 missile was carried out in December 2011.

    The A-135 system is compliant with the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty from which the United States unilaterally withdrew in 2002.

    http://en.ria.ru/mlitary_news/20121016/176667537.html

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  George1 on Tue Oct 16, 2012 4:02 pm

    Will they maintain A-135 ABM even after the introduction of S-500?

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  Viktor on Tue Oct 16, 2012 4:28 pm

    Russia intends to again introduce long range interceptor as part of ABM-135 while at the same time modify shorter one.
    So yes I think they will keep both of them.

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  Sujoy on Tue Oct 16, 2012 7:08 pm

    George1 wrote:Will they maintain A-135 ABM even after the introduction of S-500?

    The jury is still out . The A 135 is generally designed to be effective against a single warhead attack . For a multiple warhead attack there is the S 400 and later the S 500.The A-135 requires new exo-atmospheric interceptor missiles, because the 51Tb missile, which was specially developed for this purpose, was scrapped in 2002, and the currently operational 53Tb missile can only intercept targets in the atmosphere. In was reported in some quarters of the Russian media that the 51T6 missiles have been decommissioned , and the 53T6 missiles have had their nuclear warheads replaced by conventional warheads. Therefore the cost of upgradation goes up significantly .

    Eventually the newly formed Aerospace Defense Forces will have a final word on this . The Russian Strategic Forces now wants the S 500 to have the ability to intercept hypersonic missiles. This was not among the initial criteria . The S 500 in any case will not be inducted before 2020 . The A 135 may well serve as a stop gap arrangement .

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  TR1 on Tue Oct 16, 2012 10:28 pm

    http://www.tvzvezda.ru/news/forces/content/201210161839-fnkm.htm

    The recent launch.

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  Mindstorm on Wed Jan 30, 2013 1:28 pm



    The most internal (and also the less publicly known) strategic defensive layer of Soviet/Russian most critical sites awaken from its long slumber.


    http://izvestia.ru/news/541076

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  Austin on Wed Jan 30, 2013 6:20 pm

    Very Interesting project , At 1.8 km/sec which is ~ Mach 5 it seems like a CIWS equivalent for point defence system , creating a cloud of metal in the patch of incoming target.

    Although intercepting a BM target like says a RV at even its max altitude of 6 km does not make sense and Nuclear warhead would be exploded a bit higher and even the speed will be very fast for this gun to intercept I feel.

    But for PGM , Cruise Missile or even supersonic missile this sytem will be very useful as last ditch option


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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  Mindstorm on Wed Jan 30, 2013 8:24 pm



    Very Interesting project , At 1.8 km/sec which is ~ Mach 5 it seems like a CIWS equivalent for point defence system , creating a cloud of metal in the patch of incoming target.

    Although intercepting a BM target like says a RV at even its max altitude of 6 km does not make sense and Nuclear warhead would be exploded a bit higher and even the speed will be very fast for this gun to intercept I feel.

    But for PGM , Cruise Missile or even supersonic missile this system will be very useful as last ditch option


    Austin this is not a project but one of the defensive systems that was operative is URSS (the specifications you see here are...with a good amount of mist.....those of the "old" system, deactivated, for economic reasons, in the troubled '90 years); the deep coverage of its same existence, was caused ,at the time, by the fear that USA would have hard pressed for its removal, attempting to sustain that it was not compliant with ABM Treaty's limits .

    It was purposely designed to defend high critical targets -in particular ICBM silos and strategic Command and Control nodes- from enemy ICBM attacks and was highly optimized and regarded as very efficient for accomplish this specific mission (the saturation of the computed area of RV's incidence was near 100%).

    By the way a nuclear detonation at high altitude, even the 6 km cited, would had been totally useless against the targets that this system was tasked to defend.

    Naturally the results that would be possible to achieve with a modern version of this system (at today still unmatched worldwide) would be on a level completely different.



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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  Cyberspec on Thu Jan 31, 2013 8:15 am

    Very interesting. Is there a picture available?

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    Re: A-135 anti-ballistic missile system

    Post  Austin on Thu Jan 31, 2013 8:30 am

    BTW Mindstorm can you tell me why the RV from ICBM are so slow once they enter into the atmosphere ?

    What speed it is in few km above the earth and isnt it easy to intercept such slow RV ?

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AaLvTZqXNmU

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